History of Science to the Age of Newton
History of Science to the Age of Newton HSCI 3013
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FTHSCI 3013 Final Review The Body Time Periods Antiquity500 BC500 AD Middle Ages500l450 Early Modeml4501800 Major Figures Hippocrates ca 460ca 370 BC Nicknamed the father of western medicine However he didn t see dissections as really necessary Separated divine from naturalistic causes for disease but didn t deny the existencerole of God Some of his students probably wrote his works but the earliest medical Greek writings are attributed to him He wrote texts on specific diseases On the Sacred Disease epilepsy saying cause was completely naturalistic not divine He also did a lot of case studies The earliest mention of the Four Humors was his On The Nature of Man which attempts to explain the human body in its anatomy and composition The content is based on observation and defended by logical explanations of the causes of each disease in order to readily meet outside criticism It places emphasis on disease not being of divine origin but rather an imbalance of the four humors collection of blood phlegm black bile and yellow bile in the body Four HumorsBlood Phlegm Yellow Bile Black Bile produced by digestion of food Each individual has their own balance of humors constitution or temperament and it is normal for l or 2 to predominate Eg if someone is mainly blood they are sanguinehappy yellow bilecholericeasily angered phlegmaticstoiccoolheaded black bilemelancholia Depending on your humor you are prone to different diseases Balance of humor controlled by the Six NonNaturals lfood and drink 2environment 3amount of sleep 4exercise 5evactuation of bodily residues sweat urine feces etc 6emotions Therapy tries to manipulatefix the six nonnaturals preventative activities stressed Plato 429347 BC the most prominent physician of his day In Sanzio s painting he is pointing to the heavens Was very in uenced by Hippocrates Galen developed idea of Four Humors Wrote 350 texts all written by him Performed dissections argues he s a philosopher Wrote the book Timaeus which begins with a distinction between the physical world and the eternal world The physical one is the world which changes and perishes therefore it is the object of opinion and unreasoned sensation There are 2 gods a divine creator demiurge who made the souls immortal and a lesser god who made the body mortal ALL ORIGINAL BODIES WERE MALE BAD MEN REINCARNAT ED AS WOMEN When the demiurge makes a soul it is assigned to a star The souls are shown the secrets of the cosmos but the corrupted earth makes the soul forget these secrets Animals and humans have souls Aristotle 384322 BCwrote On the Soul Was Plato s student Didn t think Plato s concept of soul was correct Proposes that all living things plants too were a combo of body and soul The soul animates and gives life to the bodyMALE CONT RIBU T ES SOUL FEMALE CONT RIBU T ES BODY He took a positive view on the soul but believed souls are mortal when body dies soul dies Plantsvegetative soul animalsoul for sensationmovement humansrrational soul Humans have all three of these types of souls Proposed idea of blooded mammals and bloodless insects animalsAlso he didn t think world was created it has been and always will be In Sanzio s painting he is pointing to the earth Wrote on a number of topics including the body the earth and the heavensDid dissections on animals only but probably would have liked to have liked to have perfomed dissections on humans Aristotle believed all living things were made of a body and soul Galen 129ca 200 two types of blood venus liquid food and arterial blood and air re ned vitality Claimed the liver was a digestive organ all blood originated in the liver Talked about Numa animal spiritWrote Anatomical Procedures and The Use of the Parts of the BodyWhen he investigated the body he was investigating the soul Reason is a uniquely human trait Aristotle thought so too THE HUMAN HANDREASON WE ARE SUPERIOR T O OTHER ANIJWALS Galen s views are a combo of Plato and Aristotle Galen believed in demiurge because of hand Believed souls were immortalDidn t write on reproduction child birth Andreas Vesalius 15141564Trusted Galen that liver was organ of blood production Didn t believe men had one fewer rib than women Wrote De H umaniCorporisF abrica very important textIn 1541 while in Bologna Vesalius uncovered the fact that all of Galen s research had been based upon animal anatomy rather than the human since dissection had been banned in ancient Rome Galen had dissected Barbary Apes instead and argued that they would be anatomically similar to humans As a result he published a correction of Galen39s Opera omnia and began writing his own anatomical text Until Vesalius pointed this out it had gone unnoticed and had long been the basis of studying