Electronic Field Production
Electronic Field Production JMC 3613
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamir Glover on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC 3613 at University of Oklahoma taught by Gerald Loessberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/229283/jmc-3613-university-of-oklahoma in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Electronic Field ProductionVisual Storytelling n Use sound and pictures to tell stories c To rely on words alone ignores inherent value and unique characteristics of video 0 Write pictures first Previsualize before shooting Write story after viewing all footage and natural sounds elements 0 Shoot sequences When covering event you and the camera are the eyes of the viewers show them what they would see if they were there Need to see sequential shots with action that matches from one shot to another Language of sequences a 1 XLS or extreme long shot o Establish setting o Whole scene a 2 LS or long shot WS or wide shot o Head to toe o Establish setting a 3 MS or medium shot o Knees and up o Overused shot a 4 MCU or medium close up o Also an overused shot a 5 CU or close up o Show head and top of shoulders o Good for showing emotion and facial detail 6 ECU or extreme close up o Doesn t show all head o Not always flattering o Excellent for highly emotional moments 0 Tell the story through people Let them be examples of the story you re telling 0 Use strong natural sound Add element of realism to the story i 0 Answer the so what question Why should people care about this story a Elements of the visual story o Lead 0 Just like newspaper lead but should be visible o Main Points 0 Support each with visual proof o Close 0 Need strong closing visuals n Editing o Copying images from one tape to another usually with purpose of putting sounds and pictures in some desired order o The more times you copy something the worse it s going to look 0 Generation loss 0 Don t want to lose generations if we can avoid it 0 Not an issue with digital editing o Two sides to editing 0 Aesthetic 0 Technical a Technical Editing o What s necessary 0 Two VCRs one source or player machine and one record machine 0 Videotape two audio tracks on top video track in the middle control track on the bottom o Control track 0 Electronic pulses recorded on videotape to help synchronize the tape during playback There is one pulse recorded for every frame of video 30fps so 30 control track pulses per second Analogy to sprocket holes on a reel of film Get control track on tape by recording any video signal Because we normally use black as this video signal the process is called blacking a tape It is also known as striping a tape o Types of edits O O 0 Crash recording Push play and record get glitch in and glitch out o Assemble edit Take video both channels of audio and rewrite control track requires some control track to be on tape at the beginning of the edit clean in and glitch out Video audio 1 audio 2 and control track are rewritten with each edit 0 Insert edit Allows you to chose any combination of the 3 tracks video audio 1 audio 2 requires that control track already be on the tape clean in and clean out will use this type of edit 9999 of the time Edit 1 is video only edit 2 is audio two only edit 3 is video and audio 1 control track does not change Electronic Field ProductionEditing Techniques n Why edit Shorten existing material Arrange shots in specific order Add special effects both video and audio effects Cover technical problems Tell a story a When to edit Cause and effect On dialogue On action match on action On the beat of the music Draw attention to the edit Whittaker s guidelines 0 O O O O 0 Make motivated cuts Cut on subject movement match action Edit to accommodate medium TV as close up medium Determine shot length Make use of broll footage If in doubt leave it out Principle of Parsimony a Role of editor As editor must take someone else s ideas and pictures and turn them into finished programs 0 0 Can be a challenge if Bad script Bad pictures to work with Contrary to popular belief cannot always fix it in post a Continuity Editing Defined cutting to preserve the essence of an event without showing all of the event A technique of creating a clear series of shots which provides a sense of logic to a scene It creates an orderly believable sequence Most common type of editing 2 key elements 0 0 Sequences Continuity errors Sequences n n n 0 Series of shots that logically tell a story or part of a story 0 Techniques for creating sequences Follow rule of WS MS CU Overlap action in shots Move people in and out of frame Shoot same action from different andles and with different types of shots ieWS MS CU ECU Anticipate action Continuity Errors Physical continuity 0 Most common props or clothing 0 Time periodera Styrofoam cups used in movie Driving Miss Daisy Styrofoam did not exist in the era in which the film takes place Time continuity 0 Clock or candle in background 0 Cigarettes in shots Technical continuity 0 Technical problems with cameras and colors Relationship continuity 