Principles of Communication
Principles of Communication COMM 1113
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COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total Chapter 10 Intercultural Communication 7 De nitions ofculture amp 39 39 39 I O O O O O p 312 and coculture p 317 Culture is a way of life developed and shared by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation Intercultural communication is communication between members of different cultures whether de ned in terms of racial ethnic or socioeconomic differences Coculture is a culture within the larger culture p 317 High and LowContext Cultures p 320 Individualism is the tendency of people in a given culture to value individual identity over group identity individual rights over group rights and individual achievements over group concerns Collectivism is the tendency of people in a given culture to value group identity over the individual identity group obligations over individual rights and ingrouporiented concerns over individual wants and desires High context cultures are cultures where the members are more skilled in reading nonverbal behaviors and they assume that other people will be able to do so They speak less than members of lowcontext cultures and they listen more in general their communication tends to be indirect and less explicit Low context cultures are cultures where the members stress direct and explicit communication and emphasize verbal messages and the shared information they encode 7 Power Distance 12 321 MasculineFeminini p 321 1 O O O 7 What is F 39 O 0 Power distance refers to the degree to which people accept authority and hierarchical organization as a natural part of their culture Masculine cultures value work strength competition and assertiveness Feminine cultures place more value on such traits as affection compassion nurturing and interpersonal relationships and tend to be more uid 39 7 p 333 Stereotvpin p 335 Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge the values customs behaviors or other aspects of another culture in terms of those that our own cultural group regards as desirable or ideal Stereotyping guides defensive projections that is seeing our own undesirable qualities in other people Chapter 11 Interviewing 7 Difference between O O u 39 and I 39 quot 39 Interviews pp 362363 Standardized interviews consist of a set of prepared questions from which the interviewer is not allowed to deviate Unstandardized interviews allow the interviewer as well as the respondent considerable latitude 7 Open versus Closed Interview Questions p 364 Primarv versus Probing Interview Questions p 366 O O O 0 Open interview questions place no restrictions on the length of the respondent s answer and resemble essay questions on a test Closed interview questions are more speci c and usually require a shorter more direct answer Primary interview questions introduce new topics in the interview Secondary or probing interview questions are followups to primary questions and are intended to elicit elaboration from the interviewee 7 Leading versus Neutral Interview Questions p 367 Loaded Questions p 367 Henfut hints O O 0 Leading interview questions explicitly or implicitly suggest a desired answer Neutral interview questions do not explicitly or implicitly suggest a desired answer Loaded questions stack the deck by implying the desired answer Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 7 Types of39 39 responses pp 370371 0 No AnswerRefusing to answer or saying nothing at all 0 Partial AnswerGiving a partial answer to a question 0 Irrelevant AnswerGiving an irrelevant answer because of a misunderstood question or by making a conscious effort to avoid answering it o Inaccurate AnswerGiving an inaccurate answer usually if revealing the truth would be embarrassing o Oververbalized AnswerTelling the interviewer much more than he or she wants to know Chapter 12 Small Group Communication 7 Differences between problemsolving taskoriented groups casual or social groups and learning or educational groups p 387 o Problemsolving taskoriented groupsSolve problems and are task oriented 0 Casual or social groupsWe continue and extend our primarygroup relationships to causal or social groups 0 Learning or educational groupsAttempt to teach or learn something about a given subject 7 What is the risky shift 39 7 p 391 What is quot 39 p 392 o Risky shift phenomenonThe tendency of people to increase their willingness to take risks as a result of group discussions 0 GroupthinkWhen the judgment of other people affects our attitudes beliefs and values as well as our perceptions 7 The 4 Phases of Group Development 1 Forming 2 Storming 3 Norming amp 4 1 Performing amp what happens in each stage pp 4004021 0 Forming is when members begin the process of separating themselves from attachments that could interfere with the group and attempt to learn about the group andor other members usually lasts anywhere from one day to several weeks 0 Storming is the assertion of individuality often in response to feelings of being swallowed up by the group o Norming is marked by several levels of balance in response to the storming phase Individuality and groupness balance group goals and individual goals balance and the role of the leader and leader s authority are de ned 0 Performing is the period of consensus and maximum productivity