Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Great Discoveries in Archaeology ANTH 1413
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gudrun Schroeder on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1413 at University of Oklahoma taught by Patrick Livingood in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/229281/anth-1413-university-of-oklahoma in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Bigfoot and the Biological Dimension of Archaeology 222010 72800 PM Bigfoot l Evidence and Advocacy 0 Numerous tracks Eyewitness Accounts we watched a travel channel video about OK and bigfoot 0 Patterson Filmr l7 Academic Advocacy 0 John NapieriBritish physician 0 Grover Krantzianthropologist 0 Jeffrey Meldrumr anatomist at Ohio State 0 Not all of these are accurate but only one has to be correct 2 Bigfoot Theories o Bigfoot is a living hominid species 0 Homo ferrus o Gigantopithecus o Neandertal Chalkboard Focusing on Biological dimension What s the evidence to look for other than sightings and prints 0 Nesting 0 Food we would expect fruits insects leaves 0 This creates a problem for bigfoot being in llAmerimost apes don t live in temperate forests Bodiesr 0 Can give us anatomy Waster Patterns to sightings locations Juveniles DayNight diff between sightings and when apes would be active Attacks Trails Physical evidence fossils hairetc 2 Cont o The main claim about bigtoot is that it is some long lost great aper this means that we need to look at the groundwork of biology 3 Basics of Biological Evolution 4 Gregor Mendel o Punnet squares 5 Terminology o Genotype genetic makeup of an organism o Phenotype observable appearance 6 Chromosomes and DNA 0 The bhvr and dvlpmt of all cells controlled by chromosomes Themselves made of DNAidouble helix strand 7 What traits does each gene control 0 Some traits are controlled by a single gene 0 Exithe color of the pea in a pea plant 0 Many traits controlled by multiple genes 0 Called polygenetic inheritance o EX 8 Almost all living things Oh earth 0 Have their biological growth dvlpt and function controlled by DNA and RNA 0 it s the universal language of biology 0 Several forces increase diversity in genes 0 Eximutation 9 What torces increase genetic diversity 0 Genetic recombination o llutation 0 Horizontal Gene Transfer lO Genetic recombination o Sperm and egg cells are formed by process of meiosis o RGDTGSGDUUST halic the chromosomes ota normal cell i l Mutation 0 DNA is constantly being copied l2 Mutation 0 Results of mutation l3 Peppered lloth l4 Aniridia l5 llutation l6 Corn slide7 changes in kernels l7 Horizontal Gene Transfer l8 What Processes reduce diversity or affect the frequency of different genes 0 Gene Flow 0 Genetic Drift 0 Natural Selection l9 Genetic Drift 20 7 2 l 77 22 Natural Selection 22 Natural Selection7 Bacteria 23 7 24 7 25 Natural Selection 26 Peppered moth 0 industrial Revolution 0 Results affecting trees 277 28 Natural Selectioaneppered moth7map 29 Natural Selection 30 Huntington s disease 3l Natural Selection 0 it doesn t create new types it Just operates on the diversity that exists 32 Natural Selection 0 Directional Selection 0 When a particular trait is positively favored o Normalizing Selection 0 When averages remain the same but extremes are selected against 33 Natural Selection7 Misconceptions 34 Speciation 0 Put ZOO notes on speciation in here7 35 Speciation 0 Fruit flies 0 Used 3 criteria and ended up with 8 different tanks of fruit flies 36 Summary 0 Line of genetic diversity things that lead to less or more diversity 37 Biological Evolution 0 simply the change in genetic frequencies over time o he stressed that evolution altnougn controversial the term itself is a relatively simple idea 38 Question for the next few classes 0 Can biological evolution explain bigfoot 0 To look at the story ofwnat we know about where primates came from and to see if we can find a branch to explain bigfoot 222010 72800 PM Review 0 Most significant differerances between humans and other apes o Bipedaiism 0 Big brains 0 Which came first View of Human Origins eariy iQOO s 0 Worked out a broad outiine of human origins 0 Found arachaic iooking humans 0 Skuii in Neander Vaiiey German i85i 0 Specimens in France 0 Robust iooking skuiis human iooking bodies interpretations o Neandertai and Croeiiagnon specimens looked like primitive heads on modern bodies 0 Suggested that body evoived first the head was slower 0 Did notsit weii