0 Camera positioning 0 Jump cuts Audio continuity 0 Natural sound suddenly disappears o Disappearing background sounds Event continuity o Entering and exiting frame Spatial continuity o Crossing the axis of action or the 180 degree line Relational Editing Technique to establish associations between shots which might have no relationship until edited together Montage Editing Also called thematic or complexity editing Impressionistic sequences of disconnected scenes designed to communicate feelings or experiences Synthesis of shots creates new meaning ie ABC Can be cost effective way to provide lots of information in short period of time Commonly used in TV commercials and music videos Electronic Field ProductionColor and Temp of Light a Color Temperature o Relative redness or blueness of light as measured in degrees Kelvin o The bluer the light the higher the color temperature White light 0 Consists of roughly equal parts of all the wavelengths Use a prism to see all wavelengths o 3200 kreddish light source o 5400 kbluish light source o 4500 kgreenblue light source o Why doesn t the human eye perceive these color differences 0 The eye adjusts to the colors automatically using a process called approximate color consistency o Approximate color consistently you know the paper is white so you see it as white despite its bluish or reddish hue o Video camera not as smart as human eye must be told how to reproduce proper colors 0 White balance camera to accomplish this 0 Select correct filter 3200 5600 or 5600ND Point camera at something white hit the white balance button Tells that camera that under these lighting conditions this is the color white Once camera knows that information it can accurately reproduct all other colors 0 Must rewhite balance anytime your lighting conditions change a Television Lighting o Normal TV lighting or quartz lighting has a color temperature of 3200 degrees Kelvin Has a higher percentage of red o Outdoor lighting averages about 5600 degrees Kelvin This means it has a higher percentage of blue o Fluorescent light has spikes in both the green and blue parts of the spectrum The average color temperature of fluorescent light is 4500 degrees Kelvin This makes it a problem for the video camera a Characteristics of Light o Light coherence o Defines the hardness or softness of light the harder the light the more coherence it has 0 o Hard light vs Soft light 0 Hard light analogous to sunny day Transmitted from small source Sharply defined beam of light Produces sharply defined shadows 0 Soft light analogous to cloudy day light is spread out over large areadiffused light o Falloff Transmitted from large light source often reflected Hides surface detail Broad even light producing fewer shadows 0 Brightness contrast from light to shadow described by how fast it happens Hard light is said to have fast falloff because of the rapid change from light to shadow Soft light is said to have slow falloff because the change from light to shadow is more gradual o Principles ofTV lighting 0 3point or triangle lighting Consists of 3 lights key light fill light back light a Key light o Main light used c Provides surface and form details o Usually a hard light producing distinct shadows o Ideally 45 degrees up and off camera axis a Fill light Soft light o Used to reduce though not eliminate shadows from key light o Placed opposite key light but only 30 degrees vertical angle a Back light o Separate subject from background o Provides depth in the scene O o Placed directly behind talent and on a 45 degree vertical angle Lighting ratios 21 ratios a Key light to fill light should be a 21 ratio for most lighting means that key light is twice as bright as fill light a For dramatic lighting it is usually a 51 ratio 151 n Backlight to key light should be a 151 ratio for most lighting means that back light is 15 times brighter than key light a Some lighting people disagree with this ratio don t like the back light that s hot Flat Lighting 0 O 0 Lighting ratios of 11 for all lights Used on sets like CNN because of the large number of different people that must be lit throughout the day Generally uninteresting way to light because of the lack of depth Electronic Field ProductionComposition n Composition and Visualization o The controlled ordering of elements in a scene designed to bring about a clear communication of an intended message Whittaker 0 Static composition the basic content of still and video images 0 Dynamic composition considers effect of camera movement and movement within the frame o Elements of Composition 0 Aspect ratioratio of screen width to screen height 4x3 aspect ratio in US screen is wider than it is tall works OK with horizontal subject matter and not as well with vertical subject matter ex can t see all of Chrysler building 16x9 aspect ratio may come with High Definition Television more like movie screen a Better for panoramic scenes Both aspect ratios are good for CU shots of people 0 Leading line linear element that leads viewer from foreground into main subject of the image can also lead viewer out o