Dissent is very out of place group spirit is high and a great deal of mutual back patting takes place 7 What is nominal group technique NGT p 414 0 Nominal group technique or NGT circumvents some of the problems of groupthink such as the focus effect and the illusion of anonymity The NGT has six phases I Silent independent generation of ideas written on paper I A roundrobin listing of ideas on a large newsprint page so everyone can see I A discussion or clari cation of points but without critique I Everyone individually rates the ideas I A clari cation of the vote I Final ranking of ideas Chapter 13 Public Communication 7 What are the dimensions of credibili 426 Extrinsic Credibili vs Intrinsic Credibili 428 429 o The dimensions of credibility are Herpfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMlVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total I Authoritativeness Also known as expertise refers to the speaker s perceived command of a given subject7how intelligent informed competent and prestigious we think the speaker is 0 Character Refers to the speaker s perceived intentions and trustworthiness7how objective reliable well motivated and likeable the speaker seems to be Extrinsic Credibility is the credibility a source is thought to have prior to the time he or she delivers the message 0 Intrinsic Credibility is the image that a speaker creates as a direct result of his or her speech 0 7 What are the 4 modes of delivery I 39 39 39 amp pp 433 M 0 Modes of delivery refer to the amount of preparation and the type of presentation a speaker employs There are 4 modes of delivery I Impromptu delivery describes the speech presented with little preparation in essence the speaker stands in front of a crowd and thinks out loud Manuscript delivery describes the speech having been completely prepared this is the most formal mode of delivery Memorized delivery describes the speech having been planned out entirely beforehand written in manuscript and then committed to memory Extemporaneous delivery combines the advantages of careful speech outlining and planning with the spontaneity of impromptu speaking the speaker uses minimal notes preferably on small cards 7 Audience Analvsis what is the difference between 39 39 39 analvsis p 436 amp purposeoriented analysis p 4391 0 Demographic analysis When the speaker rst considers some general characteristic of the audience members7age sex 1 39 39 39 39 39 l 39 39 39 level education religion and so on These known characteristics suggest inferences about the audience s beliefs attitudes and values Such inferences are then used to gear the message to what seems to be the audience s level and interests The speaker adapts hisher argument for maximum impact 0 Purposeoriented analysis The speaker begins by asking himself or herself what information about the audience is most important for the speaker s purposes 7 Difference between assimilation effect amp contrast effect p 457 o Assimilation effect The listener assimilates or accepts the change in attitude urged by the Speaker 0 Contrast effect The speaker elicits a negative reaction on the part of the listener can be used instrumentally or accidentally 7 What is the difference between a onesided argument amp a twosided argument When is it best to use each pp 4574581 0 Onesided argument If you audience is initially receptive to a message and are unlikely to hear any arguments opposing it onesided arguments are most effective In this case your effort would probably be directed toward reinforcing existing attitudes rather than changing values Twosided argument If the audience is likely to be skeptical or hostile to the speaker s point of view or will hear later arguments opposing it a twosided argument approach will probably be more effective A twosided argument is prepared by listing the pros and cons of your subject and trying to anticipate the objections of the skeptical listener Once you make a list you will nd evidence that refutes or substantiates the arguments against you You present the rst points and acknowledge the extent to which the objections are 0 Herpfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMlVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total invalid and do not negate your main arguments You then go on to cite evidence supporting your side of the issue 7 Inoculation Theog 1p 458 If taking Dr Banas s section this is EXTREMELY important since he studies this professionally Chapter 14 G 39 quot O Inoculation Theory Inoculation is more effective than support in building up resistance because listeners exposed to a weak version of the counterarguments tend to develop an immunity to later arguments favoring that side F A 7 4 Predominant Types of Culture amp Leadership S les that go with each p 4701 O O 7 3 Functions 0 ToughGuyMacho Culture Typical of highrisk organizations such as police departments and among surgeons since they deal with life and death Other examples are the movie industry management consulting sports construction and venture capital rms where fortunes are made and lost WorkHardPlayHard Culture Focus on sales and on meeting customers needs Mary Kay Cosmetics McDonald s Xerox HewlettPackard IBM and FritoLay are examples Salestype organizations also celebrate a lot to keep up their energy and motivation BetYourCompany Culture Requires that you endure high risks but