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Public Speaking (HONORS)

by: Sabrina Cummings V

Public Speaking (HONORS) COMM 2613

Sabrina Cummings V
GPA 3.96

Kylie Robertson

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Kylie Robertson
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina Cummings V on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2613 at University of Oklahoma taught by Kylie Robertson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see /class/229304/comm-2613-university-of-oklahoma in Communication at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 17 Methods of Delivery Qualities of Effective Delivery Effective delivery skillful application of natural conversational behavior Elocutionary movement regarded speechmaking as a type ofperformance like acting early 1900s Naturalness is much preferred today Show enthusiasm project confidence and be direct Select a Method of Delivery Speaking from manuscript reading a speech verbatim It can help prevent misquotes Speaking from memory aka oratory putting into writing then committing it to memory not as common in the US but can be good with introductions and toasts Speaking impromptu relatively short notice with little time to prepare Think on your feet but think first about the audience Speaking eXtemporaneously falls somewhere between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries It involves preparation and practice but you speak from an outline of key words and phrases It s the most common form ofpublic speeches It is however easier to get off track and to get lost Chapter 18 The Voice in Delivery Volume The proper volume for a speech is somewhat louder than that ofa normal conversation depending on the size of the room and audience whether or not you use a microphone and the level of background noise Be alert to audience feedback about your volume Pitch Range of sounds from high to low It powerfully affects the meaning associated with spoken words Intonation rising and falling ofvocal pitch across phrases and sentences Avoid monotone Rate Normal rate of speech for adults between 120 and 150 words per minute The typical public speech is slightly below 120 words per minute but there s no standard Again be alert to the audience s feedback Pauses Discomfort of pauses is a carryover from everyday conversation which involves vocal fillers like quotuhquot to break the silence Pauses can however emphasize a point or allow listeners a moment to contemplate the message Vocal Variety Varying all of these elements The key is enthusiasm but keep it in check Pronunciation Correct formation of word sounds Articulation clarity with which sounds are made Avoid mumbling and lazy speech for example say quotgoing to instead of quotgonnaquot Chapter 19 The Body in Delivery Two Nonverbal Channels Aural and Visual Aural channel made up of the vocalizations that form and accompany spoken words Paralanguage refers to how something is said not what is said Visual channel speaker s physical actions and appearance Functions ofNonverbal Communication in Delivery Clarifying verbal messages Facilitating feedback being alert to the audience s nonverbal communication are they nodding or shaking their heads smiling or frowning etc Establishing speakeraudience relationships for example moving out from behind the podium and walking or standing among the audience members Relationships can be casual or formal Establishing credibility audiences are more readily persuaded by speakers who emphasize vocal variety eye contact nodding at listeners and an open body position Also physical appearance is key Pay Attention to Body Movement Animate facial expressions smiling is huge for building a rapport with the audience Maintaining eye contact Scanning moving your gaze from one individual to another pausing as you do so quotrule of three picking 3 audience members one on the right left and middle to be your anchors as you scan the room Use gestures that feel natural Awareness of general body movement audiences soon tire of a talking head one who remains steadily placed behind a microphone Dress appropriately Practice the Delivery Focus on the message Practice record and time your speech before the presentation Practice under realistic conditions Be prepared to revise Chapter 20 Using Presentation Aids in the Speech Functions of Presentation Aids Helps listeners process and retain information Research we only remember about 20 ofwhat we hear but more than 50 ofwhat we see and hear and 70 ofwhat we see hear and do Promotes interest and motivation engages the right hemisphere of the brain Conveys information concisely and lends a professional image Types of Presentation Aids Props and models Prop any live or inanimate object model 3D representation of an object Pictures photos drawings diagrams aka schematic drawings maps and posters Graphs and charts Pictogram comparisons in picture form Chart visually organizes compleX info into compact form Organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization family tree Table systematic grouping of data or numerical info in column form Audio and video can add interest illustrate ideas and even add humor Multimedia combines several media into a single production evokes more senses Options for Displaying the Presentation Aid Overhead transparencies aka overhead acetate common in schools advantages include ineXp ensiveness exibility availability and ability to interact with the audience easily Computer generated graphics and displays fancier but not as widely available Flip charts large pad of paper that can be ipped Demetri Martin Chalkboards and handouts Chapter 21 Designing Presentation Aids Simplicity