History of Social and Political Philosophy
History of Social and Political Philosophy PHIL 3713
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History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Locke Second Treatise I What this lecture will do A Focus on 1 2 3 property rights a legitimacy natural law limited sovereignty liberalism relation between government and economy ll review Chapter 5 A People entitled to some property to provide for survival B Gain rights over particular items via labor in virtue of self ownership C Limitations on property 1 2 spoilage violates others rights to survival leave enough and as good again because others have right to survive D Unequal distribution 1 2 3 4 in light of spoilage condition and assumption of rough equality in ability to consume only roughly equal distribution of goods is legitimate if you are enterprising and want more property how do you get it accumulate things that don t spoil nb these have no real value can t eat them b so idea is to trade them i if you produce a lot of food you can sell surplus for shiny pebbles then you could buy food from someone else or hire someone to work on your field and pay him wages key notion a money stores value without spoiling b so can have as much as you d like without violating spoilage condition A V E Background 1 2 note references to agreements no explicit agreement to distribution but have consent to use of money will come back to this 111 Natural law A compare Locke and Hobbes on state of nature 549 Hobbes there is natural law but has no real meaning without power to enforce Locke insists on validity of natural law in state of nature Ch 2 moral obligations not dependent on presence of power to enforce for Hobbes nature leads inevitably to war for Locke nature is less violent a some sense of natural sociability 77 b more note remarks that war is overt acts of violence not persisting state 20 B property as a natural right 1 2 story of acquisition of property all in nature no government in place all the rights that justify and limit property are natural rights 3 so insistence that no compact involved 50 is meant to emphasize this property a natural not a positive right 4 why insist on this Locke and controversy over property a in the wake of the civil war there was a controversy over whether there should be a property qualification for voting Putney Debate see links Page i poorer people said no natural law says all men equal and consent required for government property owners said yes otherwise radical parliament could redistribute property to satisfy egalitarian impulse so on one interpretation MacPherson Locke is trying to produce an argument that could justify unequal distribution in terms of natural law C Where this is going if property is a natural right and natural law is an external moral standard then it looks like government can t interfere with property rights Locke as theorist of capitalist accumulation D Suggests idea of legitimacy conformity with natural law IV Limited sovereignty A If nature is so great why do people form governments Why isn t natural law enough 124 126 1 some bad apples who violate natural law 2 disagreements over just what natural law says 3 each person has to enforce his natural rights by himself B Note how Locke frames it people form government to protect their property 1 not just their stuff 2 more their natural rights which are encompassed under the concept of property lives liberties and estates 123 3 alternative Tully interpretation Locke elevating right of property to serve as a hedge on government it is for protection of individual liberty C Note difference from Hobbesean contract 1 not total alienation of all rights to Sovereign 2 rather people only give up powers to protect themselves and enforce natural law 128 130 3 they maintain their natural rights no sense that Sovereign says what these are b rather Locke holds that people can say what their rights are and demand that Sov respect them i note for Hobbes people enter into the contract to survive natural law conceived merely as rules for cooperation but for Locke people enter into the contract to preserve their rights natural law conceived as moral limits on what people can do D attack on idea of absolute sovereignty 1 93 polecats and lions metaphor 2 Ch XI detailed set of limits on power of the state legislative power 3 particular one no confiscation of property 138 a connection to 5th amendment b limits intervention in economy since can t seize assets or even it s argued regulate past certain points 4 but note tension a state is dedicated to enhancing common good 131 b but what if common good would be served by taking property b V A V C 5th amendment public purpose idea Topics A B C Property rights natural law and legitimacy Limited sovereignty Liberalism economic Theory of property A B Right to some property or other to survive Individual establishes property right to a particular item by labor Right of acquisition is limited 1 No spoilage 2 Leave enough and as good for others Whence inequality 1 Spoilage equality of consumption equality of property 2 Can accumulate things that don t spoil 3 Can trade these for things needed to survive 4 Key idea money stores value NB distribution not a matter of consent III Natural law A Compare Locke and Hobbes 1 Hobbes NL has no real meaning without power to enforce 2 Locke NL obliges even in nature 3 Note differences on question of war B Property as a natural right 1 Acquisition is in advance of government 2 All rights relevant to the story are natural not positive 3 Historical background Putney Debates c Relevance to legitimacy 1 Natural law external to government limits what government can legitimately do 2 In particular can t interfere in property rights IV Sovereignty A If nature is so great why form governments 1 Bad apples 2 Disagreements over NL 3 Yer on yer own pal Government formed to protect rights 1 Framed in terms of property 2 Property as hedge against government protects liberty Contrast with Hobbes 1 No total alienation 2 People give up powers to protect selves and enforce natural rights 3 NOT their rights themselves a Sovereign not authority on content of NL b People determine rights and demand that the Sovereign enforce and respect them D Attack on idea of absolute sovereignty 1 2 Polecats and lions para 93 Limits on the power of the state Ch XI In particular no confiscation of property para 138 Connection to 5th Amendment Tension state is also dedicated to enhancing common good para 131 History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on PlatoI Reyublic I What this lecture will do A go over the reading for today emphasizing what I think are the most important points 13 conunent on how various passages touch on several of the big questions from the syllabus ll Orientation to the Republic A Plato s masterwork see link on website for a discussion of the whole work and other links 13 dialogue form 1 early works of Plato s looks like real debates between Socrates and other people 2 Book 1 has that quality debate on nature of justice 3 Book 2 shows transition to more of a direct presentation of ideas 4 Note not always clear that Socrates is exactly Plato s spokesman or what Plato is trying to do though we ll not get too deep into subtleties Ill Glaucon and Adiemantus A Conversation starts with idea of justice as a personal virtue B justice as convention l Glaucon speaks of justice as a convention a 358e 359c b people would rather be bad but they realize they do worse at the receiving end of other people s badness c so people make a deal with each other to be good d ie morality is at bottom the product of self interest assumption that people are self interested by nature e note this is not what he believes but rather it s a theory he wants Socrates to disprove 2 looks like early statement of social contract idea a have key notion of agreement b note different from agreement in Crito where agreement is between a city and each citizen c here it is among all the citizens d and is not really a political agreement ie doesn t set up a political on e rather understanding of morality in terms of convention 3 foreshadows later idea of agreement as basis of political authority a ie looks ahead to a conception of legitima b but note this is not the view Plato endorses presented as a challenge to Socrates who argues against it C appearance and reali 1 Ring of Gyges story 359d 2 raises idea of the split between appearance and reality this echoes throughout the whole book 3 4 IV Setting Adiemantus reaffirms this with concern for a culture that puts a premium on reputation and proper form ie appearances foreshadows discussion