General Chemistry CHEM 1315
Popular in Course
Popular in Chemistry and Biochemistry
This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wyatt Braun on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1315 at University of Oklahoma taught by Laura Clifford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/229277/chem-1315-university-of-oklahoma in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for General Chemistry
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/26/15
Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma CHEM 1315 Unit 1 Basic Concepts Atoms Molecules amp lons Instructor Dr Clifford Lecture notes available at httpslearnouedu Chapter 1 Chemistry The Central Science Chemistrxr The smdy oithe gruger e oimaterials and the anges that materials undergo Many properties oimatter may be quanu39tau39ve measurements associated with numbers qualitative sensory evaluation units ie mass oi one nickel 400 grams 1 1 Measurements must always include units Hr the number meaningless M Dimensional Analysis Unit Conversions within themetric system L0 11 within the English system L0 11 between theEnglish and metric systems L0 12 The method used or conversions in chemistry is called DimensianalAmlysis nnvor ion rac or 1 39 in two i 39erent units allow us to convert the units of measurement Learning Objective 11 Convert units length mass volume temperature within a unit system Readings 13 16 Units of Measurement L0 11 There are two commonly used systems oimeasurement xtem English system 7 a collection oimeasures accumulated throughout English histor No systematic correlation 12in 1 113 11 1 yard 5230 it 1mile16 oz 1 lb Stien measurement me mel t xtem units Metric System 7 composed of a set of units that are related to eac 39 y h other decimall All units in the metric system are related by powers oiten Dimensional Analysis L0 11 Conversion factors allow us to convert within the English unit 5 stem Example Convert 71200 in to mi 7120039x ix x 1mi 112mi 12 528 To convert from in to It To convert from It to mi 12in11 t 1mi52801 t Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Units 0 Measurement L0 11 Units 0 Measurement L0 11 Mm m l Be able to convert mane units 7 know these rda anxhi39px lrit helps think prthe relatjpnships relativetn 1m 1ndm 1m mlhu39lhan 1dm 1mm luncm 1m 1cm 1mm l mm 1m 1mm 1mm 1mm 1m l m 1mm l nm 1m 1nm mm mem 1m 1pm mum mlirm 1m 1m mum Nate This represents nnly part 11139 mhle 15 DimensionalAnalysis L0 11 Cnnveru39ng within the meric unit system Example Cnnvert 152 kg tn mg 152 ug x 1 x 152 xm39 mg F 1nz 0r 6 X 152 kg x m1 g x 11 mg 152x 1n mg 1 kg 1 g 0r 152kg x mE mg 152x1n39 mg 1 kg Units 0 Measurement L0 11 lnternatjnnal System nf Measurement Systeme Inlzmazianal d Uni39lz s sl sl unitsarethe preferred units used l39nr scienti c mes erumts 39ABLE I ease dummy name 0 mm Symbol use n n in Our Tncus this s mum Ag tam will he an rm s these llrrrmmm mm due Ariwll r menu 1mm 11 Units 0 Measurement L0 11 Teru erature T p re is a measure 11139 the average kinetie energy prthe particles in a sulrsmnce The sl unit arteruperature is the Kelvin The Kelvin scale was based ml the hehavipr nf gases with the lnwest atmhzhle temperature nfr 275191 equal tn an an the Kelvin Smle 110122 2m 777K 7 27315 4n Althnugh we usethe Units 0 Measurement L0 11 Teup eatu Neg ve Kelvin temperatures are net p nssihle Fahrenheit scale in Every a lire Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Units of Measurement L0 11 Temperature The iollowing conversions must be made lrequently so memorize these conversions 1 Conversion ofFahrenheit to Celsius C 5 731232 9 2 Conversion oi Celsius to Fahrenheit 73C 32 5 3 Conversion oiCelsius to Kelvin I K 73C 27315 Learning Objective 12 Convert units ie length mass volume temperature between unit systems Readings 13 16 Units of Measurement L0 11 Example Convert 9 6 F to Kele Step 1 Convert 986 Fto C 9 370 C C 5986 F 32 Step 2 Convert 370 C to Kelvin 370 C 27315 3102 K Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis Conversion iactors allow us to convert between English and metric unit systems as well Example Convert 892 inches to centimeters 227 cm English tn Metric conversions w l be provided r yuu an exams Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis L0 12 Example Convert 52 L metric to volume in quarts English 52 x 1 Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis L0 12 What about cubic length units or volume To convert you must cube the length conversion factor Convert 125 in3 to cm 1in 3 125 in3 x 2 54 cm 205 cm3 THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY MADE MISTAKES ON EXAM 1H Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis What ab out a more complex problem when multiple conversion factors are needed Work through this problem in your notes for an example Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis Apound of coffeebeans yields 50 cups ofcoffee 4 cups 1 qt Ho m39lliliters of coffee can be obtained from 1 g of coffee beans Strategy deline what unit or iniormation is given Iquot determine what unit is desired end up with identity conversion factors necessary slaw setup problem and check unit cancellation Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis Apound of co 39ee beans yields 50 cups ofcoffee 4 cups 1 qt H many milliliters of co 39ee can be obtained from 1 g of coffee beans 1 De ne what unit is given One lb of coffee yields 50 cups of coffee 1 lb coffee 50 cups 2 Determine what unit is desired How many milliliters of coffee from one gram Unit desired mL coffee1 g Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis 3 Identity conversion factors necessary Examine iniormation given Given Onelb ofcoffeebeans 50 cups of coffee Since we will need to know how many mL of coffee can be obtained from ONE GRAM we can convert lb of coffee beans to grams using 454g1lb Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis L0 12 3 Identity conversion factors necessary continued Given in problem 4 cups 1 qt We need to know how to convert qt to mL 1 qt 0946L We are asked for mL so we also need 1 L 1000 mL Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis L0 12 4 Setup problem and check unit cancellation Starting point 1 lb coffee 50 cups need to end up with mL coffee per gram vol per mass Startby volume cups per weight lb and convert My 15 x 1X x 0mg x 1000mL 111 454 g 4 cups 1X 1 note check the cancellation of units before calculating Units we should end up with Q g Calculated answer 26 mL g Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma L earning Objec ve 1 C nmh ine m easurem ents to c alclilate p rap er es ie den sity Readings 13 Units of Measurements and Dimensional Analysis 0 13 The sl units discussed sn Tar allnw us tr develrp derived units units based uprn the sl base units thrqugh mlcnlatinns anume and density are derived units Vrlume the space rccupied by an abject anllm length x width x height Vrlumemay alsn be determined by the displacement qr liquid by an ab ect i e using a graduated cylinder Units 0 Measurements and Dimensional Analysis L0 13 Units 0 Measurement L0 13 m The sl unit qr wlume is a length unit i e m raised tn the third paw i e m Smailer units are utter necessrry such as the cubic 39 er ch rr ccused nn syringes The liter is a very crmmrn unit rrvulume in chemistry bneliter is equal tr lm mL and 1 mL is equal tr 1cmz Knnwth ri Density is a prrperty qr matter de ned asthe amrunt qr mass in a unit vulume nfa slihshnce Knuw nus funnisz Often expressed as gramsper cubic centimeter gcm rr grarus per ruiliiiiter gmL since the vrlume er a liquid can change with temp erature densities are rl39ten spec ture in ed at a gmr temp era Units 0 Measurement L0 13 lithe density bran rbjectisLEss THAN that qr anqth slihm ce the bbjectwiii l39lrat ie thebrassnutis mrre dmse than Wat sinks tn the brttrm but is less en than mercury Units 0 Measurement L0 13 What is the wlume in liters rccupied by 11m gram nfair giver that the density qr air is LEIEIIZD gmL Density Mass Rearrange density equatirn tr anume 1 t 775ml x amp n775L nn n Duly ml mm ml Calculate vnlume Cnnvert tn L Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Units of Measurement L0 13 A5000 mL Volume ofa uid has amass of 39250 grams Density Mass 39250 g 07350 gmm or Volume 5000 mL 07350 gcm3 Compound Density gcmS Chloroiorm 1492 Diethyl ether 0714 Ethanol 0739 Isopropyl alcohol 0735 3 Toluene 0367 Remanberl cm lmL Learning Objective 14 Express measured and calculated quantities in exponential form Readings A1 appendix Units of Measurement Review of scientific notation See uppendixAanr review Scienti c notation exponential notation represents very arge or very small numbers as powers oiten Nis a number between 1 and 10 and n is an exponent Examples 4300 