Regardless of aspect ratio life size images are reduced on the screen 0 Overscan vs Underscan Computer monitors underscan show entire image and leave a border around the screen Video monitors overscan use more of the screen than you can see Due to overscanning some of the picture information is lost as it travels to home TV set must account for this in composing shots n The inner 8590 percent of the pictureis in the essential area and will likely be seen on the home TV set 0 Video space what the camera actually sees May be many elements out of the camera s view only concerned with what the camera can see in a particular shot Requires attention to what is in the frame 0 Headroom and chin room Head room space between top of frame and top of head Chin room space between bottom of chin and bottom of frame Rule you need more chin room than head room Rule the wider the shot the more head room and chin room necessary o Rules of Composition 0 Rule of thirds Divide screen with horizontal and vertical line like tic tactoe board and place objects of interest on the intersections Use the horizontal and vertical lines for dominant horizontal and vertical elements in frame Center of interest on a cross point Use both horizontal and vertical elements 0 180 rule or axis of action Rule that guides shooting interviews camera must not cross the red line Done properly it appears that the subject and the reporter are looking at each other during the interview Breaking the 180 rule creates false reverse 0 Creating depth TV is 2 dimensional medium height and width but no depth Always strive to create depth or the illusion of depth Z axis key to creating illusion of depth imaginary line that extends from the camera lens to the horizon Overlapping planes n Object partially covers others a We perceive thing doing the covering as being closer a Look for foreground and background objects to frame scene Relative screen size n Objects of similar size appear closer together a Objects of dissimilar size appear farther apart a Manipulated via Focal Length amp Camera to Object Distance Linear perspective a Prominent horizontal lines should follow Z axis Selective focus a Selecting one plane on the Z axis to be in focus while others are blurry Rack focus a Changing the focus from one plane on the Z axis to another Depth of Field 0 Range of items in frame that are in acceptable focus 0 Controlled by three factors Iris or aperture controls amount of light that enters the camera a Small iris openinggreater depth of field identified by higher numbers ie F22 is a smaller opening than F8 a Large iris openingless depth of field identified by smaller numbers ie F28 is a larger opening than F8 Focal length measured in millimeters how zoomed in or out is the picture long focal length means the lens is zoomed in a Short focal lengthwide angle shot and greater depth of field identified by smaller numbers such as 22 mm a Long focal lengthlens zoomed in far and less depth of field identified by numbers such as 80 mm as opposed to 22 mm Cameratosubject distance a Subject far away from cameragreater depth of field a Subject close to cameraess depth of field Electronic Field ProductionDig Video and N L Editing a Analog vs Digital Video Analog video literally electrical signals that vary constantly Digital video conversion of analog signals into binary form Digits represent quantities and digits in a rapid sequence represent varying quantities Digitizing the conversion of an analog signal to a digital signal a Computer Basics o Pixel short for picture element The smallest unit of video information Each pixel has a red green and blue dot o Bit the smallest piece of information the digital world Short for binary digit o Bit depth the number of bits shored with each pixel Sometimes called pixel depth The higher the bit depth the greater number of colors available 0 8 bit color256 total colors available 0 16 bit color65536 total colors available 0 24 bit color16777216 total colors available 0 full color digital video uses 24 bit color Each pizel gets 24 bits or 3 bypes of information a Digital Video Basics o Screen size digital video can be displayed indifferent screen sizes Calculate screen size by multiplying the number of horizontal pixels by the number of vertical pixels 0 720x486 NTSC D1 standard used by Avid 0 640x480 full screen 0 320x240 half screen 0 160x120 quarter screen o Frame rate the number of frames per second fps in a video signal Normal full motion video is 30 fps The more frames per second the smoother the playback of the video 0 Full screen full color full motion video requires 276 MB per second a Compression literally a reduction in volume and to force into less space o Reasons to compress 0 Simply reduce the amount of data necessary to work with digital video 0 To allow large amounts of data to pass through small pathways data buses on computers o 2 methods for compression 0 Lossless no data is permanently lost 0 Lossy some portion of the original data is lost o Types of compression 0 Intraframe compressing an individual frame of video Designed for still