of poetry later in today s reading alludes to uestion of extent of sovereignty up the City A anthropomorphic metaphor 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 C hea 1 2 3 4 5 see city and individual as somehow isomorphic analogous 368c a justice is the same in both b except it will be bigger in city so easier to see this gets the shift from talking about an individual virtue to a feature of states ie a political idea this point unargued a seems to be a conunon sense notion to Greeks see state as like an organism Aristotle b we might think there are big differences between things that have a natural unity and things which are collections of units c note that the analogy between an individual and the state gets picked up later in medieval period and by Hobbes idea of human nature people are not self sufficient need help of others to survive 369b people self interested don t help each other out of altruism but only in exchanges 369c a note how this connects to conception Glaucon put forward recall Socrates is answering his challenge people have fixed given nature specifies thing person is best at doing 370b a note drops in the idea that people should do only the thing they are best at to maximize welfare of all b hints that this efficiency standard welfare of all justifies compulsion 3374b c lthy vs fevered city start with very basic economy and culture 372a ff what Socrates calls a healthy city Glaucon calls this the city of pigs 372d so introduce luxuries ie make it more appealing to actual people more like actual economy and culture 373a ff Socrates calls this a city in a fever note presents need for an army but soldiers have to specialize on assumption of distinct human natures points to need for a distinct class 374b ff V the Guardians A raises issue of legitilnacy justification for state s authori 1 here Socrates tries to specify the idea of the best city by specifying the rulers and specify the rulers by describing how to create them a alternative set up a constitution on principles that justify the rule of whoever gets into power justification in terms of laws not men b here Socrates setting up a regime of good men downplays role of laws 2 so the authority of the guardians is justified by their personal qualities what they are able to do Will discuss this more later 13 Issue of thumos 375b ff QWFPJNI soldiers to be like watchdogs need to have high spirits thumos but have to direct violence towards proper targets enemies not friends ie thumos has to be reined in can t just have that answer comes with knowledge ability to distinguish friend and foe role of philosophy here a Socrates says watchdogs are philosophical bit of a joke but important hint b idea is that philosophy solves the danger posed by thumos C Educating the Guardians 1 2 3 guardians have innate aptitude to do their job but this still has to be cultivated by education traditional mode of education in Greece was via body of myths conveyed by poetic tradition 377c Socrates engages in massive criticism of this a distinguishes between literary merit and social function children don t grasp idea of allegory 378d setting standards based on rational assessment of function of poetry and what the city needs poets to work to this standard 379a d ie setting up a huge role for government supervision of education and culture bears on topics of sovereignty what are states responsible for and perfectionism should state cultivate particular virtues in their citizens tho here Socrates is talking about leaders not everyone i involves substantial rejection of tradition ii recall Crito and rejection of traditional morali iii and recall rejection of poetic definition of justice at start of book note a big theme in this passage concern for false appearances 380d ff and for lying 389b ff a echoes concern from Glaucon and Adiemantus Gyge s rin b this comes back again throughout the book though we won t focus on every instance b F v V Legitimacy Human nature Sovereignty Perfectionism I General comments on the Republic II Glaucon and Adiemantus A Justice as a personal virtue B Glaucon on justice as a convention 358e359c foreshadows contract theory of legitimacy c Appearance and reality 1 Ring of Gyges 359d360a 2 Adiemantus on cultural emphasis on appearances 362d367a 3 Foreshadows question of sovereignty III Setting up the City A Anthropomorphic metaphor 368d 369b Ideas about human nature 1 Human beings are not self sufficient 369b Human beings are self interested 369c Human beings have a fixed given nature 37Gb The healthy city and the fevered city 1 the healthy city provides basic survival 372 city of pigs 2 providing luxuries leads to the fevered city 373 3 the fevered city requires a distinct soldier class 374b ff IV The Guardians A Legitimacy 1 Define best city by characterizing rulers 2 Authority of the rulers justified by their personal qualities B Paradox of the thumetic character 375d 1 Soldiers need spirit thumos 375b But can t be aggressive towards the citizens 375c solved by philosophy 376a c Education of the Guardians 376d ff 1 Character has to be cultivated by proper education Traditional education via poetry 3 Wholesale revision of poetic tradition to meet standards set by philosophical reasoning 379a 4 Sovereignty what is within the purview of the state 5 Perfectionism should the state aim to shape character History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Rousseauz Discourse on Ineguality 1 Focus on A legitimacy in particular role of natural law B human nature and governlnent ll Natural law A conunents in Preface B general critique of idea 1 note disagreement between learned men about details of natural law 2 based on ideas not available to people who can t reason and who haven t experienced advantages of social life C therefore primitive people can t use principles of natural right to organize governlnent because they are incapable of understanding them D shift from reason to passion as basis for social life 1 2 focus instead on understanding of essential elements in human nature a self interest concern for self preservation not quite utility maximization of Hobbes b natural pity reluctance to impose suffering except if necessary for self preservation Rousseau thinks he can get same effect of moral principles from these without assuming too much cognitive ability on the part of primitive man natural goodness E Legitjlnacy 1 downplay notion of external standard discoverable by reason a in one sense Rousseau denies it exists in the sense that Aquinas or Locke thinks it is there are as a criterion of legitimac b but in another sense it reappears in a different form as we ll see next week Ill Human nature and govermnent A talk about society rather than govermnent 1 2 E118 note Locke also Hobbes use state of nature to imagine away government seem to presume that society would be left part of the critique we saw last time ie about reading contemporary man back into state of nature is the idea that to really get to the state of nature we have to ilnagine away society as we that is while Locke and Hobbes want to explain political obligation they don t see the need to explain society Hobbes does a little bit Rousseau does think society needs explanation anti Aristotelian so this a slight alteration of the topic as stated not relation between theories of human nature and governlnent but rather society nb despite notion of evolution of human nature Rousseau doesn t have idea of evolution of human beings even though he detected similarities with other primates But what he missed was idea of human being having evolved as a social species which makes issue of explaining society less pressing or at least different not historical but functional B human psychology in the state of nature 1 so what are people like in state of nature a rugged survival machines para 12 20 b non social solitary individuals para 18 20 21 emotional autonomy amour propre egoism vs amour de soi meme self respect fn2 b pity reluctance to impose suffering para 13 i not a positive attraction to people ii rather impulse to leave others alone spring analogy entails no emotional dependence on others implications for erotic life aggregate effect entails no inner need for society ie no innate sociability SD V 8amp3 Development of society 1 2 start from radically separate individuals How do they come together slow convergence a people too self interested to create stable societies deer hunt example para 27 b but slow formation of family groups around stable shelter para 30 c different geographies create distinct ways of life that residents share nb talking about moeurs here para 34 d ie basis of social life is not self interest but