slow feedback Big oil companies invest millions in exploration before seeing their success or failure Boeing spends billions to develop a new aircraft The same is true with NASA Mining companies military organizations and architectural rms are examples Process Culture Lowrisk slowfeedback Most governmental organizations utilities and heavily regulated industries like pharmaceutical rms fall into this category Employees in these cultures rarely see the results of their work They focus on the processes of how things get done Even the most trivial event can become the subject of a memo Numerous memos are written just to Cover Your Ass Known for its long rambling meetings 39 39 Derforms in DD 473474 The Command Function Communication allows members to issue receive interpret and act on commands Two types of communication that makes up this function are directions and feedback and the goal is the successful in uence of other members of the organization The outcome is coordination amount the interdependent members of the organization The Relational Function Communication allows members of the organization to create and maintain productive business and personal relationships with other members of the organization Relationships on the job affect job performance in many ways Job satisfaction the ow of communication both up and down the organizational hierarchy and the degree to which commands are follow can all be affected The AmbiguityManagement Function Choices in an organizational setting are often made 11 highly ambiguous circumstances Multiple motivations exist given that choices affect coworkers the organization and oneself the organization s objectives may not be clear and the context within which the choice needs to be made may be unclear 7 3 Groups for Change Strategies Packaging p 4881 Involvement pp 488489 amp Process p 4891 Helpful hints O 0 Packaging The most frequent and successful change effort is to package your idea as part of the overall business strategy Involves presenting the ideas with data and carefully prepared charts that convey a logical argument to show how this effort will support the bottom line The second most frequently used packaging technique is persistence Most ideas that get accepted have to be pitched to top leaders many times in many contexts before they are accepted Involvement Most leaders know that people support what they help to create Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 Process Utilizing effective timing is perhaps the most important process skill Also you have to go to the key people who may not be the designated leaders but who have a lot of respect An organization must have effective upward communication if it is to survive 7 3 Types ofMessage Change leveling 2 sharpening amp 3 assimilation gp 4951 o Leveling The process whereby some details are omitted Not all the details of a message are interesting to relate so people tend to get to the point as soon as possible leaving out what they consider the extraneous details 0 Sharpening The exaggeration of certain parts of rumor o Assimilation The way people distort messages to accord with their own view of things Chapter 15 Mass Communication and the New Technologies 7 What is a Gatekeeper 1p 508 What is a Unilateral gp 5111 o Gatekeeper A person who by selecting changing andor rejecting messages can in uence the ow of information to a receiver or group of receivers o Unilateral Independent journalists 7 Opinion leaders and their relation to the twostep ow model p 518 0 Opinion leader Someone who through daytoday personal contacts and communication in uences someone else s opinions and decisions fairly regularly o Twostep ow model Information is passed from the various mass media to certain opinion leaders and from these leaders to other people within the population 7 Difference between selective exposure amp selective attention p 5201 o Selective exposure The tendency to choose communication that will con rm your own opinions attitudes or values 0 Selective Attention The receiver processes certain of the available stimuli while ltering out others 7 Cultivation theog amp mean world syndrome 1p 535 What is a thirdperson effect gp 5361 o Cultivation theory The greater the amount of television you watch the more your worldview comes to accord with the beliefs values and attitudes you see on the screen People with heavy viewing habits come to share the mainstream views that television presents 0 Mean World Syndrome The set of attitudes that the world is a relatively mean and dangerous place 0 ThirdPerson Effect We perceive others as more in uenced by media content than we are ourselves Chapter 16 Organizing and Outlining the Speech 7 Difference between main and minor points p 566 Parallel Structure p 5661 0 Main points All the broad general ideas and information that support your central idea 0 Minor points The speci c ideas and information that support the main points 0 Parallel Structure Each of your points will be in the same grammatical form 7 Patterns of Organization Time Order 1p 568 Spatial Order 1p 569g CauseandEffect Order 1p 570g ProblemSolution Order 13 570 Topical Order 13 572 0 Time order or chronological order Used to show development over time Works particularly well when you want to use a historical approach 0 Spatial order You refer to a physical or geographical layout to help your audience see