Classical Art & Archaeology Greek Art to the Death of Alexander
Classical Art & Archaeology Greek Art to the Death of Alexander CL C 3213
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edwardo Crona on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CL C 3213 at University of Oklahoma taught by Farland Stanley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/229271/cl-c-3213-university-of-oklahoma in Classical culture at University of Oklahoma.
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STUDY GUDE FOR TEST TWO 3213 THE DARK AGES 1100 900 BC Changes in the Dark Age cremation ironworking migration Ionic Aeolic Dorian Ionia Basileus Basileis Refugee town Kalphi DARK AGE POTTERY Storage vessels Amphora Pelike Stamos Storage and mixing of wine and water Krater Lebes For carrying water Hydria For drinking vessels Kantharos KyliX Skyphos For holding oil Lekythos Aryballos Alabastron Specialty vessels Psykter Wine cooler Lebes Gamikos Marriage bowl Louthrophoros Vessel used for a ritual bath before marriage and often used as a funeral monument for unmarried Women Metalwork F ibulae safety pin for fastening together a peplos GEOMETRIC PERIOD 900 7 00 BC FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD Cremation Polis city state Colonization Magna Graecia southern Italy Pithekoussei Ischia Istand near the Bay of Naples and perhaps earliest trading station in the West GEOMETRIC SCULPTURE and POTTERY Xoana life size wooden statues became extinct Decorations included linear designs circles angles squares meanders crosshatching Dipylon vases large amphorae used for burial markers found mainly at the Kerameikos cemetery near the Dipylon gate ORIENTALIZING PERIOD 700 650 BC The period included more Colonization the rise of the Tyrant as a form of government Athens and Corinth become principal cities Sculpture changes are noted in the Daedalic Dedalicstyle The Lady of Auxerre statue is a famous example DORIC and IONIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLES Architectural terms See diagrams in text and know how to locate all of the following terms on a diagram of atemple Doric and Ionic style Naos cella Pronaos Opisthodomos Anta antae In antis Peripheral Krepidoma Euthynteria Stereobate Stylobate Arrises Echinus Abacus Entablature Architrave Epistyle Pediments Frieze Cornice Geison Sima Taenia Guttae Triglyphs Glyph Metopes Volutes Dentiles Anathyrosis the technical term for how the ancients frequently dressed the joints of stone blocks so as to save time making the blocks fit together Intercolumniations Tympanum back wall of a pediment AntefiX Terracotta tiles probably invented at Corinth Temple of Hera at Olympia Artemis XXII POTTERY Skyphos drinking vessel Aryballos Aryballoi for containing small amounts of oil Protocorinthian Chimaira mythical creature Outline technique Black Figure painting Chigi Vase know scenes on it Analatos vessel ARCHAIC PERIOD 650 480 BC Solon c 638558 BC an early law giver at Athens Tyranny Peisistratids 546510 BC Peisistratos Hippias Hipparchos Alcmaeonid family name of Cleisthenes were outlawed from Athens at one time until the return of Cleistenese who changed governmental form with the invention of democracy Agora the central market place in a Greek town especially at Athens Panathenaea festival an annual festival to include all Greeks Held at Athens Delphi important sanctuary area Attica area where Athens was located Ostracism a method of removing a person from Athens by casting votes on a broken piece of pottery ostrakon Marathon 490 BC Important battle against the Persians that involved the Persian king Darius and Greek fighters called Hoplites Ten years later the next king of Persian Xerxes returned to fight the Greeks He fought at Thermopylae 480 BC principally against the Spartans Themistocles was a greek leader at Athens who consulted the oracle at Delphi and was advised to prepare to fight Xerxes by hiding behind your wooden walls He persuaded the Greeks to build a navy ie wooden walls The Persians were defeated at the naval battle at Salamis 480 BC and the land battle at Plataea 479 BC ARCHITECTURE Temple of Artemis on Corcyra modern Corfu the Gorgon temple The pediment features the gorgon Medusa Perseus and other characters from the Trojan war stories Temple of Apollo at Corinth Temple of Aphaia at Aegina Temple of Hera at Paestum Remember the problems that confronted the Greeks in decorating the pediments Siphnian Treasury at Delphi Caryatid columns The pediment story about the stuggle of Heracles for the Delphic tripod Deep relief carving of the gures over lapping oflegs shields gures Prothesis the laying out of the dead central drawing on many Dipylon vases The Macmillian aryballos The Eleusis Amphora Nielauf refers to depictions of running with some relief carvings showing the knee in a lifted position to suggest running Kouros a standing nude male statue Kore a standing clothed female statue Kleobis and Bition Two archaic male statues sometimes known as the Twins or as the Dioscuri The Moschophoros statue calfbearer The Rampin Horseman statue c 560 BC Chiton a garment Peplos a garment Hiamation cloak Berlin Kore Peplos Kore Kore no 682 Kore no 674 Euthydikos Kore Ischys Kouros The Hera of Samos The epiblema kore The Geneleos Group from Samos Grave stele of Aristion STUDY TOPICS and TERMS FINAL EXAM 3213 Fall 2009 As a companion to your notes know all terms with each of the following topics Temple of Hephaestus This is the bestpreserved ancient Greek temple surviving today It is associated with Hephaestus the god of fire metallurgy blacksmiths and the forge and