cultural similarity emergence of amour propre para 34 ff a have families in loose villages b young people come to have feelings for one another more than just sex c scene around tree desire to display selves d self esteem comes to depend on others opinions first psychological need for social life ie this is the moment society is born in the sense of a human propensity to live in societies Note profoun ambivalence R has for this I Topics A Legitimacy by way of natural law B Human nature II Natural law A Rousseau dubious part of deemphasis on reason Shift from reason to passion as basis for social life 1 Look to essential elements of human nature a selfpreservation b pity Gets natural goodness not rational moral virtue Relevance to legitimacy 1 Downplay notion of rationally discoverable external standard But note how something like an external standard reappears in The Social Contract III Human nature A Subject is society not government 1 Hobbes and Locke imagine man outside of government not outside of society 2 Rousseau thinks society needs explanation antiAristotelian view Human psychology in the state of nature 1 Amour de soi meme 2 Pity 3 No innate sociability Development of society 1 Happens very slowly 2 Influence of geography and culture moeurs 3 Emergence of amour propre a scene around the tree b birth of sociability Socrates39 First Argument with Thrasymachus I Establish definition A Justice the interest of the stronger 338c B The stronger the rulers 339a 0 Justice the interest of the rulers 339a II Examine definition A The interest of the rulers is expressed in laws 338e B From the perspective of the ruled justice obeying the law 339b 1 But rulers can make mistakes and pass laws against their own interests 339c 2 In this case obeying law doing interest of ruler 339e 3 Obeying law doing interest of stronger 339e 0 Justice doing interest of stronger 339e III Revise definition A Thrasymachus rejects quot0 which follows from IIB1 Therefore he revises the position he had taken in IIB1 340ce 1 By definition the stronger cannot make mistakes about their own interest 2 Rather in a precise sense rulers when acting as rulers cannot make mistakes about their interest IV Examine revised definition A Consider this precise sense 341e342d 1 a skill is exercised not in the interest of the person who posseses it 2 but rather in the interest of the person it is exercised on B Thus in this precise sense rulers rule in the interest of their subjects 342e c This contradicts Thrasymachus39 factual claim that rulers rule in their own interest 338e History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Rousseauz Social Contract 121 I What this lecture will cover A Govern1nent and culture especially religion in relation to sovereignty B General Will in relation to legitimacy ll Importance of moeurs A saw that notion in Discourse on Inequality shared way of life is the glue that holds societies together gives them a sense of collective identity B see how Rousseau assigns customs political significance 1 2 3 Exercise and 1112 legislator to work on law of custom which is the keystone in the arch ie keeps the whole political structure together specifically customs shape inner disposition to cooperate a gets people to aim for the conunon good ie desire to cooperate on the basis of the CG rather than desire to exploit other cooperators b and to obey the laws religion to serve saIne end make people feel the sentiments of sociability C this is key given Rousseau s views on leg1t11nacy 1 2 3 4 fundaInental moral notion is freedom custom makes people freely want to obey laws not simply because they are laws but because they regard laws as for the conunon good hence good for themselves hence helps solve the problem of reconciling freedom and obedience the fundaInental problem of politics D Importance of moeurs means govern1nent has a key role in supervising culture 1 2 this an element of sovereignty part of the power of the state echo of Hobbes here as well as of ancients 111 General Will A ambiguity in the concept 1 Metaphor GW is the will of the sov a the sov established ie SC established to look after common good i self interested people won t cooperate to benefit a particular party ii so common good is only stable basis of cooperation b tf object of GW is CG Rousseau looks at the CG as like an objective fact platonic feel though no idealist metaphysics there is a correct answer to the question what is best for society confusing because sometimes Rousseau uses the term GW to refer to this fact about society seems to define GW in terms of CG But the sov is inherently democratic recall contrast with Hobbes so GW involves notion of procedure aggregation of individual wills so get talk about voting and majority rule d so sometimes GW refers to the results of the procedure seems to define GW as the result of the vote F V d V 333 B puzzle why should we think that the result of the procedure will actually be the policy that is in the conunon good 1 2 Rousseau really worried about this problem which cuts to the heart of his conception of legitimacy for he appeals to two sources of legitimacy a conunon good a la Plato and Hobbes b voluntarism a la Hobbes and Locke put these two in tension what if the voters choose something that is bad for them echo of Plato39s worries Riley s point tension between two sources of legitimacy C Rousseau39s answer 1 2 assumption there is an actual CG it is independent of how we find it claim majorities have a special competence at identifying the CG a not trivial sense of majority is right about what is in majority b but stronger sense that majority sees what is really better c there is a sophisticated mathematical proof of this claim but this only works if individual voters are properly motivated if they actually want the conunon good and vote on their understanding of what is best for all a lVii characteristics of the GW are still in the majority b confusing how could it not be in procedural sense c but R appealing to CG sense IV points to importance of inner orientation of members of society this leads to Rousseau39s theory of culture culture to shape individuals so that they are oriented to CG A B C shows a way R has Hobbesean view of sovereignty sov to regulate culture to ensure it conveys proper values to people this is what he has in mind with the censorship lV7 and civil religion lV8 so illiberal element in R 1 2 despite his emphasis on freedom areas of life we think of as private under the control of the individual are matters the state should oversee involves a narrowing of private real1n very little not even manner of life is purely the business of the individual CHAPTER 12THE DIVISION OF THE LAWS Along with these three kinds of law goes a fourth most important of all which is not graven on tablets of marble or brass but on the hearts of the citizens This forms the real constitution of the State takes on every day new powers when other laws decay or die out restores them or takes their place keeps a people in the ways in which it was meant to go and insensibly replaces authority by the force of habit I am speaking of morality of custom above all of public opinion a power unknown to political thinkers on which none the less success in everything else depends With this the great legislator concerns himself in secret though he seems to con ne himself to particular regulations for these are only the arc of the arch while manners and morals slower to arise form in the end its immovable keystone I What this lecture will cover A Government and culture especially religion in relation to sovereignty B General Will in relation to legitimacy II Importance of moeurs A Discourse glue that holds societies together B Social Contract quot12 Along with these three kinds of law goes a fourth most important of all which is not graven on tablets of marble or brass but on the hearts of the citizens This forms the real constitution of the State takes on every day new powers when other laws decay or die out restores them or takes their place keeps a people in the ways in which it was meant to go and insensibly replaces authority by the force of habit I am speaking of morality of custom above all of public opinion a power unknown to political thinkers on which none the less success in everything else depends With this the great legislator concerns himself in secret though he seems to confine himself to particular regulations for these are only the arc of the arch while manners and morals slower to arise form in the end its immovable keystone 1 keystone in the arch ie keeps the whole political structure together 2 customs shape inner disposition to cooperate to obey the laws