how the parts make up the whole 0 CauseandEffect order Divides a speech into two major parts7cause why something is happening and effect what impact it is having Helpful hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 ProblemSolution order Divides a speech into two sections One part deals with the problem and the other with the solution 0 Topical order Used when your subject can be grouped logically into subtopics 7 Difference between fullsentences and keyword outlines gp 5731 0 Full sentences outlines A complete map of what the speech will look like 0 Keyword outlines Give only the important words and phrases their main function is to remind the speaker of his or her ideas when delivering the speech 7 Ways to get attention in the introduction pp 5745771 Ways to conclude your speech pp 5785791 0 There are many ways to get attention in the introduction of a speech I Using Humor Research shows that speeches with some humor produce a more favorable reaction to the speaker I Use an example Short examples often work quite well in introductions They may be personal or they could have happened to someone else I Refer to the occasion Make a reference to the special occasion you are speaking over or on the special occasion that your speech happens to fall on if it falls on any at all I Show the Importance of the Subject Show the audience that the subject is important to their own lives is an easy way to get and keep attention I Use Startling Information Using information that startles or surprises your audience is a good device for gaining attention I Use Personal Examples Referring to your own life makes a speech stronger because it is a way of showing that you know what you re talking about I Use a Quotation Sometimes you can nd a quotation that will get your speech off to a good start 0 There are also many ways to conclude your speech I Summarize your main ideas I Include a quotation A quotation gives authority to everything you have said and it can often help sum up your main ideas Inspire Your Audience to Action Use your conclusion to tell audience members precisely what they should do Additional Tips for Conclusions 0 Work on your conclusion until you feel you can deliver it without notes If you feel con dent about delivering your conclusion you will feel more con dent about delivering your entire speech If you tell your audience you are going to conclude do it Don t set up the expectation and then talk for several more minutes Don t let the words Thank you or Are there any questions take the place of a conclusion 0 Give your conclusion and leave the speaking area if appropriate If you don t do this you will ruin the impact of your conclusion and perhaps your entire speech Chapter 17 Delivering the Speech 7 What is publicspeakin anxietv p 596 0 Public speaking anxiety is nervousness about delivering a speech There are several time tested ways of dealing with public speaking anxiety I Be Prepared I Be Positive I Visualize I Anticipate I Focus Herpfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total I Gain Experience 7 What is 39 39 quality p 598 What is 39 quot p 600 o Conversational quality You talk to your audience in much the same way that you talk when you are having a conversation with another person 0 Immediacy The communicator is completely focused on the communication situation 7 What aspects should a speaker consider regarding How You Look pp 6036041 0 Appearance Walk to the lectern with confidence Look interested in giving a speech Stay away from clothing that might distract from your speech avoid tshirts with writing on them and accessories you might be tempted to play with IF it s a formal occasion wear dressup clothing if it s informal wear what you think everyone else will wear If you don t know ask the person who asked you to speak Body Language Use movement7it attracts attention more than a speaker who stands still however it should be carefully coordinated with your speech To stress your most important point you might indicate this nonverbally by moving closer to your audience If you want to create intimacy between you and your audience as you are telling a personal story you could sit on the edge of the desk for a brief period Avoid movement that might be distracting Do not walk back and forth across the room this is seen as nervousness Eye Contact Make much eye contact If you do not it might be understood as dishonesty or having something to hide Facial Expression Look like someone you would like to listen to Think of your speech as an opportunity to share some important information with people who really care Gestures Use hand and arm gestures to emphasize or express ideas or emotions Posture The way you sit in your seat rise and walk to the lectern and return to your seat after the speech can leave as much of an impression as the posture you use during your speech 0 O O OO 7 What is pace in ection amp p 605 39 39 quot 39 quot P 39 39 p 606 0 Pace How fast or how slowly a person speaks In ection The change in pitch used to emphasize certain words and phrases Monotone Never varying your speaking voice Enunciation Made up of articulation and pronunciation Articulation The ability to pronounce the letters in a word correctly 0 Pronunciation The ability to pronounce the whole word 7 What are the different types of visual support pp 607612 0 The Chalkboard or whiteboard The most