human anatomy However some people still chose to follow Galen and resented Vesalius for calling attention to such glaring mistakesGalen assumed arteries carried the purest blood to higher organs such as the brain and lungs from the left ventricle of the heart while veins carried blood to the lesser organs such as the stomach from the right ventricle In order that this theory could be correct some sort of holes were needed to interconnect the ventricles and so in the spirit of Galen39s time he claimed to have found them adjusting the facts to suit his theory So paramount was the authority of Galen that for the next 1400 years a succession of anatomists claimed to nd these holes until nally Vesalius declared he could not find them However while Vesalius dared to admit he could not find these holes he did not dream of disputing Galen on the distribution of blood and so imagined it distilled through the unbroken partition between the ventricles Other famous examples of Vesalius disproving Galen in particular was his discovery that the lower jaw was only one bone not two which Galen had assumed from animal dissection and his proof that blood did not pass through the interatrial septum Hieronymus F abricusabAquapendente 1533 16 l 9f1rst permanent theater for public dissectionsDiscovered valves of the veinsIn uenced Harvey Renaldo Columbo d 1559action of the heart and pulmonary transit of blood animal vivisection dog venus blood and air mixed in lungs to form arterial blood produced in left side of heart Wrote De re anatomica Colombo made several important advances in anatomy including the discovery of the pulmonary circuit which paved the way for William Harvey39s discovery of circulation years later In the Galenic tradition blood passed between the ventricles of the heart through micropores in the heart s septum and that venous blood became arterial blood in the left ventricle of the heart where air was supplied by the pulmonary vein During vivisections of dogs and other animals Colombo repeatedly found only blood and no air in the pulmonary vein In his model venous blood travelled from the heart to the lungs where it was mixed with air and then returned to the heart Although the permeability of the septum was denied by Michael Servetus in ChristianismiRestitutio in 1553 and by Ibn alNafis in the 12th century Colombo was the rst to describe an alternative In addition to the pulmonary circuit Colombo also discovered that the main action of the heart was contraction rather than dilation as had previously been thought Both of these discoveries were later con rmed by William Harvey William Harvey 15781650 studied under Hieronymus performed many heartrelated experiements to study blood ow Eg tried to push blood in veins away from heart to no availWrote De MotuCordisComing into con ict with Galen39s accepted view of the liver as the origin of venous blood Harvey estimated the capacity of the heart how much blood is expelled through each pump of the heart and the amount of times the heart beats in a half an hour All of these estimates were purposefully low so that people could see the vast amount of blood Galen39s theory required the liver to produce Johann Storch 1681ca 1752 wrote Diseases of Women Diseases Plagues and Maladies It was widely held that the act of original sin threw the humors out of order allowing for disease to enter the world Medical practitioners believed in a hierarchy of causes God secondary natural When people got sick thought of natural causes Leprosy readingJordan of Turre The Symptoms of Lepers Jordan looked for universal signs of leprosy by checking urine pulse blood voice and different members E g a weak pulse and thinclear urine scaly esh His diagnosis draws on past knowledge but also adds to it Leprosy takes a long time to kill a person Many writers attribute leprosy to an excess of black bile This disease was almost enevitably fatal and very painful Stronly attributed to sin multiple stages in early stages it could be curable It was treated with bloodletting purging and special diets Once a terminal stage was reached treatment wasn t withdrawn but was given to allieveiate Lepers were believed to exude a poison This disease was rumored to be caused by too much sex No one leper showed all the signs but should exhibit most French Pox readingUlrich von Hutten Of the Beginning of the French Pox Ulrich was stricken with the Pox and wrote his treatise on what works and what doesn t work in treatments Recognized that Pox began in France in 1493 Most agreed that it was caused by unwholesome blasts of the air Pox resulted in boils and aches in the infected areas Claimed Guiacum root was more effective than mercury Astrology was unfavorable rapidly put into humoral framework and associated with other diseases Like leprosy it was associated with too much sex However unlike leprosy