B legitimacy 1 2 3 fundamental moral notion is freedom custom makes people freely want to obey laws hence helps solve the fundamental problem of reconciling freedom and obedience C Sovereignty 1 2 Importance of moeurs means government has a key role in supervising culture echo of Hobbes here as well as of ancients II General Will GW A Ambiguity in Rousseau s concept 1 0n the one hand a GW as will of the sovereign b sovereign established to attain common good CG c thus GW aims at CG d Platonic feel CG as an objective fact e Rousseau seems to define GW as that fact 0n the other hand a Rousseau s sovereign is inherently democratic b so GW involves procedure for aggregating wills c Rousseau seems to define GW as the result of this procedure B Puzzle why think result of procedure CG 1 Important problem for Rousseau s conception of legitimacy there is tension between a CG basis b voluntarist basis 2 What if the voters choose something that is bad for them C Rousseau s answer 1 Assumption realism about CG ie CG independent of our procedure for determining it 2 Claim majorities have special competence at discovering the fact of the matter about CG 3 Only works if voters are properly motivated IVii the characteristics of the GW are still in the majority III Points back to political importance of culture Culture to shape individuals so that they are oriented to CG Hobbesean view that sovereignty extends over cultural life for the sake of preserving social order 1 2 IV7 the censorship overseeing customs making sure they don t change IV8 civil religion instills sentiments of sociability Illiberalism 1 2 asserts freedom as the central value but extends range of public control over many areas of life narrows private realm very little not even manner of life is purely the business of the individual History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Lockez Second Treatise 12 Letter on Toleration I What this lecture will do A Focus on 1 natural law legitimacy and revolution 2 relation between government and religion ll Natural law as revolutionary doctrine Second Treatise and Glorious Revolution 1688 D 111 Lo A B 1 after Civil War and Conunonwealth monarchy is restored 2 but basic issues in a sense not resolved in particular what is fundamental basis of legitimacy a for king it was divine right king s rule justified by God b Parliamentary side held to notion of fundaInental rights of Englishmen 3 Succession crisis who will succeed Charles H Parliament rejects his son a catholic and installs William and Mary protestants instead 4 ie overturn one view of legitimacy and make a kind of contract with a different monarc 5 Locke involved with these events and book seen as justifying the outcome What justifies revolution 1 In general when government violates natural right a para l35 natural law still valid in society positive law designed to enforce natural law not supplant it b standard of right independent of standard appealed to by regime 2 Chapter 19 particular cases a when executive works against the legislative power b when the legislative violates natural rights e g by taking property no taxation without representation c para 225 Jefferson recall Hobbes idea of moral standard independent of Sovereign s judgment is source of revolution 1 Ch s 18 29 note Locke s argument on this point in 226 ff cke and liberalism from word for freedom as in liberty idea is that govt can39t infringe on certain fundaInental freedoms 1 government by definition involves coercion can39t do everything we could in state of nature gave up power 2 but threat inherent in state of nature means our freedom doesn39t count for much our power checked by others Even though we give up power to government government preserves our rights 3 but danger in creating entity with alot of power and giving up one39s own power threat exists that government will abuse power Thus have to impose limits on government Theory imposes moral limits actual limits imposed by constitution a for Locke can39t violate natural rights b as we39ve seen can39t violate property rights 5th amendment version of limited sovereignty government has limited authority over individual in order to preserve freedom D now look at this with respect to religion H 3 4 Letter govermnent shouldn t intervene in religious controversies Distinguish between civil interest and care of soul a civil interest earthly goods property and material aspect of life i protection of property is reason men form govt ii in forming govt give up specific rights iii these to do with resolving property disputes iv generally can say to do with survival in THIS life the powers we give up have nothing to do with spiritual affairs b care of soul salvation not to do with purpose of govermnent therefore govt has no business interfering in religious matters as long as no crimes are committed this enshrined in 1st aInendment E contrast with perfectionism 1 2 idea that there is a right way to live and society should enforce it with Locke and Hobbes too idea is that decisions about the best way to live in private sphere are purely private governlnent is not there to enforce a way of living but to create conditions in which people can purse their private auns a If there are two competing religions who39s to judge between them i not contenders ii not govt a not what govt established to do b people didn39t give govt this right iii God alone b This means have to wait to Judgment Day so have to agree to disagree til then Secularize this i there are different conceptions of the good life ii none obviously true iii no way to choose between them iv tf state should remain neutral on all and allow all to live as they see F V 1 F Contemproary liberalism 1 lesson for Locke is that govermnent should stay neutral in religious disputes a no competence to resolve b only leads to war as history shows today this idea broadened beyond religion say religion involves ideas about how to lead the best human life ie is a conception of the good life b can also imagine that there are non religious conceptions of the good life all sorts of competing notions about what makes human life worthwhile liberalism is view that govermnent should stay neutral regarding what makes good life leave citizens the freedom to choose whatever way of life they want again as long as no crimes are conunitted ie as long as one person39s way of life doesn39t harm anyone else SD V C V I For today A B Legitimacy natural law and revolution Liberalism government and religion II Natural law and revolution A Historical background Glorious Revolution 1688 1 Conflicts over legitimacy from Civil War not resolved 2 Overthrow of James II triumph of contract idea What justifies revolution 1 In general violation of natural rights 2 Ch 19 particular cases 3 Locke s influence on Jefferson Compare to Hobbes 1 Hobbes a moral standard independent of Sovereign is a source of revolution Ch s 18 29 2 Locke s rebuttal para 226 III Locke and liberalism A B Liberalism concern for freedom Government can t infringe on fundamental freedoms 1 Government involves coercion 2 Acceptable because in nature our rights are unprotected 3 But dangerous to concentrate power so impose limits a in theory natural law b in practice constitution Related to idea of limited sovereignty goal is preserving freedom IV Liberalism and religion A Letter on toleration government shouldn t intervene in religious controversies Distinguish between civil interest and care of souls 1 Civil interest a property as per Second Treatise b government formed to protect this survival in earthly life 2 Care of souls a salvation fate in next life b not to do with purpose of government Government has no business interfering in religious affairs absent any crimes D Contrast with perfectionism 1 Society should enforce the right way to live here should make people go to heaven Locke and Hobbes decisions about life in private sphere should be left to individual government is to create conditions in which individuals can make those decisions safely Apply to religion what if there are 2 competing faiths who is to judge between them i not contenders ii not government iii God alone have to agree to disagree until Judgment Day Contemporary secular version state should remain neutral regarding competing conceptions of the good life D 1 D 1 D 1 II D 1 IV History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on MillI O11 Liberty 121 Topic A Liberalism and human nature sovereignty Line between private and public self regarding and other regarding activities A Strong line between public and private spheres 13 Mill on the value of the distinction 1 value of freedom worth price that non paternalism allows