accessible visual support Works particularly well for writing keywords or phrases drawing very simple diagrams and giving URLs for speech material Write quickly to avoid having you back to the audience any longer than necessary Once you have the word or diagram on the board turn around stand next to it and as you explain point to it with your hand Make sure your writing is large and clear enough for the entire audience to read The Actual Object Audience members like to see what you are talking about especially if the object is unfamiliar to them Models A model is a replica of an actual object that is used when the object itself is too large to be displayed a building too small to be seen a cell or inaccessible to the eye the human heart IT shows exactly how something looks It is better than a picture because it is threedimensional Posters Diagrams and Charts The purpose of a poster is to enhance the speaker s subject or to emphasize the keywords or important thoughts in a speech Diagrams may range from a simple organizational chart to a threedimensional one An organizational chart shows the relationships among the elements of an organization such as the 0000 O O O 114pr hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 O O O O departments of a company the branches of federal or state governments or the committees of the student government A ip chart is a series of pictures words diagrams and so forth It is best used when you want to emphasize several points in your speech Tables and Graphs Are easy to prepare and can condense a lot of information into a useful understandable form Anyone can make this visual support because no special skills are required Tables are columns of gures arranged in an order that enables the viewer to easily pick out the information needed Graphs are used to present statistical material in a visual form that helps viewers see similarities differences relationships or trends There are three commonly used types of graphs bar pie and lines A line graph is particularly useful for showing trends over a period of time or for making comparisons Computer Graphics Any images created or manipulated via computeriart drawings representations of objects pictures and the like Computers are best for processing numerical data and then converting that data into bar line or pie graphs Perhaps the most important advice regarding your slides is to make them readable Use no more than siX words horizontally and use no more than siX items on a pageiless than that if possible This results in a slide that conveys its meaning readily and it will help ensure that the slide can be seen by the people farthest away One essential element in any slide presentation is visual variety Use diagrams owcharts and graphs to illustrate your ideas You can get additional visual variety thourhg the use of multimediaivarious media sound graphics and animation as well as teXt used to deliver information Videos If you are making a long speech a preprogrammed video can be a very good visual reinforcement of what you are saying Handouts When material is complex or when there is a lot of it audience members may need a handout If you use handouts choose the best time to pass them out If you distribute them too early your audience will read them and ignore you Most people like having a handout read to them If your handout repeats the points you are making give it out when your speech is over PowerPoint The most widely used program is Microsoft s PowerPoint PP It provides tools for creative multimedia presentations that combine teXt graphics video and sound it lends itself to a wide variety of speech applications and it is easy to use Never turn to read PowerPoint information to listeners this defeats the effectiveness and use of PowerPoint I Use bullets not numbers Never include full paragraphs of teXt I No more than one topic per slide I No more than siX words horizontally no more than siX items on a page I Select a readable typeface and size Minimum 36point font for titles and 24 points for other information Avoid using all caps it makes it look like you re shouting Use the same colors consistently throughout the presentation Always choose light letters on a dark background Keep the background simple and allow plenty of space around words and images Include a combination of words pictures and graphics This keeps the presentation interesting 7 What are the rules for using visual support p 613 114pr hints O O 0 Use visual support to supplement not replace the speech It should be a useful addition to reinforce the speech Show the visual support only when you are ready for it You don t want it to compete with you for attention Before your speech check the room to see if your visual support can be easily displayed Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 Practice with your Visual support before the speech Be able to operate all necessary equipment quickly and easily Check how much time your support takes Don t let it take up too much time 0 Talk to the audience not the visual Maintain eye contact with your audience while using the Visual aid Chapter 18 The Informative Speech 7 What is an informative speech p 622 g What are the goals of an Informative Speaker pp 6236251 0 Informative speech One that de nes clari es instructs and explains o The goals of an Informative Speaker are I Increasing Understanding by 0 Language