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Great Discoveries in Archaeology

by: Gudrun Schroeder

Great Discoveries in Archaeology ANTH 1413

Gudrun Schroeder
GPA 3.57

Asa Randall

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About this Document

Asa Randall
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gudrun Schroeder on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1413 at University of Oklahoma taught by Asa Randall in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see /class/229279/anth-1413-university-of-oklahoma in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
Study Guide Exam 3 Be sure to know the following concepts time periods sites and archaeological cultures Exam three is cumulative However emphasis will be placed on the last segment of the course after Exam 2 Archaeology and Anthropology I Anthropology and its Subdisciplines I Archaeological Record I Archaeological culture I Provenience I Relative Dating Techniques I Stratigraphy I Law of Superposition I Absolute Dating Techniques I Artifact Feature Ecofact I Archaeological Site I Methods of Archaeological Discovery I Ethics in Archaeology I NAGPRA I Belzoni I Heinrich Schliemann HunterGatherers I quotClovis First vs PreClovis I Simple and Complex HunterGatherers I Egalitarianism I quotVoting with your feetquot I ArchaeologicalSites o Laetoli 0 Monte Verde 0 Poverty Point I Archaeological Cultures o Clovis and PreClovis o ArchaicMesolithic o Natufian o Australopithecus afarensis Lucy The Neolithic Revolution I Domestication as a Process and stages PaeoethnobotanyArchaeobotany Zooarchaeology V Gordon Childe and the Neolithic Revolution mplicationsConsequences of Agriculture Te Sites Eastern Agricultural Complex Teosinte and Maize Alternative models of Neolithization in Europe Neolithic Long Houses Monuments Blue Stones and Sarsen Stones Otzi the Iceman Arch geological Sites 0 Catalhoyuk o Stonehenge Archaeological Cultures o Natufians o PrePottery Neolithic PPN o Linearbandkeramic LBK Complex Societies of North America 0 O O O O O O O O 0 Myth of the Moundbuilders Platform Mounds Southeastern Ceremonial Complex and conography Monks Mound Ancestral Pueblo Bordered Gardens Chaco Phenomenon Roads great houses exchange Hohokam Irrigation Ball Courts Archaeological Sites 0 Chaco Canyon 0 Snake Town 0 Cahokia Archaeological Culture 0 Hohokam o Ancestral Pueblo o Mississippian State Societies 0 Characteristics of States and their Archaeological Correlates Types of Writing Systems LogographicPictographic Syllabic Alphabeticand the Major Writing Systems we Have Covered and what kind of information they were used to convey Temples and their significance in States we have studied Mesopotamia o Ziggurat 0 Queen Puabi Egypt 0 Rosetta Stone 0 Pyramids Indus Valley 0 Characteristics of Ind us Valley Cities 0 Public Works China 0 Pyro osteomancy o Terracotta Army 0 Shang Cities 0 Shi Huang Di and his transformation of china 0 Great Wall o ArchaeologicalSites State Level Societies o Mesoamerica o Ur o Colossal Stone Heads 0 Anyang o Olmec Exchange 0 Qin s Mausoleum and Burial Complex 0 Tzompantli and Danzantes 0 La Venta o Teotihuacan Pyramids of the Sun and o Teotihuacan Moon 0 Tenochtitlan o Obsidian s Significance o Moche 0 Ball Courts 0 Sipan o SacrificeAutosacrifice o Cuzco o Mayan Hieroglyphs o Knossos 0 Characteristics of the Aztec State 0 cen I Templo Mayor 0 Archaeological Cultures State Level Societies I Sacrifice o SumerianUruk Indus Valley Egypt Shang Dynasty 0 South America 0 Maritime Hypothesis 0 Shicra and Labor Tax 0 Chavin CuIt and its Material Expression I Staff God ooooooooooooo I D o r 3 C n O m 3 o Huaca Brick Construction and Maker marks 0 Huaca de la una Aztec o Huaca del Sol Moche o Moche Ideology and Authority Nazca 0 quotPresentation Theme Inca o Nazca Lines Geoglyphs Minoan o Inca Mycenaean I Identity and Authority I Taxation Archaeology s Relevance Today and the Future I Inca State Control 0 Garbology 39 Quipu o Bioarchaeology and Social Justice 0 Europe 0 Disaster Archaeology 0 Heinrich Schliemann o The archaeology of space 0 Storage at Minoan palaces 0 Sir Arthur Evans and the Myth of the Minotaur 0 Linear Avs Linear B o Mycenaean Fortified Palaces and Burial Practices 0 Comparison of Minoan and Mycenaean palaces Page 2 of 3 Practice Questions Correct Answers at bottom of page 1 As demonstrated in class many early state societies built pyramids which were use as a Burial places for elite b Platforms for temples c Foundations for elite houses d All ofthe above are possible uses of early pyramids 2 Materials that cooccur in space and time are referred to as aan a Conundrum b Archaeological Society c Culture d Archaeological Culture 3 Inhabitants ofthis region aligned their buildings and sacred places to important solar and lunar cycles a