some to destroy themselves 2 and don39t have to count hurt feelings of the bigot 3 and slippery slope where would interference in private sphere stop C Do we agree that this line can be drawn 1 Note that this line attacked both from left and from right liberals caught in the middle a From left typically because of rejection of view that individual is separate from community Rousseau b From right due to conservative reliance on tradition Burke Aristotle 2 And who gets to draw it on what grounds D Connect Mill39s individualism up with picture of a social state of nature which takes individuals as starting point and then tries to build up society from them 1 Of course he recognizes ilnportance of society but is suspicious of it 2 places value not in sense of self people gain from membership in a conununity but rather in their own individuality 3 an issue in recent liberalism communitarianism debate is social existence more constitutive of human life challenges to liberal freedom A contrast freedom from with freedom to freedom as capability B look at macro effects of freedom at micro level 1 idea of externalities costs not born by agent 2 case of smoking cost to self but also cost to others health care lost productivity implications for role of government ie sovereignty A basic liberal position on sovereignty the minilnal state 13 govermnent to improve capabilities l obvious with education provision of health care 2 more legitimate to limit drugs and alcohol soft paternalism C govermnent to solve macro problems 1 internalize externalities tax cigarettes 2 stricter regulation forbid smoking IV Topics liberalism and human nature sovereignty Selfregarding vs otherregarding ac ons A Way of distinguishing private sphere from public sphere Mill why the line is valuable Can this line be drawn Implications for conception of human nature Challenges to liberal freedom A Freedom from vs freedom to freedom as capability B Macro effects of freedom at micro level externalities Implications for sovereignty A Capabilities approach soft paternalism B Dealing with externalities History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Millz O11 Liberty 1 What this lecture will cover A Liberalism B Legitimacy construed in terms of knowledge of external standards ll Liberalism A key 1 B to g 1 idea separation of social and political realms ancient modern liberty distinction Constant a ancient liberty of self governinent participation in politics b modern liberty of pursuit of private satisfaction ancients Rousseau a social realm private life cultural life is politically relevant because it has effects on political life i political life the most important domain place where people are most fully human Aristotle ii therefore important political function is supervision of social realm b in effect social realm subsumed into political realIn separation 1s minimized Mill a social realm is domain of private individual action in pursuit of personal fulfillment i this is as important as or more than action in political realm ii so social realm should be insulated from political realm b need to think of civil social rights as much as political rights et at Mill on government and private life compare with Rousseau paradox here a both Rousseau and Mill start with similar question how to preserve freedom in face of need for cooperation b but seem to end up with very different positions How to account for this Mill on Rousseau a in assigning all power to the collective people Rousseau thinks he39s solved the traditional problem of political liberty ie of the people over against their government Rousseau political liberty requires unity i Rousseau39s conception of liberty ancient liberty self legislation a if people not unified then self governinent will dissolve and political liberty will disappear b government will not be based in general will but interests of the governing party ii he s looking back to ancient ideal of complete identification with the state iii Individuality seems to be devalued in this scheme he wants to have uniformity of moeurs ie wants to have conformi Thus Rousseau less concerned about individuals living under restrictions so long as these can be said to be willed by the individual himself via General Will But this still allows for an undue concentration of power that can be used to quash the individual b V V a Mill opposes imposition of conformity either in political sense by law or by society through power of social pressure peer pressure Mill39s idea of liberty is modern i pursuit of private satisfaction which requires absence of restriction sometimes called negative liberty pursuing our own good in our own wa ii note his distinction of his view from ancient society toward end of Ch b thus for Mill there is a private sphere in which people are free to do whatever they like as long as they do not harm anyone else i But there is a sphere of action in which society as distinguished from the individual has if any only an indirect interest comprehending all that portion of a person39s life and conduct which affects only himself or if it also affects others only with their free voluntary and undeceived consent and participation When I say only himself I mean directly and in the first instance for whatever affects himself may affect others through himself and the objection which may be grounded on this contingency will receive consideration in the sequel This then is the appropriate region of human liberty It comprises first the inward domain of consciousness demanding liberty of conscience in the most comprehensive sense liberty of thought and feeling absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects practical or speculative scientific moral or theological The liberty of expressing and publishing opinions may seem to fall under a different principle since it belongs to that part of the conduct of an individual which concerns other people but being almost of as much importance as the liberty of thought itself and resting in great part on the same reasons is practically inseparable from it Secondly the principle requires liberty of tastes and pursuits of framing the plan of our life to suit our own character of doing as we like subject to such consequences as may follow without impediment from our fellow creatures so long as what we do does not harm them even though they should think our conduct foolish perverse or wrong Thirdly from this liberty of each individual follows the liberty within the same limits of combination among individuals freedom to unite for any purpose not involving harm to others the persons combining being supposed to be of full age and not forced or deceived acy and knowledge V A Liberalism often associated with an attitude toward knowledge ie that Ill Legitjrn kno B kno 1 3 wledge is limited and changing wledge of external standards Plato a there is a realm of ultimate reality the forms b this realm is knowable by philosophers c this knowledge legitimates their rule Aquinas Locke a natural law objective structure of morality b accessible to reason ie to every rational person c for Locke offers a standard that citizens can use against government more precisely that leaders of citizens can use so idea of external standards is tied to the idea of knowledge external standards politically relevant if they are such as can be known authoritatively Mill on truth 1 Truth in the great practical concerns of life is so much a question of the reconciling and combining of opposites that very few have minds sufficiently capacious and impartial to make the adjustment with an approach to correctness and it has to be made by the rough process of a struggle between combatants fighting under hostile banners Morgan 3 ed p 899 Ch 11 toward end 2 that is no authoritative knowledge in politics a talking about the great practical concerns of life not mathematics b there may be a grand truth out there c but it is not given to us to know it authoritatively i rather we can only strive towards better and better understanding without ever getting there ii and this is through con ict between opposing sides neither of which has it right iii very modest view of human knowledge falliblism iv so no one knows the right answers about how society ought to be governed in any useful detail D rejection of idea that anyone has authoritative knowledge of external standards which would justify their rule 1 rather have to just hash it out accepting that we will not get it right 2 this means that the standards we use to guide us are internal to politics the result of political discussion rather than brought to that discussion from outside by philosophy or religion a this is why liberals focus