choice 0 Organization 0 Illustrations and Examples I Getting Attention I Helping Retention 7 Types of Informative Speeches pp 625656 Strategies for Informative Speeches pp 6276301 0 Types of Informative Speeches Objects These are about things people places animals and products You cannot discuss these topics completely because of time restraint Focus your attention on some aspect of your topic I Processes These deal with patterns of action One type is demonstration speech a speech that teaches people how to perform a process Limit your information to just what can be explained clearly and completely in the time you are allowed I Events These focus on things that happened are happening or will happen They need to go one step farther than history and show listeners how they can use the information I Concepts These deal with theories ideas beliefs and other abstract principles It is important to be clear and understandable 0 Strategies for Informative Speeches Usually at least two will be used I De ning Explaining the meaning of a word or phrase Can often make a critical difference in whether your audience understands your speech Four ways to de ne concepts in a speech are by etymology example comparison and contrast and function 0 Etymology The study of the origin and development of words Can be used as a basis for de nition Example Illustrates a point Often either points to an actual thing or points out something verbally Comparison and Contrast Comparisons point out similarities between two or more things Contrasts point of the differences between two or more things 0 Function Showing how a thing performs or how it can be used Speakers may stress an object s usefulness advantages bene ts convenience or service I Describing Provide a mental image of something experiences such as a scene a person or a sensation 0 Size or quantity Size is the measurement or extent of a thing when compared with some standard 0 Shape The outward form con guration or contour of a thing Helpful hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMlVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 Weight The heaviness of a mass object or thing Relate your topic to something from the audience s own experience 0 Color 0 Composition A description of the makeup of a thing I Explaining The process of making something clear 0 Using Numbers 0 If numbers are unusual or surprising explain why Round off large numbers Try to convert them to percentages if you have a lot of numbers Try to replace numbers with words Try to relate numbers to something familiar Try to compare numbers Use graphs and visual aids to make numbers more concrete Connecting the Known with the Unknown If you subject is unfamiliar relate it to something the audience already knows Repeating and Reinforcing Ideas Repetition helps listeners remember key points however if overdone the speaker may bore the audience In your intro tell your audience what you plan to tell them in the body of your speech In your body of your speech tell your listeners your full message and explain the points In your conclusion tell your listeners what you told them in the body of your speech 00000 0 O 7 How to you get listeners involved pp 634635 0 You get listeners involved by I Getting the Audience to Participate I Asking Rhetorical Questions I Soliciting Questions from the Audience Make sure you listen to the full question before answering If a question is confusing ask the questioner to rephrase it If you are still confused rephrase it yourself before answering it In responding to questions try to keep your answers brief and to the point Ask Does this answer your question Chapter 19 The Persuasive Speech 39 65 7 What 1s ersuas1on 0 What is the difference between in uence amp motivation 651 o Persuasion The process of trying to get others to change their attitudes or behaviors 0 In uence The power of a person or thing to affect others7to produce effects without the presence of physical force 0 Motivation The stimulation or inducement that causes you to act 7 Values Beliefs amp Attitudes pp 652653 Strategies ofPersuasion pp 655665 0 Values Ideas we have about what is good and what is bad and how things should be Divide into two types I Instrumental values Guide people s daytoday behavior Examples are loyalty honesty friendliness courage kindness cleanliness thrift and responsibility Terminal values Finals goals that are or are not worth attaining Examples are Freedom World Peace Family security Inner harmony happiness safety personal security achievement progress enlightenment and patriotism o Beliefs Statements of knowledge opinion and faith These are generally easier to change than values 0 Attitudes Predispositions to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a person subject or situation Helpful hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 0 Some Strategies of Persuasion are Determine Your Purpose Why you are making your speech Examples are To get audience members to believe a certain way or to get audience members to act Analyze Your Audience You need to get good information about your audience s values beliefs and attitudes whenever possible You also need to analyze your audience to predict its response to your persuasive effort Selecting a target audience a subgroup of the entire audience that you must persuade to reach your goal can be helpful Appeal to your