with peopie Discoveryi 0 i9 i ZePiitdown area ofSussex interpretation 0 Specimen caiied Piitdown Man 0 Skuii iooked primitiveiaw iooked apeeiike 0 Some thought this was the iink an eariy human ancestor Piitdown Unraveis o More specimens are found around the worid in the next few decades Piitdown Debunked o Fiuorine dating in i949 and i953 proved it was a hoax Whodunnit 0 Go to book chapter Why were they fooied o Conformed to preexisting ideas 0 Not used to detecting forgeries from within 0 Aiso note 0 Not everyone was fooied i924 Taung chiid o Discovered by Raymond Dart in Africa indicated mix of ape and human characteristics Bipedaiism At the time it was rejected because Piitdown had appeared to have solved the problem and showed rapid deveiopment of brain Lesson of Dart s find 0 Caiied Austraiopithecus Ape of the south 0 indicated that bipedaiism came first 0 Not iarge brain Features of Bipedaiism 0 Features combine to permit seriai balance of weight on each foot Spine and skuii in bipedaiism o Spine o A series of curves in the spine permit upright posture 0 Connected to the base of skuii Peivis in bipedaiism o Wider and shorter in humans than in other apes o Bowirshaped to support organs 0 Lowers center of gravity Foot in bipedaiism o Arched foot 0 No opposabie big toe o Eniarged aniltie and heei to absorb impact Advantages of Bipedaiism 0 Can see farther see predators o More efficient iongedistance travei o Frees up hands 0 For defense threats 0 For gathering o For hoiding infants 0 For carrying toois Disadvantages of bipedaiism o More vuinerabie to predators away from trees o More visibie to predators 0 Exposure of underbeiiy 0 Change of direction while running is slower 0 Running speed reduced More serious consequences for legfoot injury Harder to get blood to brain llore stress on backs knees nips feet 0 Especially for women that are pregnant or carrying children Many bipedal primates We know that in Africa between l75mya there were many different species of bipedal primates coexisting 0 Many became evolutionary dead ends Australopitnecus afarensis Lucy O O O O Laetoli O O O O A ganri O Likely numan ancestor Gracile Australopitnecus 397 29 mya Bipedal 355 ft tall Most famous of these specimens 29 mya 60 complete Longer arms than humans Heavily muscled would have been adapted to arboreal conditions Prominent brow ridge Cranial capacity neignt about as same as cnimp Teetn larger than modern human Teetn parallel instead of arcned Apeelike from the waist up numanrlike from waist down in Tanzania 36 mya SO footprints left in volcanic ash Two individuals walking side by side Stride shorter and less efficient than modern humans 25 mya Found with animal bones that indicate butcnering and cut marks 0 But no tools yet found 0 Could be that ganri is the butcher and tool maker Bipedalism and Savannans 0 Old theory for a long time researchers thought bipedalism developed as an adaptation to savannahs 0 African savannahs appear and grow 25 mya 0 Problem 0 Almost all the skeletons are found in woodland environments 0 They were optional bipeds that lived in forested environments and climbed trees Review of timeline o Hominins first appear 5e8mya o Bipedalism definitely by 45 mya The appearance of big brains Discoveryl 0 Mary and Louis Leakey find new specimen 0 lO o Homo habilis o handy man similar in body size to chimpanzee and austr lluch larger brain however Thicllter cranium Veins in cranium to cool brain Smaller teeth andiaw Smaller face Smaller orbital bar Overlap with Austr o Homo habilis appears 25 mya o Homo and austr Coexist for about l5 mya Tools 0 Stone tools appear 25 mya o Might have been earlier tools from perishable material 0 Stone tools 0 Oldowan tradition I Made by hitting one stone with another I Both the flakes and the resulting tool are useful I 25 myaiethiopia I 3000 tools I not associated with any fossils OOOOOOO Oidowan toois 0 found in oiduvai gorge 2 mya What do toois indicate 0 Requires selection of appropriate stone materiai o Knowiedge about where to obtain stone 0 Requires abstract goai o iianuai skiiis o Pianning What do we know from the study of the toois Theory 0 Toois permitted homo habiiis to eat more meat 0 Protein wouid have been less abundant on savannah Man the hunter Or scavenger Sociai behavior H Habiiis brain The probiem with big brains 0 Birth 0 Cuiture Ancient Astronauts 222010 72800 PM What kind of evidence should we expect if this hypothesis is true BodiesJump in