on an open public square important that all views get heard so that public knowledge will improve b and why standards of legitimacy are more procedural do they allow for participation in public debate 3 in this respect note that his arguments for individual freedom do not appeal like Locke s to any idea of natural rights ie no appeal to transcendent standard Rather he speaks of utility or usefulness to society I Topicsfortoday A Liberalism B Legitimacy II Liberalism A Distinction between social and political realms 1 Ancient vs modern liberty Constant 2 AncientsRousseau social realm subsumed into political realm 3 Mill insulate social realm from politics B Mill on private sphere 1 Compare with Rousseau 2 Puzzle both want to preserve freedom in the face of the need to cooperate but have opposing positions 3 Rousseau s solution to the traditional problem of liberty people vs gov t a political liberty requires unity b ancient conception of liberty as selfgovernment c devalues individuality 4 Mill s response a opposition to conformity b modern liberty negative freedom c private sphere as sphere of valued freedom III Legitimacy A Liberalism and knowledge B Knowledge of external standards 1 Plato 2 Aquinas Locke 3 External standards politically relevant to the extent they can be known 0 Mill on truth 1 No authoritative knowledge of truth 2 Get closer to it through struggle between conflicting views 3 No one has right answers to political ques ons D Implications We just have to hash it out and we won t get it right for all time Standards of legitimacy are internal to politics a liberal focus on open public square b liberal focus on procedural rights Note Mill s appeal to utility rather than natural rights History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Hobbesz Leviathan 121 I What this lecture will consider A obligation and legitjlnacy B idea of sovereignty C liberalism regulation of education and culture ll Analyze the contract A Structure of contract 1 everyone contracts with everyone else not each person contracts with sovereign 2 Why have this structure a take case of prisoners dilenuna CountdownI with lots and lots of players b here my problem is you you may not stick to agreements where you everyone else c so we make a larger deal i purpose is to make us keep our agreements ii build in enforcement mechanism power of the Sov iii we agree that a if we break a deal we won t resist Sov s attempts to hold us to it b more if someone else breaks a deal we ll help Sov enforce it 3 Why wouldn t direct contract between each person and Sov work a it s not enough for me that I be bound by the Sov l want you and everyone else to be bound by the Sov too b so in effect we have to agree with each other to make the deal 4 Why wouldn t contract between whole society and Sov work a Hobbes wants absolute Sov ty this would give grounds to break deal b in any event have to have a prior agreement to form whole society and he thinks he s explaining that foundational contract 13 Terms of contract 1 want to see what is the basis of the individual s obligation to obey Sov 2 Bottom line is consent people have agreed to have Sov rule them so obedience is voluntary hence counts as moral obligation rather than mere submission to greater power 3 More detailed a people have agreed with each other to give up their right to self overn1nent b so moral basis is agreement with everyone else in society not agreement with Sov c this involves agreement not to interfere with Sov s efforts to run their lives i Sov like everyone else had that right already Ch 14 para 4 ie right to try this anyway ii but each individual had right to resist iii it is right of resistance which is given up Ill Obligation and legitjlnacy A Distinguish between morality and prudence 1 2 Prudence do something because it benefits you Morality do something because it is the right thing to do 13 Joining the social contract is prudent 1 2 3 4 state of nature is dangerous for oneself having a sovereign will benefit oneself nb welfare of others not a concern for Hobbesean man who is self interested therefore it is rational to enter contract C But having set up a sovereign why obey it 1 D Co 1 2 3 2 3 4 4 wouldn t it be great if everyone else obeyed and you didn t Gyge s ring idea well Sovereign will punish you OK but this is an appeal to prudence well if you defect others will too and you ll be back in the state of war a Socrates says this to Crito b OK but again this is an appeal to prudence ie these arguments do not provide a fully moral sense of obligation nsent as the key to legitimacy this is where the moral bit comes in for Hobbes ie the fact that you enter the contract voluntarily obliges you to obey Riley quote see below a establishes people s will as central to conception of what a person is and what is moral b fundaInental source of right and wrong is ability to will conformity to moral standard either from outside or self created as through agreement so standard of morality is keeping agreements conversely it is a wrong to make people do things against their will thus consent is essential to legitimate government Contrast people who point to a higher law eg theocrats point to a different conception of legitimacy 8amp3 IV Sovereignty A another big theme what are the powers that go along with governinent what is essential to rule absolute sovereign B 1 Hobbes s viewti s that quite a lot goes along concept of unlimited or absolute sovereignty a looks pretty totalitarian b done in the name of civil peace i Hobbes writing in response to Civil War ii people claimed the right to depose the sovereign iii led to chaos in effect a state of war c might understand this better in contrast to Locke who offers concept of limited sovereignty particular incidents ch 18 a social contract final and irrevocable no way to say sov hasn t fulfilled it citizens can t accuse or punish the sov references to Civil War b key ideas item 6 sov has final say on what is required for peace in particular what moral and political doctrines are to be permitted Big concern that dangerous opinions be suppressed c item 7 sov sets up property rules ie property is not independent of government d item 8 sov is final interpreter of law including natural law 3 bottom line no recourse outside of the sovereign a b V ie no external standard sov is interpreter of natural law i recall discussion of Aquinas ii cf ch 26 no 4 and forward iii also note in ch 29 that a disease of the conunonwealth is the belief that private judgment has weight against the sov iv or that private property is independent of the sov ch 29 again compare to Locke regulation of culture serves this end forestall people from thinking there are standards beyond the sov i enlist power of religion ch 30 restatement of 10 conunandments ii enlist educational institutions 4 note also regulation of the economy including welfare provisions D this all looks pretty illiberal 1 allows for pretty massive control over private life a b C no notion of natural right that bars government from private sphere see Locke for that no notion that citizens should participate in politics as w Aristotle i the idea seems to be that people will get satisfactions in purely private sphere of fulfilling their own personal desires ii Sov would create conditions in which economy market would ourish would set ground rules for that and ensure social conditions for its success idea is that Sov decides how to draw the line between public and private 2 but not perfectionist 233 d true do have control over culture but not in the interest of perfecting human nature rather in interest of preserving social peace so issue is not character but will i Hobbes a state of war results from independence of wills people doing what they want to serve own interests b thus he mentions will a lot in ch 17 problem is to unify the multiplicity of wills wants sov to form the wills of the citizens ii points to ongoing tension between morality and welfare a say you make a date with someone but on your way you run into someone you like more Though you d be better off breaking the date that would be wrong you ve obliged yourself even under social contract people have taken on obligation to obey sovereign but will always have temptation to pursue self interest this is why Hobbes speaks of the need to form men s wills will see more of this in a moment gets picked up by Rousseau b C d From Patrick Riley Will and Political Legitimacy A Critical Exposition of Social Contract Theory in Hobbes Locke Roasseaa Kant and Hegel Cambridge MA Harvard University Press 1982 Political philosophy since the seventeenth century has been characterized above all by voluntarism