Audience Using Logic Addresses listeners reasoning ability Examples Using deductive reasoning moving from the general to the speci c casual reasoning A logical appeal that pertains to constitutes involves or expresses a cause and therefore uses the word because or reasoning by analogy Comparing two similar cases and conclude that if something is true for one it must be true for the other Appeal to your Audience Using Emotion Focuses on listeners needs wants desires and wishes Use Research to Prove Your Point Use a variety of sources it holds attention better Choose Your Language Carefully Stimulate the emotions of your listeners with special words Appeal to Your Audience Using Your Credibility Credibility or believeability has four qualities Competence Possesses special abilities skills or knowledge dynamism Showing enthusiasm and energy for the subject character Integrity honesty reliability loyalty and dependability and caring The perception by listeners that speakers are concerned about their welfare 7 What are questions of fact value and policy p 666 What are the 5 steps in the motivated sequence 1p 667 Mass Lectures O OO 0 Questions of fact Ask you to answer whether or not something is true or false Always answered Yes or No Questions of value Concerned with the relative merit goodness or badness or a thing Questions of policy Deal with speci c courses of action and usually contain words such as should ought to have to or must Motivated sequence A pattern of organization designed to persuade listeners to accept a point of view and then motivate them to take action Attention The speaker calls attention to the topic Need Develops the need for a change and explains related audience needs The problemdevelopment phase Satisfaction Presents the solution and shows how it meets the needs mentioned Visualization Shows what will result when the solution is put into effect Action Indicates what kind of action is necessary to bring about the desired change All iniarmatitm presented in mass lecture is air game or the exam Reter t0 the slide titles below Slides are also asted 0n D2L Onethird 0 the exam uestians will come 0m mass lecture material 6 In uence Part 1 1 Weapons of In uence Fixed action patterns Trigger features Human Automaticy trigger features of compliance 2 Reciprocation We should try to repay in kind what another person has provided us Helpful hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMTVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 3 Reciprocation Overpowering Uninvited debts unequal exchanges reciprocal concessions Reject thenretreat DITF sweet side effects 4 Commitment amp Consistency Once we make a choice or take a stand we will encounter personal and interpersonal pressures to behave consistently with that commitment 5 Commitment amp Consistency Commitment is key Active Public Effortful Internally Motivated Grow their own legs Low ball 5 Social Proof We view a behavior as correct in a given situation to the degree that we see others performing it 6 Social Proof Uncertainty Similarity Werther effect 7 In uence Part 2 1 Liking People prefer to say yes to individuals they know and like 2 Liking Physical attractiveness similarity compliments contact amp cooperation conditioning amp association 3 Authority A strong pressure exists to comply with the requests of an authority 4 Authori Milgram Allure and danger of blind obedience Symbols of authority Titles Clothes Trappings 5 Scarcitv Opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available 6 Scarcitv Limited numbers deadlines optimizing conditions 8 Intercultural 1 Introduction Culture and communication are fundamentally related more to culture than language many features of culture to study 2 Functions of Culture Performance script or schema Respeet for elders provides guidelines Way of organizing or interpreting experience Precocious vs disrespectful kid Means of participation an integrating cultural members separated by time and space Rituals reaffirm membership and emphasize values across generations and locations 3 Thinking S les Thinking styles can be analytic or holistic Can be traced back to philosophical roots of a culture Western cultures are grounded in Aristotelian logic Eastern cultures are rooted in Confucian Dialectics 4 Formal Logic vs Dialectics Three Laws of Formal Logic Law of Identity everything is identical with itself Law of noncontradiction law of the excluded middle search for truth Three principles of dialectical approach Principle of change Principle of contradiction Principle of relationship or holism Search for the Middle Way 5 Culture and Thinking S les Can be seen in our preferences Preferences should correspond to the think styles associated with culture Study of proverbs with Chinese and Americans 6 Cultural Theog of Plane Crashes Between 1988 and 1999 the loss rate for Korean Air was 17 times that of Western airlines In 1999 Delta and Air France suspended their ying partnerships with Korean Air Since 1999 Korean Air has a spotless record Currently Korean Air is as safe as any in the world 7 Power Distance The extent to which average individuals within a society accept power inequality and consider it normal Perceived status difference Acceptance of the differential privileges Dependence on people in power Leadership preferences 8 Mitigated speech Power distance is manifested in mitigated