4 3 x 1000 43 x 103 0002549 2549x 10393 Units of Measurement Review of scientific notation To convert a numb er greater than 1 to scientilic nomu39on the original decimal point is moved n places to the leit and the resulting numb er is multiplied by 10quot Example 53000000 53 x 107 Example 3063 3063 x 102 Units of Measurement Review of scientific notation L0 14 w 1 the original decimal point is moved n places to the right and the resulting number is multiplied by 1039quot Example 0000430 430 x 10 Example 003782 3782x 10392 Know how to enter scienti c notation on your calculator Learning Objective 15 Express measured quantities in the proper number of significant figures Readings 15 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Therearetwe types ernumbers exact numbers and inexact numb ers Exact numbers Exact numbers can result frnm cbunting number nfpenple bm 0R ct n er can be speci c dermed quantities 1 kg 1000 g 1L 1000 mL Exa Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 lnexact numbers numbers whese values have same degree 0039 c 39 Numbers nbmina l by measurements are dw psimm numbers due te inherent limimtinns presented by equipment lt is impnrmnt te distinguish exact numb s mm inexact numbers rer repertingresults cerrectly Measured quantities are reperted in such a way that the last digit is uncertain Dillerent measuring devices have dillerent uncertainties and degrees eraccuracy Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 aptitudecue Signi cant rig ges r all digits in a numb er representing dam er results that are lsnbwn with certainty plux W mceimin dgil Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Why are signi cant rig ges imgnrmnt39 nbtes nnly Cmsider a measurement bd20 grams versus ene e1200 grams 20 grams implies that the 2quot isknnwn rer termin but the 0 is uncermin thereibre the mass ceuld actually be beween 19 and 21 grams 200 grams implies that the 20quot is lsnbwn rer termin and t t em ha th ass cmlld actually be betw em 199 grams and 201 Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Wemay rullew rules te determine sigli mm gures in rqmned measurements Rule 1 All nnnrzel n numbers are signi cant 123 45 5 3 Rule 2 Zerbs betwem nnnrzel n numbers are signi cant 3H M out a 0M Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Rules Zans tn the right unmzere numbers and tn the right eithe decimal peint are signi cant 3 12 4 300000 5 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Uncertainty in Measurements L0 15 Rule 4 Zeros to W right nonzero numbers without decimal Rule 5 Zeros to the right oithe decimal point but to the leit oi Po ms 3quot mb gmms39 nonzero num ers are not signi cant 220 2 or 3 SFs 220 t 10 or 220 t 1 2 000m 3 001020 4 In general assume that these ambiguous zeros are not 003 1 signi cant Elimin d ate ambiguity by using scienti c notation or use a ecimal point to indicate signi cance 220 or 220 x 102 for three SFs 22 x 102 for two SFs Uncertainty in Measurements L0 16 Sign cant Figure Rules to ddition and Subtraction The answer oi a calculation based on measurements cannot Learning Objective 16 have greater signi cancethan Express calculated quantities in the proper umber of significant figures y oithe measurements thatproduced the an gt n the certainty oithe calculated answer Readings 15 Example 544 cm 202 cm 5 cm Line up the decimal poinm and M m reportthe answerbased upon 564 cm the iewest decimal pla correct answer 564 cm Uncertainty in Measurements L0 16 Uncertainty in Measurements L0 16 39 i cant Fi re Rules ior Multi lication and Division Rules or humping nquot t i The answer can be no more precise than the least precise numb er from which the answer is de 39 gt When the leftmost number removed is less than 5 the precedingnumber is leit unchanged Round 452624 to our signi cant digim 4526 V 1594 4 29688692x108 2255 X 10 When theleitmost digit removed is 5 or greaterthe precedingnumber is increase y 1 The answer is thereiore 30 x 108 Round 375 to two signi cant gures 33 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Learning Objective 17 Trace the historical development of theories of matter Readings 21 22 The Study of Chemistry L0 17 Matter 7 Anything that has mass and occupies space Mass is a quantitative measure of the amount of matter in an object Weight is a measure of the force of gravitational attraction between an object and a