by an emphasis on the consent of individuals as the standard of political legitimacy All of social contract theory can be seen as a striking example of voluntaristic ideas lts insistence on the artificial nature of society and government on the derivation of their legitimacy and sometimes their actual existence from acts of will makes this clear What is probable is that ancient quasiaesthetic theoryies of the good regilne and the naturally social end of man gave way with the introduction of Christianity to thinking about politics after the model of good acts Just as good acts required both knowledge of the good and the will to do the good politics now required moral assent the implication of the individual in politics through his own volition The Reformation doubtless strengthened the element of individual choice and responsibility in moral thinking while subordinating the role of moral authority And it was natural enough that the Protestant view of individual moral autonomy should spill over from theology and moral philosophy into politics forming the intellectual basis of contract theory After the unfolding of the essential social ideas of the Reformation the mere excellence of an institution would no longer be enough it would now require authorization by individual men understood as authors This represents a substantial break with the ancient tradition in which consent does not commonly function as a principle of legitimacy While the need for consent to fundamental principles of political society in order to create a political construct through will and artifice is a doctrine characteristic of what Michael Oakeshott has called the idiom of individuality the ancient conception of a highly unified and collective politics was dependent on a morality of the conunon good quite foreign to any insistence on individual will as the creator of society and as the basis of obligation pP 13 I Goals A Legitimacy by way of obligation B Sovereignty c Liberalism II Analysis of Hobbes contract A Structure 1 All with all 2 Why a PD My problem you might defect b State of war You EVERYONE c Need an agreement to cooperate i build in enforcement the Sovereign ii deal is we will help enforce the agreement against anyone even oneself 3 Why not a direct contract between individuals and Sovereign Because I want YOU EVERYONE to be bound by him 4 Why not a contract between society and the Sovereign Because need an agreement to bring society into existence B Terms 1 Provide basis of obligation 2 Bottom line is consent 3 Specifically everyone gives up right of selfgovernment III Obligation and legitimacy A Morality vs prudence B Joining the contract is prudent hence rational c But once it s in place why obey 1 Reasons of prudence 2 Not moral reasons D Consent 1 Source of moral obligation 2 Patrick Riley on will a will as key to morality b wrong to force people to violate their own will c tf consent essence of legitimacy E Contrast higher law standard of legitimacy IV Sovereignty A What powers are essential to government B Absolute sovereignty 1 Hobbes answer A LOT a justified by civil order b contrast with Locke on limited sovereignty 2 Particular incidents ch 18 a contract irrevocable no cause of action against the Sovereign b Sovereign has final say on what doctrines are permitted c Sovereign sets up property rules d Sovereign final interpreter of natural law 3 Regulation of culture c Liberalism 1 NOT a no natural right b no emphasis on political participation c Sovereign draws the line between public and private 2 But not perfectionist a this not to perfect human nature b but rather to preserve peace c the issue is not character but will History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Rousseau Social C antract 1 What this lecture will do A Relation between Discourse and Social Contract 13 topics 1 legitimacy 2 sovereignty 11 Relation between the two works A Note differences 1 D1 looks historical SC looks like an abstract treatise about right 2 D1 interested in diagnosing how things got as bad as they are SC proposes a vision of how things could be ideal how society could be 13 Are the theories consistent look for way to place event of social contract into the historical account in D1 plausible point of contact is the institution of the contract uz e g in D1 the contract is bad in SC it is good but the terms are equivalent b D1 contract bad because made under condition of inequality of wealth i offers formal equality but that enforces substantive inequali ii Anatole France equality of the law forbids rich and poor to sleep under the bridges iii big problem get formal freedom but in fact locks in dependence of poor on the ri c so if SC contract is going to be good has to be made under conditions of rough equality i in D1 there s a moment Rousseau describes where economic life has just begun but inequality has not yet developed para 46 equality could be maintained but nothing in place to maintain it ii what if something had worked to maintain that proportion 1e what if contract had come in there iii this offers at least the possibility of a legitimate social contract between relative equ s iv note Rousseau hints that one of the functions of the state is to preserve rough equality of property footnote to 19 1111 a Echo of Plato here b And note he denies that property is a natural right which would give it the inviolability seen in Lo WP 111 Legitjlnacy A object of the book see in opening sentence again in opening paragraph of chapter 1 13 main moral category is not right as in code of natural rights but rather freedom 1 Note how often that word appears in opening chapters a FaInous opening line man is born free sets agenda of justifying any lilnitation on freedom b chapter on slavery omit details but note utter rejection of any notion that slavery could be moral because freedom is the essence of humanity 14 2 voluntarism a b C shared with Hobbes and Locke at the core of legitilnacy is free consent hence the necessity of a contract agreement convention 14 C Fundamental problem SC 16 put problem of the state of nature in terms of freedom 1 IV Sovereignty 33 d V nature is uncertain insecure need to cooperate to survive but cooperation involves risk i will give up some freedom ii but these are what one uses to protect own interests note Rousseau assumes self interested individuals men as they are iii note prisoners dilemma structure here risk involved in surrendering freedom since might find oneself not able to protect self interest so is there a way of cooperating ie submitting to chains obligations of society in a way that does not lessen freedom Social contract as solution to fundamental problem a b involves a transformation of freedom ch 8 i move from natural to civil freedom mere possession to property insecurity to security ii deeper move from natural to moral freedom a natural freedom following desires a form of slavery b moral freedom self mastery autonomy true freedom iii so the social contract will provide for this richer form of freedom ie self rule How i terms of the contract 16 each person gives up all his rights to the whole community to be governed by the general will ii how does this preserve freedom iii no dependence on other individuals dependence is now impersonal on conununi as a whole a Note idea of freedom here freedom from domination by another individual b Rousseau s time as a servant iv more notion of general will society as a whole tells its members what to do but each member has a role in determining social decision the general will More on this later accept it for now v therefore each person follows laws they have made and this is moral liberty People not losing freedom but gaining a higher form of it A basic account institution of the social contract creates the sovereign That is to say sovereignty belongs to the people as a whole note profound difference from Hobbes 1 2 SD V b V for Hobbes people agree with one another to give sovereignty to third party This means this third party will exercise will for the society subjects submit their wills to his will for Rousseau can t alienate one s will i recall all the stuff about freedom attack on slavery ii so it is impossible to do what Hobbes thinks ie have someone else will for you iii sovereignty has to inhere in the conununity it is essentially emocratic but note big silnilarity with Hobbes sovereignty is unlimited a ie have Hobbesean conception of sovereignty but attached not to a third party but to the comInunity itself note Rousseau s rejection of the notion of natural law contractors give up all rights in order to enter the community set up rights as part of their contract c ie no external lilnitation on