speech It is what we do when We are being polite We are ashamed or embarrassed We are being deferential to authority 9 Political 1 Inventing labels Language A key mechanism of control Liberal socialist free market Other examples Prolife vs Prochoice Defense Department Formerly War Dept uses terms low intensity con ict and collateral damage Public option vs Gov t option Hepfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples COMJVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total 2 Whv is political language so powerful Frame Semantics Theory that words automatically bring to mind bundles ofideas narratives emotions and images Eg TaX reliefquot Death tax vs estate tax 3 Innuendo AKA whisper campaigns Develop and repeat falsehoods Research demonstrates that candidate favorability declines when Headlines are directly incriminating Headlines question whether a candidate had performed an undesirable behavior Headlines denied candidate had performed an undesirable behavior 4 Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM Much political communication relies on heuristic processing Uninformedapathetic public Partisan audiences Nature of television coverage 5 Vivid Narratives Attracts attention Makes info more concrete and personal Directs and focuses thought Makes info more memorable 10 Mass Communication 1 Agenda Setting Media sources in uence perceptions about what are the important issues of the day Cohen 1963 media may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think abou agenda setting is the process whereby the news media lead the public in assigning relative importance to various public issues 2 Agenda Setting Model Ir39riaugbu ml 39llll llfpyi 39 quot i l an acmmlv Eur Cl Iraem 3 Contingency Factors Need for orientation Combination of high interest in an issue and high uncertainty about that issue high need for orientation should increase agenda setting effects Issue obtrusiveness how much direct experience do people have with an issue less issue obtrusiveness will increase agenda setting effects First vs Second Level Agenda Setting First level objects on the media and public agendas second level attributes of objects framing Cultivation Theog Theory about how television alters the way we view the world The invisible nature of television 6 Assumptions of Cultivation Theog The Nature of Television Pervasive Accessible Coherent The Nature of Viewing watch by the clock ritualistic and nonselective The cultivation effect Longterm and cumulative impact of TV on perceptions of reality Testing Cultivation Theory Content analysis the TV world Patterns of misrepresentation What is shown What is not Cultural indicators perceptions of the world Asking Factual questions Hegpfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples 4 V 5 V 7 V COMlVI 1113 Fall 2009 Exam 2 Review Sheet 75 Items 20 TrueFalse amp 55 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Points Each 150 Points Total about the world Taken Together Heavy TV viewers perceive the world to be like it appears on 1 1 Presentations 1 Presentation Importance While we make very few presentations the ones we do make matter a great deal Presentations are consequential Promotions and Leadership 2 Preparation is Eve thing 3 A Who is Attending Why are they attending What do they know Where are they from Whom do they know What are their interests WIIFM What are their hot buttons 4 B Where Preview the setting Your neighbors the equipment your materials Ask yourself What could go wrong Own your territopv What is present that isn t needed What could get in the way 5 C The Materials Imagine the worst Preparation of everything is key have backup materials How much should I prepare Know the norms and expectations of the group 6 DCliVC Essentials Introduction First few seconds really count prepare introduction listen to it Eye contact Connect with audience read the reaction vocal variety homer simpson rule 7 Message Clari Known your purpose Have a point and get to it Organize Chunk your message Use organizing cues advanced organizers transitional cues summarize and review offer material in a logical way 8 Using PowerPoint You are competing with all visuals what you put up will be read pointing avoid sound effects crazy fonts andor colors too much motion 12 Emotion 1 Introduction to Emotion Two principle components Autonomic Nervous System ANS Arousal CognitiveInterpretive System ANS triggers mean analysis Main Releaser of ANS Interruption of Ongoing activity particularly Organized behavior sequences and higherorder plans Introduction Continued Meaning analysis focuses attention to determine if action should be taken and if so the nature of that action In sum interruption gt arousal that in the absence of substitute responses gt develop in emotional experience Emotional E neriem e in Close 39 39 39 39 Interference with meshed sequences Emotional investment Paradox of positive emotion Control hypothesis Completion hypothesis Implications Relationship Implications Temporal course of passionate love Feelings vs Emotions Jealousy vs envy the Abnormal emotion Turmoilcloseness paradox N V W V 4 v Herpfut hints Know the key terms boldface words in each chapter that pertain to what content areas are on the review sheet Be able to recognize and apply terms and concepts to real life examples
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