technology foreign materials accounts depictions change in importance of astronomy 0 But how can you tell something like a technology is foreign made versus human I Evidence of past tries evidence of knowledge in books etc 5 key pieces of evidence Texts Art Biology texts described extraterrestrials images depict aliens biological evolution required intervention by aliens ancient inventionsisome too advanced only explained by alien help civilization appearing suddenly Bible epic of Gilgamesh vedic texts Examples from Egyptian temple drawings Star Child skull Ancient lnventions 222010 72800 PM Review 0 Examined domestication 0 ideas about a mother civilization 0 Atlantis etc 0 Ancient astronauts o Stonehenge o Said that to fully understand Stonehenge we must understand the social and political organization of its builders What is civilization 0 Civilization means a lot of things So we re going to focus on the on the origins of the hallmarks 0 Public architecture 0 Urban living 0 Hierarchical society 0 Egalitarian society 0 Equal access to economic resources power and prestige based on birth lnegalitarianiHierarchical 0 Positions ascribed not achieved Complexity Typology 0 Band organized around lltinship o Triber Chiefdome Stater Complexity 0 People often define state as the most complex political organization 0 Connotation of being the best Refers to the number of parts in the system simply the intricacy of the system not What it means for the people in the society 0 Does not reflect actual complexity to live in the system States and Cniefdoms at AD l SOOimap of distribution across the globe A possible outline 0 OOO BPiAgriculture arrives in GB 0 From burial evidence people remained relatively egalitarian 0 Agriculture permits storage and surplus o Famines around 5000 BP would have made some people and communities with surplus bettereoff 0 Or made the people who could seize them better o 5000 BPibeginnings of inequality 0 evidenced by individual wealtny burials 0 Those in in uence transformed belief system with a focus on round shapes and alignment with the stars 0 Claim command over esoteric knowledgeidistant places power supernatural power stars power 0 Construction of Stonehenge o Demonstration of success power and acceptance of a world View First Appearances of the hallmarks of civilization 0 Gobekli Tepe o Ritual centeril lSOO BP Used by nunteregatners who may not have been sedentary Oldest public arcnitecture Stones soft limestone was abundant at this location I Have carvings of animalsipowerful animalsifoxes lions scorpions vultures 0 Stone circles appear to have been created used for rituals and burials and eventually covered over with dirt 0 Worldwide first public and ritual arcnitecture usually built before agriculture 0 Catalnoyullt o Occupied ca 850077500 BP 0 Population lt4000 o Largest community in the world at the time 000 O 0000 00000 lSOeBOO mud brickplaster structures I access through roof Ate wheat barley cattle wild game Near a source of obsidian Probably traded obsidian for shell 40 lltnown snrines all within the residences I no evidence that one particular building was ritual or public Painted walls Themes of fertility or death Secondary burials in floors of rooms under snrines No evidence of differential diet llo lavisn burials I Some were treated with ocnre but no pattern No evidence of public architecture or nereditary status or differentiation 0 Ubaid Periodr Uruk Ur Eridu 0000 O 0 730075800 BP S Mesopotamia llo preceding people in the area immigrants from farmers of barley dates cattle sheep goats And used smallrscale irrigation Eridu is one of the earliest sites I Contained a small temple I lOX l 2 ft I altar faced entrance After 6500 BP evidence of world s first inegalitarian societyi cniefdom possibly I Wealtn differences I At Tell Abadaione large house at center of site I More artifacts and more prestigious artifacts I Public architecture I Ritual spaces of increasing size and complexity I Shift in arrangement ofsites I From lots of settlements all ofsimilar size to 0 Pattern of large centers surrounded by smaller ones 0 Erullt Period o More elaborate public architectureZlggurat 222010 72800 PM 20 i 27 End of the woridi iiayan caiendare Can it predict this 0 2 calendars 0 Religious 260 Days 0 Soiar Caiendar 365 days 0 Caiendar Round 0 Together these two systems give each day a name I Name repeats every 52 years 0 Long Count Caiendar Buiiding a pyramid 0 Major Cnaiienges O