Mesolithic Hunters of Europe b Shang Civilization c Chaco Canyon d Mesopotamia 4 Cu rrent data suggests that the quotWave of Advancequot model best explains the process of Neolithization of NorthCentral Europe a True b False 5 Which of the following interpretations is suggested by the presence of pithoi and kouloures at Minoan palaces a Palaces were well fortified and prepared for sieges b Elite were buried with massive accumulations of wealth in their palaces c Palaces may have served as points of surplus accumulation used to support ritual and extraregional exchange d All ofthe above are correct 6 The monumental architecture ofthe Preceramic period on the western coast of South America were constructed in a similarway as Moche Huacas in that they bot a Were constructed using labor as taxation b Were constructed of rubble c Were constructed using slave labor d A and B are correct 7 This monument of the Aztecs used to have twin temples to the rain and war gods but was razed and now lies beneath Mexico City a Temple ofthe Feathered Serpent b Coricancha c Templo Mayor d Sipan 01 v399 o39s vv o39 p 39zfp391 Page 3 of 3 Exam 1 Study Guide ANTH1413 Spring 2014 Be sure to know the following concepts places objects and archaeological sites All lectures course readings and films are relevant The exam is in class bring a 2 pencil I will provide Scantron Forms Archaeology the Basics Anthropology and its 4 subfields o Archaeology s Strengths o Holism Relativism Comparison 0 Culture vs Archaeological Culture Archaeological Record 0 Provenience o Context 0 Association 0 Artifact Feature Ecofact Archaeological Site 0 Methods of Archaeological Discovery Relative Dating Techniques 0 Stratigraphy 0 Law of Superposition o CrossDating Absolute Dating Techniques 0 Dendrochronology o Radiocarbon Cl4 Site Formation Processes Geological BiologicalBioturbation Anthropogenic o Taphonomy o Pompeii Premise Sources of Inference o Ethnoarchaeology 0 Experimental Archaeology Archaeological Ethics Origins I Belzoni Cultural Resources Threats to cultural resources Cultural Resource Management Anthropology and the ownership of the past Who owns the past NAGPRA o quotKennewick Man Ethical Archaeological practice Kinds of stewards Pitdown Hoax Killer Ape Hypothesis Trends in Hominin Evolution Taphonomy and early hominin violence Origins Continued Oldowan Tools and evidence for hominin hunting Homo erectus milestones Achulean Handaxes Sea Level and Global Climate Change Preconceived notions of Neanderthal capabilities Marcellin Boule Neanderthals and their subsistence habits Neanderthal Ceremonialism Upper Paleolithic Blade technology Evidence for Upper Paleolithic structures Mobile vs Permanent art 0 Venus Figurines 0 Contents and com position of European Cave art 0 Early ceramic technology at Dolni Vestonice Colonization of Australia and North America 0 quotClovis First vs PreClovis o Megafauna HunterGatherers Huntergatherer variation Changing perspectives on huntergatherers Characteristics of Band Societies Aspects of Complex HunterGatherers Holocene HunterGatherers YoungerDryas Climatic Episode MesolithicArchaic Intensification Shell Middens and aquatic resources 0 The human skeleton and diet MesolithicArchaic Diversity Traits of Early Monuments 0 Evidence for and interpretation of Mound Building at Poverty Point Page 1 of 2 Archaeological Sites Why are they significant What was found there Where are they located When do they date to roughly There will be a map of the world on the exam you will need to located them on the map Olduvai Gorge Dolni Vestonice Gobekli Tepe Hadar Lascaux Koster Laetoli Klasies River Mouth Poverty Point La Chappelle aux Saints Lake Mungo Pincevent Monte Verde Hominins Know where they are found approximately what time what artifacts and practices they are associated with Piltdown Man Homo neanderthaensis Neanderthal Austraopithecus afarensis Lucy Homoforesiensis The Hobbits Taung child A africanus Homo sapiens sapiens Homo erectus Exam Format The exam will consist of objective questions multiple choice truefalse matching In addition there will several map questions which will ask you to locate particular archaeological sites Sample Questions correct answers are provided at the bottom of page 2 1 Which of the following is NOT considered one of Anthropologys Central Tenets 5 The quotArchaeological Recordquot refers to the sum total of everything a 39 written about the past by archaeologists a True Hollsm b Relativism c Ethnocentrism b False d Comparison e All ofthe above are central tenets of Anthropology 6 Dart s quotKiller Apequot hypothesis was overturned by data that indicated 1 6 2 Sea level is mu iy 39 g39 L 39 quot 39 g 39 39 39 predators Maximum sea level is and during a Glacial Minimum sea level is a True b False a Higher Lower b Lower Higher 7 Which of the following