what sovereign can do any limitation is expressed in terms of the contract this seen as posing threat of democratic totalitarianism and the theory was exploited in this way in the French Revolution e within the theory however there are supposed to be safeguards i because the contract will apply to all no one has an interest in making it onerous would backfire on him ii acts of the sovereign laws have to be entirely general ie apply to everyone equally B idea of the general will 1 GW is the will of the sovereign ai1ned at what is good for comInunity as a whole a the common good b a bit mysterious but has to do with distribution of welfare across whole comInuni 2 general in several ways but in particular it comes from comInunity in general as opposed to particular parts of it a sovereign composed of all the voters in the assembly b so GW aggregates individual wills somehow or other c thus somehow it aggregates what is good for each into what is good for all skip over the mathematical idiom think of it as a kind of consensus on what is best 3 next week will consider how GW is Rousseau s version of an external standard of legitjlnacy b V d V I Topics for today A Relation between DI and SC B Legitimacy C Sovereignty II Relation between the two works A Differences 1 2 DI historicalSC abstract DI a diagnosisSC an ideal B Question of consistency 1 2 Point of intersection the contract Puzzle DI contract badSC contract good but terms are the same Explanation a DI contract bad because made under conditions of inequality i offers formal equality delivers substantive inequality ii offers formal freedom delivers substantive dependence b for SC contract to be good has to be made under equality i there is such a moment in DI ii so a legitimate contract is possible iii a function of the state is to preserve rough equality III Legitimacy A B Stated subject of SC But main moral category in SC is freedom 1 Recurring theme freedom is essence of humanity 2 Voluntarism legitimacy based on free consent The fundamental problem of politics 1 SC I6 think of problem in state of nature in terms of freedom a need to cooperate to survive b cooperation risks freedom c envision cooperation that maintains freedom 2 SC solves the fundamental problem a transformation of freedom i natural possession to civil property ii natural following desire to moral selfmastery iii SC provides for autonomy b How i terms each person to be governed by the general will ii no dependence on another individual iii each person provides input to the general will iv individuals follow laws they have made autonomy IV Sovereignty A SC creates sovereign sovereignty belongs to the people as a whole Compare to Hobbes 1 Huge difference a H sovereign is a third party who wills for society b R will is inalienable sovereignty is inherently democratic 2 But other similarities a for both sovereignty is unlimited b for both no natural law limitations on sovereignty for R all limitations internal to contract C General will 1 will of the sovereign directed toward common good 2 comes from community in general a R s opposition to influence of particular interests b GW aggregates individual wills History of Social and Political Philosophy Fall 2007 Lecture on Aristotlez Politics 22 I What this lecture will do A Main topics legitimacy and perfectionism 13 papers due Friday ll Aristotle on legitimacy A Principle rule in the conunon interest 13 Cuts across form of govern1nent any form can be legitimate if it attains that en C utilitarian feel 1 2 3 work to enhance welfare of all recall Plato on principle of specialization appeals to notion of optjlnal production note differences from modern view no ideas of a protecting rights b consent of the governed Ill Perfectionism Bk VII VIII in parts we don39t read he deals with all kinds of practical issues like size and location B but here he makes the perfectionist idea explicit best constitution based on conception of the best life Vlll 1 So what is best life a def near end of Vlli b involves virtue hence activity relies on material goods but not identified by them 2 for us this tends not to be an objective question but one to be decided on privatel 3 for Aristotle this is demonstrable by Philosophy and is the goal of politics C Education 1 rationale a a polis is excellent because its citizens are excellent 1332a34 b men s actions determined by their nature reason and habit i which must work in concert ii nature in uenced by habits iii reason and habits formed by education these therefore a matter of political concern 2 read Vllli explicit statement of idea that education is a public concern 3 other chapters in Vll go into details of what system of education should be like IV Citizenship and the good life A political participation an element in the good life so state should be organized to encourage require it B will touch on some of what Aristotle has to say on citizenship in first chapters of III which we skipped over C Defining citizenship 1 definition of citizen one who shares in rule l275bl7 a apparently a democratic model b but note how it is restricted to those capable of doing this so really kind of elitist 1115 c assumption citizens a subset of general population 2 distinction between good man and good citizen 1114 a Recall Crito i problem there is obey moral imperatives or obey law be a good man or a good citizen where good citizen is one who obeys the laws ii general issue is there a con ict between these two moral imperatives b for Aristotle i here has broader notion of citizen not just sharer in rule but in general member of the state ii this puts focus on idea of doing one s part whatever that is iii tension between single quotnaturalquot notion of excellence for man contrasted with variable notion of civic virtue 1276b20 ff what it takes to obey the law varies from city to city iv raises specter of good citizens doing inhumane things what it takes to be a good citizen dedication to state might block qualities associated with being a good man c explanation of difference i virtue of best man to do with exercise of reason this only consistent with ruling 1277al4 27 ii latter to have share in both ruling and being ruled 1277a28 ie key civic virtue is obedience D elevation of political participation to central status in human life follows that only in ruling can a citizen be a good man in fullest sense a because only then exercises reason b ruled person needs only true opinion not full knowledge 1277b27 2 this happens only in proper political arrangement ie full virtue only possible in certain kind of state 1277b7 ff 3 but note citizens need some element of leisure freedom from necessity in order to be able to exercise faculties needed to rule a citizens shouldn39t work not appropriate to their function but pulls them into lower class which lacks ability to share in rule 1277a33 b Aristotle argues that workers shouldn t be citizens 1115 4 Can see here a big split between political and economic spheres and elevation of the political over the economic We can see how this changes in later thinking I Topics for today A Legitimacy B Perfectionism c Citizenship as a feature of the good life II Legitimacy A Principle rule in the common interest B Cuts across form of government C Utilitarian feel III Perfectionism Books VIIVIII A Does deal with various practical issues B Best constitution based on the best life WM 1 What is best life 2 Is this a subjective or objective question c Education 1 excellence of state based on excellence of citizens 1332a34 2 education needed to produce excellent citizens 1332b9 3 perfectionism gt education and culture are politically relevant IV Citizenship and the good life A Political participation as an element of the good life B Defining citizenship 1 First take having a share in rule 1 275a22b1 7 2 Looks democratic elitist elements c Good man vs good citizen III4 1 Crito obey social or political morality 2 Aristotle a broader conception of citizenship here membership in the association 1276b20 b civic virtue doing one s part for the state b tension between universal human virtue and relative civic virtue 1276b20 c good citizens can do bad things 3 Explanation of the difference a human virtue involves exercise of reason only consistent with ruling 1277a14 27 b civic virtue also involves being ruled 1277a28 D Elevation of political participation citizen can only be an excellent man only if he has a share in rule but this happens only in the proper political arrangement 1277b requirement that citizens have leisure entails that workers shouldn t be citizens III5 Split between political and economic spheres of life
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