significantly large bo y mass x acceleration due to gravity MMass is independent of gravity and is not interchangeable with weightM The Study of Chemistry L0 17 i 7 The types of matter found in the world are due to J combinations of only 100 elements 116 elements t da e known 0 Q h 3 Element a substance that cannot be separated into 30 g simpler substances by chemical means 1 J Elements are groupings of the same types of 39 a a 9 oms Atom The smallest representative particle of an 39 element a I hawamazing The Study of Chemistry L0 17 a mm mm vnd gt w a pinupmm Atoms are the building blocks of matter Atoms combine to form molecules Molecule a chemical combination of two or more atoms The Study of Chemistry L0 17 Ethyl butanoate pineapple Methyl butanoate apple Csleoz CsHlnoz in no i n arb on two substances will have very different odors avors The Atomic Theory of Matter Some history on the atomic theory Democritus 460 r 370 BC thought t at world must be made up 0 tiny particles called atomos Isaac Newton 1642 r 1727 furthered this idea with regard to gases believing a oms to be invisible particles in air John Dalton linked the idea of elemen s and t e reaction to form new substances with the idea of atoms in the period 1803 7 1807 I lnlmy nmr39zmzlmex mug Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma The Atomic Theory or Matter L0 17 The Atomic Theory or Matter L0 17 Jnhn llalton39s atoruic y involved fnlir stulat summarized into three points in the text 1 Each eleruent is composed of euely sruall particles called atoms Atoms are the sruallest particles or an eleuent that reain the chemical identity or that eleuent 1 cnn nllad All atoms oran eleuent areidmtical to one anothe in mass and other prop eties but the atoms or one eleruent are dilTerent from the atoms or all other eruents Each eleruerr is composed of onl one e of atom Elanents Na K and Li Sm lillm anssium Lithium o o O O 0 O o O o 00 O OO O o O 0 Sodium atoms Filmsde atoms Lithium atoms The Atomic Theory or Matter L0 17 2 Compounds are formed when atoms ormore than one elerumt combine a given compound always has the erme relativenumber and kind oratorus The law ozconstmt common or law ozdecmite g ar anx mtg that the elerumml comp osition the number and types oratoms or a pure corup ound is cnnmm For mple water H10 molecules will always be coruposed ortwo hydrogen atorus and one oxygen atoru db The Atomic Theory or Matter L0 17 3 Atoms or an eleruent are not changed into atoms or a different element by cheruical reactions moms are neither amtedmr dsz39ayedin chemical reunions ma er isneitha39 created nor destroyed in The law ozconsemzion amass law or cnnsenmtinn or matter mtg that tt a cheruical rmc nn O p 0 o W 63 V 1 m The Atomic Theory or Matter L0 17 llalton39s hyp othesis lftwn elerumts such as the carbon and oxygen shown combine to form more than one comp ound the mass or the ratio nf small whole numb ers The Discovery or Atomic Structure L0 17 Atoms are the sruallest particles or an eleruent that remin the cheruical identity or the eleruent T u ever beroreand now knnw that atorus are composed of srualler subatomic gal dzx The current model orthe atoru was developed through experiments that examined the behavior or charged particles Key to the undesernding or subatomic particlesisthe behavior or charged particles Far clesw htheerme chargerepel oneanothe te charges are attracted to one another Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 Cathode ray tubes A high wltage passed through a partially mcuated glass be produced radiation called cathoderays Experiments showed t cathoderays r l are deflected by electric or magnetic r quot r y elds suggesting 397 that the particles 7 b V within the tube were negative The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 Cathnde rays themselves are invisible When the rays strike a phnsphm39rcnztel l surface a bright seen light is produced that an be Note the elrect or the magnet in the photos Mr 1nn1iyp171nnl The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 J J Thorup so Rays electrons moving from theneptive electrode to the posi 39ve werethe sarue repn ess or cathode material Constructed a cathoderay tube with a l39luorescmt screm at one end in order to quan m vely measure elrects or electric and magnetic elds quot Thompson was able to calculate a chargetnrmzss ratio or the electron17o x 1nx l coulorubs