The purpose of a presentation aid is to reinforce and support what you say not to rep eat verbatim what has already been said Avoid clutter and the passive voice Eightbyeight rule using no more than 8 words per line and 8 lines per slide Continuity Decreases distraction and irritation from the audience Follow the same general layouts throughout and keep things like font and colors consistent Typeface Style and Font Size Typeface specific style oflettering they come in a variety of fonts sizes Serif typefaces small strokes at the tops and bottoms of each letter easier on the eye Sans serif more blocklike and linear General guideline 36point font subheadings 24 and regular teXt 18 Use boldface underlining or italics sparingly Color Yellow warm on white harsh on black fiery on red and soothing on light blue Blue warm on white hard to see on black Red bright on white warm or difficult to see on black Different interpretations of colors across occupations Avoid dark backgrounds go with light neutral colors Chapter 23 The Informative Speech Goals and Strategies of Informative Speaking Goal to increase the audience s awareness and understanding by imparting knowledge Look for ways to increase understanding Differentiate between informing and persuading stop short of modifying attitudes or asking the audience to take a side Demonstrate relevance early preview main points and present new info Types ofInformative Speeches Speeches about objects or phenomena anything nonhuman Speeches about people Speeches about events Speeches about processes series of steps that lead to a finished product or end result Speeches about issues increases understanding and awareness Speeches about concepts attempts to make compleX ideas concrete and understandable to the audience Approaches to Conveying Information Definition types operational explains what something does negation describes what it is not example synonym and word origin Description demonstration and explanation Organizing the Informative Speech Chronological causal causeeffect topical by categories spatial comparative advantage circular and narrative Chapter 24 The Persuasive Speech What is a Persuasive Speech Purpose to in uence the attitudes beliefs values and actions of others Like informative speeches they inform the audience but also persuade Objective of the speaker to limit the audience s alternatives to the side the speaker represents this is done not by ignoring the other side but by contrasting it Seek a response ifdone correctly the audience will take the speaker s side The Process ofPersuasion Reasoning and emotion it requires a willingness to explore others mindsets Audience analysis is key you have to gather intelligence about the audience to know how to best reach them Key factors must be personally relevant to the audience more likely to be persuaded by strong attitudes and minor changes audience s feelings toward the speaker the hope of more satisfaction and competence only a moderate difference of opinion between speaker and audience and the audience being convinced that they will be rewarded in some way Classical Persuasive Appeals Using Proofs Rhetorical proofs nature of the speech message nature of the audience s feelings and the qualifications and personality of the speaker Logos proof by reason conclusions based on evidence Syllogism threepart argument with a general case major premise specific case minor premise and a logical conclusion a form of deductive reasoning which is reasoning from a general condition to a specific instance Inductive reasoning moves from specific instances to a general condition Hasty generalization an attempt to support a claim by asserting a particular piece of evidence is true for all individuals or conditions concerned Enthymeme syllogism presented as a probability rather than an absolute probably true but not necessarily always true Pathos proof by emotion creating a certain disposition in the audience Evoke emotions of anger and meekness love and hatred fear and boldness and shame and shamelessness by using vivid descriptions and emotionally charged words Relying only on emotion will usually fail demagogues Ethos proof through speaker character morality Three elements good sense the speaker s moral character and goodwill toward the audience Contemporary Persuasive Appeals Needs and Motivations Persuading listeners by appealing to their needs Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs basis for motivationoriented persuasive speeches from bottom to top physiological safety social selfesteem and selfactualization Appealing to the reasons for their behavior Expectancyoutcome values theory each ofus consciously evaluates the potential costs and benefits value associated with taking an action we consider our attitudes about our behavior and what others will think and on the basis of this we develop expectations about what will happen if we do or don t take the action In delivering a persuasive speech seek out listeners attitudes about the behavior you are proposing that they change their feelings about the consequences and determine what they believe others in their lives will think about the behavior in question Persuading listeners by focusing on what s most relevant to them Elaboration likelihood model ofpersuasion ELM each of us mentally processes persuasive messages by one of two routes centrally thinking critically or peripherally responding to it as irrelevant too complex or unimportant Listeners who process peripherally are far more likely to be in uenced by noncontent issues such as appearance slogans and other manipulations Putting it into practice make sure the message is relevant make sure it is presented at