images Look for similar pixels and eliminate redundancy Lossless infraframe compression adjacent duplicate pixels done in shorthand less data required for storage Lossy intraframe compression takes average for vertical pairs requires even less data 0 Interframe examine changes from one frame to the next to see which pixels are the same Designed for motion video Looks at the changes that occur between frames of moving images Subsequent frames evaluated on basis of previous frame Each frame compared to previous frame only data that differs is stored works well for moving video o Compression rates 0 A ratio of original file size to compressed file size 0 The higher to compression ratio the lower the quality of the video It becomes a tradeoff between available space and desired quality a NonLinear Editing o Linear editing begins with anything stored on tape analog tape or digital tape 0 Requires you to move sequentially through the project from start to finish must move in a straight line much like typing a paper on a typewriter o Typical Nonlinear system AnalngDvgua nev Input mgtal Dex a Inputs venturerrecurds an remuvatde a AwdIkegamw Jmnt hard msk nr e n m Dackrlvcas ct Space new mmutes ct W120 a other Cumunnents Ana ngD Q ta Cnnverterrnecessarv mt memzmu deartvwcaHv a card thatmuus mm the Enter CumuuterrusuaHv a dad eeted man we Reqmres Large hard drwe Bf Ram and hard drwe accemratnrsr 35 ct RAM and 35 ca Bf hard drwe s rage Advantages ct Nunshnear emth a Retem uuehtv a r mu t u e eenereuuns nereesed speed and ewbmtv a AH ewements ct snpmsueetem emth m we bux a Change eemems thhnut stertme aver Ease Bf mump e Drulect versmns o More tracks of video and audio to manipulate 0 Many complex effects easy to perform Disadvantages of Nonlinear editing 0 Must digitize footage before starting work 0 Some systems must render effects before you can see them 0 No long term storage solution except videotape 0 Video requires lots of storage space Nonlinear editing is just another tool for visual storytelling Old adage holds true garbage ingtgarbage out Like linear editing planning is still paramount Electronic Field ProductionInterviewing n Interviewing o Critical element to most programs o Two components to successful interviews 0 Content 0 Technical o Content of the interview 3 subcategories 0 Preparation Why interviewing this person Become expert on subject matter of interview and person interviewing Plan questions and responses a Open ended questions U Know what answers you re looking for n Unexpected responses 0 Structure of the interview Order of questions Supply questions in advance a Depends on situation never in news a Want unrehearsed answers a Ok to provide topic areas but not specific questions 0 Conducting the interview Put subject at ease Have subject say and spell name Ask subject to incorporate your questions into answers Listen carefully to responses n Listen to be polite n Listen for the sound bite think like an editor Use of silence as interviewing tool a People will fill void of silence n Often get best sound bites being silent n Ethical considerations Finishing interview a Cutaways or broll of subject a When air how get a copy etc a No editorial control o Technical side to the interview 0 Location Outdoors vs indoors n Outdoors o Less set up time o Easy to interview many people in short period of time o Lighting can be difficult to control o Sound can be difficult to control n Indoors o Better control of lighting o Better control of sound environments o Must move furniture and rearrange offices o More set up time Backgrounds n Avoid distractions a May have to create backgrounds 0 Set up time o Interviewing more than one person at a time Generally doesn t work well especially for beginners Electronic Field ProductionPackage Construction a Story Structure o How do you approach a story 0 Define the focus 0 Write the lead beginning 0 Provide information main points middle Main point A Main point B Main point C Main point C 0 Write the close END o Some storytelling techniques 0 Use concrete details rather than vague adjectives 0 Use dialogue when possible and appropriate 0 Set a scene 0 Use action verbs o Ovserve or ask questions using all your senses 0 Tell a story like a plot with a beginning middle and end Get a chronology or sequence of events You may want to use chronology in all or part of your story Even if you don t use chronological order you need to understand the sequence of events 0 Follow Mark Twain s advice Don t say the old lady screamed bring her on and let her scream o Specific story structures 0 Problemsolution 0 Time sequence 0 Hourglass 0 Circle Electronic Field Production How TV WorksLive Shots a TV Systems and Standards o TV works through the illusion of motion 0 Early research demonstrated that still images shown at a certain frame rate presented the illusion of motion o Video travels at 30 frames per second in the US o Film moves at 24 frames per second o National Television Standards Committee NTSC o Television system used in the US 0 4x3 aspect ratio TV picture is 4 units wide by 3 units high 0 30 