per gram quot wwmru m vmml wruo 1m al suring either the chargeorthe b e Givm thisnumeric rah2 mm ruass ol39an electron would allow the unknown wluetn determined The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 RobertM39 ihan arments to calculate the mass or an electron D 39sed exp by first determining an manmenml valueror the charge 157 xl quot c Mll 39 was able to deterruine the mass or an electron alter having determined the charge Electron ruass Lotlx 1nquot 2 91lx 1n 1 g 175 x m Cg The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 Small oils drop which d picked up extra electrons wer allowed to all betw em two electrically charged plates By measuringhow the E m wwwmrnn hargesrueasured werealways multiples of 15m x 1 I 2 due to varying n calculated 3 ges on the numbers of electrons The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 vegolon also on Around mun Thorup son proposed a model orthe atom as a unirorru posi ve sphere t orruatter in which electrons were embedded W Plum puddingquot ruodel I osliil timrgl spread ow piwn mm 7341 on Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma The Discovery ofAtomic Structure L0 17 The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 ln lglu Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment to mine theangles at which alpha particles positively charged particles were deflected as they passed through a piece ofthin gold foil Mostalpha particlespassed directly through without being deflected A sruall amount were sligitly deflected Most surprisingly some particles scattered back in the direction from which they came major deflection noted Ernest Rutherford39s exper39 ent disproved Thmnpsnn39s plum puddingquot model Rutherford was quoted as erying ltwasalmost asincredible asif you fired a 15411 shell at a piece oftissueand it cameback mlquot and hit y mMrn1run1lypn inn The Discovery ofAtomic Structure L0 17 The Discovery of Atomic Structure L0 17 since some particles were deflected at largeangles Thnmpsnn39s Wm model could notbe correct lvvrw Rutherfordpostulated thatmost of the mass ofan atom reides in a small dense p ively charged 39 l n 3 rigionhetermed thenuc cos i m Rutherford furthe postulated that most nfthetnml volume ofan quot d I 1 92 no it on 2 quot quot39m Mi Most particles passed throu without deflection b emuse they did not encounte the nucleus s ome particles were de ected The Discovery ofAtomic Structure L0 17 Additional subatoruic particles in the nucleus of an atom were subsequently identified ositively charged subatomic partic e Protons discoveredin 1111 by Rutherford are p 39 l s Neutrons discovered in 1132 by James Chadwick are neutral subatoruic particles These three subatomic particles prawns neutrons and electrons affect the cheruical behavior ofan atom Learning Objective 13 State the name and symbol for the elements and their ions Readings 12 24 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Classi cations of Matter L0 13 Elements Elements are characterixed and identi ed by unique physical and cheruical prop erta39es Cheruical mini a symbol assigned to an 213th based on the narue 17139 the eleruent consisting 17139 one capiml letta or a capiml letter fnllnwerl by a lowercase letta Thenames ni39 eleruents thu eir cheruical symbols are derived rum Latin English Creek German ac names Elements have also been named in honor of scientists or the geographic lnmtilm where they were discnvaed Knowingthe cheruical symbols allows scientists to use shnnhaml nnmtinn Classi cations of Matter L0 13 Ions and Ionic Compounds L0 13 lons lons are dean39rdly chmged atorus or group s of atoms called polyatoruic ions lons may b e posi vely charged or negatively charged depending upon whether theatom hash st or ginad electrons lons are represented by using the chemical symb ol or the atom with a nnmtinn 17139 the charge as a superscript to the upper right 17139 the symbol Nz C2quot Cl 51 Ions and Ionic Compounds L0 13 Negta39ve ions are called One electron gained 7 charge nf two electrons gained charge niquot and so futh Positive ions are called cazianx harge 17139 two electrons lost charge 17139 1 and so or mankuniunpsunnl quotFor a change a 139 or 1 o I x Ions and Ionic Compounds L0 13 am g lons ln general metals tend to lose electrons and nnnmemls tend to ectrons Memls are named simply with the name 17139 the eleruent and adding Inn Nz sodium