believed by ancient Greeks to have housed the bones of the Greek hero Theseus Thus the building was sometimes known as the Theseum The temple was designed by lctinus It is a peripteral temple ie a temple with columns entirely surrounding the building The metopes on the building depict episodes about the labors of Hercules Propylaia Propylon 437 432 BC The building was the entrance to the acropolis It was designed by Miesicles and was constructed under the direction of Pericles It was never finished It was built of Pentelic marble and a darker gray Eleusinian marble that was used only for accents At varied places may be seen lifting bosses used in construction to lift stones in place ordinarily removed during the last phases of construction The building had two wings one of which many believe was the Penakotheke Picture Gallery The other wing of the building is supported by an ancient bastion where parts of the ancient Mycenaean wall may be seen Through the gate would pass the Panathenaic festival parade on its way to the Parthenon The Panathenaic festival was held in connection with games that were held every four years in Athens Statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton c 477 BC The statues depict the assassins Tyrannicides of the tyrant Harmodios thus opening the way to democracy The statues were made by the sculptors Kritios and Nesiotes PARTHEN ON The Greek leader Pericles played the most important role in gaining approval for the construction of the Parthenon temple on the Acropolis He was involved in its design and in choosing the major sculptors and architects associated with construction the building Phidias was in charge of the general supervision of its construction and was in charge of its sculptural decoration The architects were lctinos and Callicrates The Parthenon is the most important surviving building from ancient Greece and is generally recognized to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order The building was not only a temple but also a treasury and at one time served as the treasury for the DelianLeague from which Pericles was able to derive funds for rebuilding the buildings on the Parthenon and other buildings on the acropolis after their destruction in the Persian wars The Parthenon was preceded by a preexisting Parthenon that was destroyed in the Persian war In later times the Parthenon was sometimes referred to as the Hecatompedon lOOft temple The earlier preexisting Parthenon was also a hecatompedon 100 footer For the temple Phidias built a huge statue of Athena in the chryselephantine style gold and ivory The sculptures of the Pediment the socalled Elgin marbles were taken by Lord Elgin and are now in the British museum in London The East pediment of the Parthenon depicts the story of the birth of Athena from the head of her father Zeus The West pediment facing the Propylaia depicted the contest between Athena and Poseidon for the honor of being the patron god for Athens The frieze is Ionic in style The relief carvings of the frieze depict the Panathenaic festival parade with its central focus on the worship of Athena The frieze depicts multiple scenes of people and animals involved in the action of the parade The parade is depicted in frieze are in two streams of action as they depict the participants in the parade At the head of the parade were the four ar rephoroi the young maidens who carried a peplos that had been woven to be placed on the statue of Athena These maidens had been chosen to serve Athena The Parthenon possessed a number of refinements including entasis noticed in the curvature of the stereobate and the slight bulging or tapering of the central diameter of the columns The metopes on the building were apparently designed by the sculptor Kalamis On the four sides of the Parthenon the themes of the metopes were a gigantom achy battle between the Olympian gods and the giants an amazonomachy battle between the Athenians and the Amazons and a centauromachy the Lapiths against the Centaurs and finally one side badly preserved depicted the Sack of Troy All of the metopes re ect in uences from the severe style Artemis Brauronia This structure on the Acropolis did not contain a temple rather it was a portico or stoa Located near the Parthenon it was dedicated to Artemis as the protector of women in pregnancy and childbirth In one of its wings was a xoanon wooden statue of Artemis Later Pausanias said that Praxiteles made a statue for the building Here women dedicated items of clothing which were draped around the statue It is believed that Miesicles may have had a role in creating part of the structure Chalcotheke bronze store It is a structure on the acropolis also near the Parthenon and the Athena Brauronia The purpose of the building was to guard Athena s metal devotional gifts Here was also located the temple of Athena Ergane Athena in her role as the goddess of handicraft Strongylion A sculptor who made a bronze statue of a horse that was set up on the acropolis in memory of the victory of the Greeks at Troy Peloponnesian War 427404 BC Thucydides great Greek author who wrote of the Peloponnesian War The Temple of Athena Nike The earliest Ionic temple on the Acropolis and was dedicated to Athena the goddess of wisdom in her capacity as the victorious One The Temple of Athena Nike was built as an expression of Athens39 ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the Peloponnese This building on the Acropolis was constructed on top of the remains of an early temple to Athena that had been demolished by the Persians in 480 BC Pausanias relates that within the