frames per second TV has 60 fields per second of 2 fields per frame Scanning in fields helps reduce flicker and brightness variations Scanning is interlaced a Means that all odd numbered lines are scanned first then the even numbered lines as they scan the lines are interlaced o 525 lines 35 reserved for blanking information The picture is composed of 525 individual lines o Scanned in fields 0 Other TV systems PAL Phase Alternating Line a 625 lines of resolution a 4x3 aspect ratio a 25 frames per seconds scanned infields n Slight variations in color a Used in parts of Europe Africa Middle East and South America a More lines means better resolution a Fewer frames mean more flicker SECAM Sequential Color and Memory n 625 lines of resolution a 4x3 aspect ratio a 25 frames per seconds scanned in fields n u used in parts of France and some other parts of Europe parts of Middle East and Africa More lines means better resolution Fewer frames mean more flicker HDTV High Definition Television n n n n n n n n Converting Film to TV 16x9 aspect ratio A digital system Several levels of resolution like high quality computer monitors with 720 or 1080 lines of resolution Ranges from 24 to 60 frames per second progressive or interlaced scanning Uses MPEG2 compression to squeeze 10 megapit per second data flow down to standard 6 MHz TV signal Six channels of Dolby AC3 digital surround sound Similar to wide screen movie o Converting film to NTSC video 0 Cannot simply squeeze it down 0 Two techniques widely used today Pan and scan Letterbox n n Transmission Signals Letterbox is better or cropping crimes o Basic 4 part TV signal 0 Luminance BampW part of the signal Black level pedestal setup Gain y gain lum brightness o Chrominance color part of signal Saturation hut 0 Audio mono or stereo 0 Timing and blanking pulses Timing pulses keep al video equipment in step Blanking pulses blank out the scanning so that it can return and start a new line n Composite vs Component o Composite combines luminance and chrominance into one signal o Component video separates luminance from chrominance and transmits them separately different formats for doing this 0 Common forms Betacam Y RY BY Computer video R G B o Component formats yield higher quality a The Live Shot o Types 0 Live news reports Present breaking news or used to convey immediacy Puts news coverage team on the scene Research shows that audience doesn t care about whether news is live unless breaking story with major impact like May 3 tornadoes Generally overused what else to do with all that technology 0 Live remote interviews Present interviews of outoftown officials Most commonly members of congress or other public officials Interviewee generally sits in small room and states at camera and has earpiece connected to phone line generally cannot see the people conducting interview Requires mix minus feed to avoid audio delay problems 0 Variation on Pooled coverage Pooled coverage means using one production team to cover event rather than several teams from several stations production team is obligated to share footage Variation for some live shots is that same reporter does the same story for various stations across the country using sign off as if working for each station Differs from something like CNN feed o Technology 0 Microwave Requires line of sight Can bounce the signal Generally produce package geed it to station to live segment to lead into package station then rolls package do a live wrap after package Most common method for local stations 0 Satellite Send signal up to satellite Necessary when you cannot get line of sight Anyone can see it Generally product package feed it to station do live segment to lead into package station then rolls package do a live wrap after package More trucks with onboard editing capabities 0 Fiber optics Signal represented as light Requires land line wiring Increasing in popularity and availability 0 Computers and wireless phones Digital photos sent over phone lines o Behind the Scenes 0 Collecting audio Most major events will have mut box a box with several audio jacks to collect audio from the event Sometimes have to use own mic and add it to podium use Rowi clamp 0 Use of platforms for cameras Get cameras up higher to see over audience Can be very shaky o Shattering illusions How to they get those great outdoor live shots in DC DC live shots n In several locations around Capitol and in White House several metal boxes on a wall nearby n Inside box are several video audio and telephone connections electrical power is also nearby o All boxes are connected to extensive fiber optic network that carries all the data to central distribution point Hearing rooms are wired pool feeds and spray shooting only Capitol Hill press rooms a Several studios designed just for the media and the members complete with boxes on walls for live connections lighting already in place White House press room a Lighting in place seats with brass nameplates for organizations shotgun mics in ceiling to pick up audio on questions
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