ion Alquot aluminum ion Nonmemls arenamed by using the root orthe eleruent plus side innquot 01 nxidz ion Nz nitride ion Cl chlnn39dzinn Ions and Ionic Compounds L0 13 Hnw dn we knnw which Elements gain Electrnns and which losethem Why does sodium rorm Na while Calcium l39orms C21quot Why does oxygen form 01 while unrine rorms F 7 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Learning Objective 19 Characterize the important subatomic articles Readings 23 Modern view or atomic structure L0 19 rotons Atoms are composed of three subatomic particl neutrons d electrons The negative charge carried by an electron has a magnitude or 71502 x 10135 The charge ora proton is 150 x 10135 Nultrnns do notposses as charger they areneutral rm ta subatomic mum 1 re das quot multiples orthe electronic charge Modern view or atomic structure L0 19 Location or subatomic particles within an atom Frntnns and neutrons wide in the nucleus orthe atoru r u egion or e charge where the electrons reside more detailed in The a ea surro nding the nucleus isa dilTuse r negativ Unit 4 w i Learning Objective 110 Determine the subatomic structure or atoms ions and isotopes Use otation n Readings 23 Moden view or atomic structure LO 110 number determines the or each element E E a N b at lons ha What about the number othequ in o Atoms within an elauent same atomic number may have varying numbers of neutrons in the nucleus Whiie neutrons do not pos ess a charge they have mass therefore contribute to the overail mass or an atom Modern view of atomic structure LO 110 Th brt39thlortaildth m E p quot3 MT 6 51 f E a Atomswithidenticaiatomic numbers nfprntnns but Wquot 393 quotmaquot 3 differmtmassnumhersdifferent39snfnzntrnnsaremlled e isotop s The sum ortheprotons plus theneutrons oran atom is tailed the mass numb er lsotop es may b e represented symb olicaliy by their elemensz at mass number momie number and when applicable M A C Z X Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Mass charge of Numb a particle X Number Z Elmira Atomic s bol g 7 one or two letter designation representing the atom Atomic number Z r the number of protons in the atom often omitted Mass number A the sum of the protons and neutrons Charge of the particle C17 indicates whether an atom is neutral positively or negatively charged Modern view of atomic structure LO 110 isotopes of an element have identical chaniczl properties mm on new nocc isninvu at n Modern view of atomic structure LO 110 Learning Objective 111 Characterize the various parts of the periodic table Readings 24 The Periodic Table LO 111 The Periodic Table LO 111 Distinct regular wriztinns ofproperties were noted when elements were arranged in order of 111539 atomic masses Z I an Julius Lothar nger amp Dmitri Mendeleevindep endently devised classi cation Schemes nfthe elements based upon increasingatomic mass 9 wimp r n r ia u lum m up emu r rgmrw 12 eriodic La the physiml and chemical prop atlas of the elemmts are periodic functions of their atomic numb ers Thisrzpresenmtion with the arrangement based upon the periodic law isknown as the Perl Table period side The p aiodic mhle is arranged in order of increasing atomic number and can b e further classified by Group or family hnrilnnml to side row in theperiodic mhle Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma The Periodic Table LO 111 lnternatibnai Uninn entire and Applied Chemistry IUPAC in 1933 using numbers 1713 tn label ndic ableswiii still show bath designed a system erbnps mnstperi The Periodic Table LO 111 There are three main categbries an the peribdic able Meals 7 elements that tend tn lnse eleccrbns during chemical change farming pbsitive inns Nnnmemlsr snbsanceswhbseatbm t s end tn gain eleccrms during chemical change farming negative inns Meallbids semimaals e have prbp erties intermediate between meals and nbnmeals The Periodic Table LO 111 The Periodic Table LO 111 rm an he run1 yp n1nnl 1mg Tajigfggdfgfgg m Mensarehcated 39 th left 23 lemaals are genaally lbcated an the f m 1 Mn dis right side at the peribdic able Prbperties at l A The prbperties cl 1 High thermal mealibids rali c ndnctmty between those at Igh eleccrtal meals and cbndnctivtty nmeals Mealibidsrbrm a narrbw diagonal band between meals and nbnmeals Al is an excqltinn e classi ed as a meal The Periodic Table LO 111 Seven nbnmeal elements bccnr naturally as mnlecnles cmaining twn