building was a large wooden statue portraying Athena In later years the Parthenon housed the Winged Victory of Samothrace a statue built to honor Athena and a sea battle in which she led the Athenians to victory On the temple are freezes that depict l a battle between Greeks entailing cavalry 2 the decisive victory over the Persians at the battle of Plataea and 3 an assembly of the gods The famed quotNike Parapetquot or balustrade around its exterior was designed with high relief figures of Nikai Athena s winged assistants that were depicted in the wet drapery style The temple was designed by Callicrates The frieze depicted the Panathenaic festival parade Erechtheum 421 41 939 414049 lts architect may have been qusicles The Erectheum was associated with numerous religious functions and here were located some of the most ancient and holy relics of the Athenians It housed l a wooden statue Xoanon called the Palladion 2 a statue of Athena Polias the Protectress of the City believed to have fallen from heaven 3 the marks of Poseidon s trident in a stone 4 a sacred olive tree set there by action of Athena 5 a saltwater spring and 6 the belief that it was the burial places of the mythical kings Cecrops and Erechtheus The temple itself was dedicated to Athena Polias Poseidon and Erechtheus Within the foundations of the building lived the sacred snake of the temple which represented the spirit of King Cecrops and whose wellbeing was thought to be essential for the safety of the city The snake was fed honey cakes and if it refused to eat the cakes it was thought to be a disastrous omen Within the building was also a golden lamp made by Callimachos which was capable of burning for a year without refilling Callimachos worked with such artistic skill that he was described as katatexitechic ie frittering away one s skills on frivolities The building also included the famed Porch of the Caryatids The term Caryatid means Maiden of Caryae Caryae was a Greek town that did not aid the Athenians against the Persians and was thus forever punished by having its maidens hold up the porch Other Statues and sanctuary areas on the Acropolis Athena Hygieia Hygieia was a daughter of the god of medicine Asclepius She was the goddess of health cleanliness and sanitation After the great plague in Athens a statue was built to quotAthena Hygieia and to Hygieia just within the entrance to the Acropolis Athena Promachos This was an immense bronze statue of Athena Promachos on the Acropolis and it was encountered as one entered through the Propylaia It was made by Phidias from the spoils of the Battle of Marathon and stood on the acropolis for 1000 years after which it was moved to Constantinople and ultimately lost The statue was so big that sailors on the Aegean Sea could see the glint of the spear and helmet Athena Polias Athena of the City her statue was in the Erechtheum Athena Parthenos The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis in honor of Athena Parthenos Athena the Maiden Charioteer ofDelphi c 475 BC Also known as Heniokhos the Rein Holder The statue was erected at Delphi in 474 BC to commemorate the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games held every four years to honor Apollo The Charioteer is wearing a xystis the garment which drivers wore while racing The statue which was part of a larger group was dedicated by a certain Polyzalos of Gela Zeus 0r Poseidon from the Sea c 470475L 460 BC Also known as the Artemisian Bronze or Artemisian Zeus It was found off of the Cape of Artemesian in Greece It represents either Zeus holding a thunderbolt or Poseidon holding a trident The statue slightly over life size is known for the great strength that it shows An image of the head has been placed on one of the Greek postal stamps Discobolus c 450 BC Discus Thrower It is an example of rhythmos or harmony and balance It depicts that instance when there is a pause stasis just at that immediate instance before the release of the discus Even though the limbs are outstretched they do not show muscular strain The sculpture is by Myron who believed in beautiful Idealism when he made his statues A similar moment of stasis is illustrated in the Artemisian Zeus Mourning Athena Arelief carving of Athena looking at a stele on which were written the names of dead Athenian soldiers It is one of the first Greek statues to portray human emotion as a significant part of the subject The goddess Athena seems tired and mournfu Aphrodite rising from the Sea a relief carving on the Ludovisi Throne One of the three relief panels associated with the throne shows a young lady playing a horn instrument called an aulos Another panel shows a veiled woman offering incense The throne is sometimes referred to as the Venus Andyomene Doryphorus 440 BC The Spear Bearer Polycleitus wrote a canon or rule of how human figures were to be sculptured The Doryphorus shows harmonious and balanced proportions of the human body to depict what is called counterpoise Diadoumenos c 430 BC By Polycleitus Fillet binder The fillet was a ribbon of cloth that was placed around the top part of the head Over the fillet the judges of a contest placed the laurel wreath of the victor in a contest Andokides a Greek painter is credited with inventing Red Figure Painting The Brygos Painter painted cups He was a potter and painter to whom more than 200 pots are attributed He is best known for the Byrgos Cup and his skill in painting the tondo of the cup Tondon The bottom inside of a cup where scenes were frequently painted The Riace Warriors 460 7 430 BC
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