were Homo sapiens NOT responsible for c Unchanged Lower making d Higher Unchan ed a Upper Paleolithic Blade Tools e Unchanged Unchanged bCave Art c Venus Figurines 3 Which of the following was NOT a Homo erectus milestone d Oldowan tools a First use offire in a controlled fashion e Homosapiens made all of the above b First hominin to leave Africa c First to use stone tools 8 Witlmllt Hui 39 39 39i or d First to make use of base camps context of artifacts in space and time e All ofthe above answers are correct a Geoarch e logy b Strati ra h 4 At Dolni Vestonice the habitation structures were constructed out of c Offsite archaeology a Animal mammoth Bones d Provenience b Large Wooden Timbers e None of the above are correct answers c Iron cross beams d Baked Clay Bricks e All ofthe above 39P s 5 P L 129 for s 121 532 for z b I sramsuv Page 2 of 2 Exam 2 Study Guide Spring 2014 ANTH1413 Be sure to know the following concepts places objects and archaeological sites Concepts Neolithic I V Gordon Childe and the Neolithic Revolution I Models for the Origins of Farming I Domestication as a Process Foraging and Unintentional Consequences Cultivation Agriculture I Identifying Cultivation or Agriculture 0 Natufian Sickles o PaleoethnobotanyArchaeobotany I Correlates of Domesticated Plants and nimals Difference between Wild and Domesticated Barley o Zooarchaeology Significance of Animal Mortality Profiles Catastrophic Attritional or PrimeDominated I Farming and its Consequences o Settlement health conflict I Regional Variation in Farming I SW Asia 0 Domestication of Rye YoungerDryas 0 Tell Sites 0 Neolithic Household Organization and Ritual I Altars I Plastered Skulls o Neolithic Obsidian Exchange 0 Tower ofJericho o Neolithic Social Organization in SW Asia I East Asia 0 Millet and Rice Domestication I Yellow and Yangtze Rivers 0 Loess soil 0 Storage 0 FortifiedMoatedViIIages I Eastern United States Eastern Agricultural Complex e s as Cultigens I Chenopodium as a domesticate I MexicoDesert Southwest 0 Tehuacan Valley 0 Teosinte and the Domestication of Maize 0 Significance of Irrigation Canals in the SW US I South American Domesticate Complexes High Middle and Low Altitude Variations in State Level Societies I Characteristics of State Level Societies and their Archaeological Correlates particularly the cases we have examined so far Types of Writing Systems 0 LogographicPictographic Syllabic Alphabetic 0 Type and Use of Writing Systems we Have covered I Yoffee39s Rule I Mesopotamia o Tigris and Euphrates 0 Characteristics of Mesopotamian States 0 Relationship between Alluvial Valleys and Uplands in Mesopotamia o Temples and their significance I 39ggurat o Beveled Rim Bowls 0 Cuneiform origins and use 0 Clay Bullas and Clay Tablets O O Royal Cemetery at Ur Trade and exchange by sea 0 Assyrian and Urartian States I Nile River and Agriculture 0 Egyptian Hieroglyphics o Rosetta Stone 0 Symbols of Unified Egypt I Narmer Palette o Shaduf o Pharaohs and Power 0 Pyramids I Comparison with ziggurats I Indus Valley 0 Characteristics of Indus Valley Cities 0 Indus Valley Exchange and Economic Specialization o Indus Valley Script Page 1 of 2 Archaeological Cultures Natufian Uruk Indus Valley civilization PrePottery Neolithic PreDynastic Chiefdoms Egypt 39Ubaid Old Kingdom Egypt Archaeological Sites Why are they significant What was found there Where are they located When do they date to Gobekli Tepe Ur MohenjoDaro Abu Hureya Uruk Jericho Uluburun o QinisMauseleumand Bu al Catalho39yuk Hierakonpolis Gemplae Meunt H Russell Cave Giza Tehuacan Caves Harappa Sample Questions 1 This site in Anatolia is often considered the world s quotfirst townquot quot39 39 L quot u L other no streak quot 39quot a Abu Hureya b Catalho39y39uk c U ru k d Hierakonpolis Which 1 I u u m u a a Grinding slabs b Sword c Sickle d Both a and c are correct 3 Tokens embedded in clay balls bulla are thought to be predecessors to what writing system a Egyptian hieroglyph b Sha ng glyphs c Cuneiform d Indus Valley Script 4 The Indus Valley script is like Egyptian hieroglyphics both are alphabe c scripts that can be read today a True b False 5 This kind on 39 quot 39 quot quot 39 b t r quot 39 g times and formed the physical ideologicaand authorita ve center of Mesopotamian cities a Ziggurat b City gates c Stelae flat stones incised with laws or decrees d Palaces of the elite 6 This area is thought to be where milletbased agriculture rst arose a Northern China along the Yellow River b Southern China alongthe Yangtze River c Thailand d Mesopotamia 7 Comparison ofmodern quot4 quot 39 39 39 39 Linuse 39 quot ave in 39 quot quot 6 fk39 rl 0 domesticated in the eastern United States a aize b Chenopodium c Barley d Sumpweed Page 2 of 2 qL l29 e q17 3g lpz lq39 SJQMSUV


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