atmns diatmnic Memnry aid armcle Brbmine lbdine Nicrbgen Chimine Hydrbgen Oxygen and Fluorine rqn39esenting BrlNClHolr The Periodic Table LO 111 Representative Elemmts Main Grbnp Elemattsy Grbnp A elemmts Transitibn eternents e Grbnp B elements rm my a he run1 n nnn an lnnerrmnsinnn elements a 23 elements at the buttnm ui llle ab le Lanthanide sales cbnecthnbm elements that are chemially and phyg39nlly similar tn lanthanum tperind a Aninll ser39e cbllactinn um elements that are chemically similar tn actininm tperind 7 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma The Periodic Table LO 111 no is Ermine gonnat menu Friulnnm i no D a Learnlng Objectlve 112 Name and write iosmulas too simple compounds Readings 26 27 Classifimtions olMattes LO 112 Classi cations olMattes LO 112 Comp ounds areiormed when atoms 17139 an eleruent interact All pure substances can be classi ed as either mm m rm new mhmnm mm compo 39on ol39a compound is alwaysthe compounds some ie two atoms oihydrogm corubine with oneatom nl39 nxygEn to produce water 0 Eleruent a pure sub mince that mnnnt be cheuically Elements 39hat cnmpnse 2 camp mmd may converted into a sirupler sub mince be very ourerent rrom the prop nes or me corupouno Examples Sodium lead coppa a Compound 7A pure mhmnce composed oitwo or more d t united cheruisally In definite propor ons Examples carbon dioxide sodium chloride mhle salt 5 q d d m Home water Molecules and Molecular Com ounds Properties olMattes LO 112 LO 1 12 P quotquotquot39 quot quotquot Matter is coruposed oreither eleruents or compounds E eruents Many eleueuts are round in nature in mnlzcularfarm diatomic elauents E l N 11 H1 0 F1 ln geneal only thenoble gas eleruents are round in nature as isolated atoms Comp ound Most matter isactually coruposed orions maalsanrl nonmealo or molecules nonmetals handing with nnnmmls Molecules are cheruical combinations or two or more atoms quotWe know how to reprexem elements bulwhax about canqlaunai quot swimmeolmmnoam 117quoter ammo lawman Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecules and Molecular Compounds LO 112 o 112 Molecular omitas are chemical 7 MI Molecules are held H K r rormiuasthatindicatethe actual 39 to ethe by the i i m number and type of atoms or each mo sharing nf dermms element in one molecule orthe minim himis t o H subsoance 1 quot o quot quot O quot Molecules may be t HRH mm AH YEPYESEnlEdh 1 Th b t t th t orth M E m n quot E quotng E A Structural formula 9 w emenod sy e o u n ber oratoms ol39that elauent in Fersnemve drzwmg amp onenoiecu e d Ba suck it norm V Spacelillingmodel quot qquot mar E gwg w Classifica ons of Matter LO 112 Ions and Ionic Compounds LO 112 lomc Compounds hmr rm l 705 m The bonds round in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds 7 these occur between oppositely chargeions lonic compounds are gmerally composed of combinations or 39 memls and nonmemls g 43 aquot i to i 39w a39 ii ii i i iii e 1 quotw g139rquotquot Theperiodic mhleiszuse dtnnl to predict the ions formed from the memls and nonmeals t ix n r t n i i Magnum yp 1nnl Some transition memls form more than one charge mtg Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Nomenclature the assignment ora correct and unambiguous name to eac and every chaniczl compound Wewill learn to write names and lormulas on g 7 1 lonic compounds i lamquot nary ionic compounds two elements one meml and J one nnnmeml lonic compounds with polyatomic ions 2 anlent compounds nary cmlent compounds two nnnmeml elements Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 W 39 grormulasi39rom names nfln39nm39 39 compounds 1 Determine the charge orthe ions unk at periodic table 2 Always write the cation rst fnlluw ed by the anion 3 Use subscri ts to balancethe charges on the ions Ms A MgiN The charge on the cation becomes the subscript on theanion and the charge on the anion becomes the subscript on the cation lithe charges arealready equal no subscripts areneeded Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 s ome examples 1 sodium sul de Na and s Nas 2 g oxide Mgz39and 01 Mg 3 aluminum oxide Alquot and 01 Age 4 barium lluoride Baquot and F 1an Wr gNamesod39 mz lnm Compoundsi39rom Formulas Name the catim name odmeual 2 Follow with the name odanion using theroot ortheanion plus the sul xridz 3 lithe mtim39l odan element has sevaal ions or dilrermt charges multiple charge states