an appropriate level of understanding and establish credibility Persuading listeners through speaker credibility Exp ertise trustworthiness speaker similarity and physical attractiveness Speaker similarity listeners perceptions ofhow similar the speaker is to themselves especially in terms of attitudes and moral character audience members are more likely to respond favorably to persuasion from someone who is perceived to be like them Not always the case when the topic emphasizes facts and analysis most people prefer experts and other dissimilar speakers Speaker attractiveness looking good and confident is helpful positive perceptions solely attributed to attractiveness however are usually short term Chapter 25 Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech Elements of an Argument Claim declaring a state of affairs they answer the question quotWhat are you trying to prove Providing evidence supporting material that provides grounds for belief Warrants justify the link between the claim and evidence aka reasoning Can t go to Claim Town without a Warrant Types of Claims Evidence and Warrants Claims used in persuasive speeches fact value and policy Fact focus on whether or not something is true or whether or not something will happen speculative claims address questions for which answers are not yet available Value address issues ofjudgment examining whether or not something is ethical moral right wrong etc evidence tends to be more subjective than factual Policy recommends that a specific course of action be taken or approved of by an audience passing laws increasing taxes giving benefits to certain people etc Fact and sometimes value claims essentially become pieces of evidence in support of policy claims Using evidence to support your claims Audience s existing knowledge and opinions research shows that what your listeners already know or think about your topic ultimately determines their acceptance or rejection of claims you make about it reaffirming the audience s beliefs is the most persuasive evidence Speaker s knowledge and opinions expertise only works if the audience believes the speaker has the authority or credibility to speak on the matter although it can be persuasive few speeches can be convincingly built on expertise alone External evidence any information in support of a claim that originates with outside sources other than the audience or the speaker Types ofwarrants used to link claims with evidence Motivational warrants appeals to emotion they use the needs desires emotions and values of the audience as the basis for accepting some evidence as support for a claim and thus accepting the claim itself Authoritative warrants appeals to credibility examples include celebrity endorsements Substantive warrants appeals to reasoning they operate on the basis of the audience s beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence Warrants by cause causeandeffect Warrants by sign imply that such a close relationship exists between 2 variables that the presence or absence of one may be an indication of the presence or absence of another Warrants by analogy compare 2 similar cases and imply that what is true in one case is true in the other Addressing the other side of an argument inoculation effect by anticipating counter arguments and then addressing or rebutting them you can quotinoculatequot your listeners against the quotvirusquot of these other viewpoints Fallacies in Reasoning false or erroneous statement or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning Begging the question argument is stated in such a way that it can t help but be true even though no evidence has been presented example quotWar killsquot Bandwagoning framing arguments by saying everyone does it Eitheror fallacy quotEither you re with us or against us Ad hominem argument targets a person instead of the issue at hand in an attempt to incite an audience s dislike for that person example quotHow can you support my opponent when he has been divorced Red herring relies on irrelevant premises for its conclusion Hasty generalization an isolated instance is used to make an unwarranted conclusion Non sequitur quotdoes not follow conclusion doesn t connect with the reasoning Slippery slope faulty assumption that one case will lead to a series of events or actions Appeal to tradition suggests the audience should agree with the claim because it s how it s always been done Chapter 26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech ProblemSolution Pattern of Arrangement Organizing speech points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem then provide justification for a proposed solution Problemcausesolution pattern of arrangement Nature of the problem causes incidence Reasons for the problem explain why it s a problem Unsatisfactory solutions optional discuss those that haven t worked Proposed solution explain why it should work Provide to the audience a fourpointjustification the needproblem reasons for the problem a solution and evidence of the solution s feasibility Monroe s Motivated Sequence Pattern of Arrangement Five step process that begins with arousing listeners and ends with calling for action Attention makes the topic relevant to listeners Need isolates and describes the issue if the audience can be shown that they have a need that needs to be satisfied they will be more likely to listen Satisfaction identifies the solution and provides details about it Visualization provides the audience with a vision of anticipated outcomes associated with the solution Action directly requests the audience to act according to their acceptance of the message


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