use a anan numeral in theses arts the men name Examples NaCl is sodium chloride Allin isaluminum bromide MO is nickel ll oxide Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 The Raman numeral gives the charge odthe meal An older but still commonly used nomenclature system Use i to indicate the higher odthe charge mtes Use roux to indicate thelower orthe charge mtes More examples Fe iron Ill chloride rerric chloride FeCl iron ll chloride Ferrouschloride copper ll oxide cupric oxide n s Cuo copper l oxide cuprous oxide Writingnames and fnrmulas inuoluingpolyatomic ions Folyatomic ions 7 ions composed odtwo or more atoms bonded together Within the ion the atoms are bonded by cnwlent b mds Folyatomic ions may b e positively charged or ngatively charged must know all m39the Positively charged polyatomic ions ammonium ion NHA hydronium ion 1101 Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp 3 Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Wn gnames and farmlsz lnvnlvmg EnlEtnmlc Inns Oganinns pnlyatoruic inns containing oxygen have names aiding in 42 nr rile rateis used or the most common oxyaninn oran elizuent site is used or an nxyanion that has the mine chargebut nnerewer nxygm atoru Examples nitrate inn so sulfa inn Nu m inn so sul leinn Alsn C0 czrhnnmeinnl70 phnsphmeion Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Wriungnames and rnrmulas mvnlinngpnlyatnmic inn When a series 17139 oxyaninns extends tn our members prefixes are used per indicates nnemnre nxygeri atnm than the oxyaninn ending in rule ohmquot i End39 ndicates one oxygen atoru fewer than the oxyaninn mg in it or a 81 i A n nnxno7gt rm minim run11yp111nnl Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Wr gnames and formulas involving EnlEtnm ns Aninns derived by adding H to an nxyaninn are named by ad 39 a a prefix hydragm nr dihydrngm C0 carb nnate inn llco hydrngm carb nnate inn F0 pnnspnare inn nIPOA dihydrngen phnsphate inn An older method or naruing bi instead or hydragm llco bicarbonate inn hydrogen carbonate hicarh onate nf sndaquot sodium bicarb onate Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 w names and formula vn nl tnm nns lnnic cnmpnunds cnnmining p nlyatnmic ions are named by 1 Naming the cation mend nr NHA 2 Naming the anion usually the p nlyatnmic inn 3 Using Roman numerals irnecessiry to indicate charge mtg Examples NHACI nnium chloride Eas oA barium Guano cnpp er H perchlorate cupric perchlorate Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Wr grnrmulas mnagy cnimlent cnmpnund rpwe siibsninces that consist nftwn nanmzm lr39 elements by be memorized water ammnma illh 1 w 39tin th b 11 th ti quot g E W n m E quota quotn Writingrormiiias l39or cnimlent comp nunds 2 wnungrne syruoni ior me amon 1 The names orthe elemmts are writtm in the order in which 3 Using sub scripts to balance the charges rusepzrmtheses 17339 PW i WWW a a 3326 2m is around polyatomic inns when necessiry mmquot 5m 2 Aprerix indicates the number of ash atnm Examples mnnnr 1 hex a r 5 Calcium hydroxide CaoH 1 heme 7 Magnesium nitrate MgNo tquot quotquotW39 3 Am h d NH Er tetr 7 nnn2r 9 mm m 39339 pent2r 5 dec2r 1n Chem 1315 Spring 2010 Sections 2 amp Dr L Clifford Dept of Chem amp Biochem University of Oklahoma Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 there is only one atom orthe rst elemmt rn molecule Lhepn xmnmr is omitted rum therrrst elauent This applies ONLY TO THE FIRST ELEMENT in thearmada Example C0 is carbon monoxide The stem orthe name orthelast elauent is used with the sumx 7M2 Writing Names of binary cmlent comp ounds We mn use thename ora binary cmlent compound to deter sub scripts mine the furmlllz elauents NCl1 gphosphoruspentoedde 1705 The prefix indicates thanth orthe element 5 The rmal wwel in a pn xis orten dropped hd39m39e a vowel in the stem name Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Addki inlmenclamre quot 391 mm in a ma Ends Acid Nommclature gt in idz change the ending W quot lrthe anion in the acid mum n i to 7i addznrl add the d in we change the pr ixh endingtoa39mzid 7 rich hydrochloric a w 7 llClo chloric acid 2quot o 1 7 Home 7 Han hydrobromic perchloric acid 7 HISOA sulfuric acid acid 7 Hi hydroiodic acid 7 H117 0 phosphoric acid Naming Inorganic Compounds LO 112 Nomenclature h lrthe anion in the acid ends in change the endingto7ous M Add 7 rich hypochlorousacid 7 HClo chlorous acid