the pox was seen as quite curable Plague Black Death readingDaniel Defoe Journal of the Plague Year Plague was believed to have began in Holland in 1664 This was a pandemic This plague would return every 15 years Linked to astrological phenomenaSome thought that a comet foretold the plague Defoe and others went to the country to avoid the air No goodeffective treatments Sometimes death occurred wo symptoms Disease was nicknamed spotted feaver Defoe explained that the plague was thought to be caused by poisoined air so people wore masks with sweetsmelling things inside Jews were blamed S xL tur Men seen as hotter than women Men are hot and dry while women are wet and cold Men and Women s bodies had the same anatomy but the heat in a man s body pushed the organ penis outside Testiclesovaries HOWEVER THERE IS NO UTEREUS EQUIVALENT IN THE MALE BODY Digestion is equated to cooking as food cooked waste was expelled Because men s bodies were warmer they cook more effiently they don t menstruate Women don t menstruate while pregnant because excess stuff goes to baby Women who are hotactive don t menstruate Male menstration is seen as a medical phenomena hemmoroids but not seen as bad or effeminate Menstral blood came come out in different places nosebleeds Theories on Reproduction l Aristotilianbodyfemalesoulmale and makes no material contribution to reproduction Menstral blood forms the body Soul directs shaping of the body if you got a femals child nature went awry 2 HippocraticTHE DOMINANT THEORY 2 seed model both male and female make contribution female testicles function as male testicles One way of accounting for sex differences is that one seed is stronger Humoral constitution is inherited If soul enters in 40 days male if soul enters in 80 days female Conception can occur only if both parties experience orgasm Increase female pleasure can help lead to conception In the uterus the left side is female the right is male If you want your baby to be a certain sex lay on one side right after conception so the seed goes to that specific part of the uterus A seed in the middle of the uterus will result in a hermaphrodite The Earth Time Periods Antiquity500 BC500 AD Middle Ages500l450 Early Modeml4501800 Major Figures Aristotle 3 84322 BChe argued for a round motionlessearth saying that there were examples that disproved a at earth theory lif you walk around the earth you will see different stars 2if you are standing on the shore looking at a sailing vessel you will rst see the top of the mast 3eclipses caused by spheresDescribed motion in 2 realms Terrestrial realm made of 4 elements earth water air re while a 5Lh element quintessence exists in the heavens Didn t describe motion mathematically In terrestrial realm motion was linear up down while in the celestial realm motion is uniform and circular He first described projectile motion as violen motionIn this case as an object is projected it threatens to create a void so air rushed to fill the void pushing the object forward So people are interested in motion in the middle ages HOWEVER TWO MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS OCCUR MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT OF MOTION AND NEW EXPLANATIONS OF MOTION JOHN BURIDAN DESCRIBES IMPETUS This was not a challenge to Aritotle but more of an expansion of his argument So people accept earth is round What they now dispute is how big the earth is and how much is covered by landwater Eratosthenes ca 275194 BC was quite accurate in calculating the circumference of the earth Constructed a world map based on both parallels and meridians took position of sun from different cities in Egypt at same time Unfortunately none of his maps survive Pliny 2379 ADwrote Natural History His book was written in Latin and was not seen as intellectual It was mainly speculative guesses at what people the world over looked like mixed with cultural info Said that you can t live in some parts of the world that are too hot cold Dioscorides 5070 De M aterz39aM edica outlined the medicinal use of plants very important book Claudius Ptolemy 85165 wrote Geography This book outlined more sophisticated techniques for representing a curved earth ALSO MADE A PONT IN MATHEMATICALLY DESCRIBING MOTION Around this time MIDDLE AGES the Silk Road was extrememly popular and trade allowed for transmission of goods and ideas In 12001350 Genghis Khan allowed European merchants to travel the road In 1271 Marco Polo went on a journey across the Silk Road to China took 3 years He stayed in China for 17 years and wrote an extremely popular account of his journey About 50 years later the Empire built by Genghis Khan fails and the road closes SO INTEREST IN SEA TRADE IN 15TH CENTURY Prince Henry the Navigator gets interested in exploring Southern Afric In early 153911 century he sends a ship from Portugal down the coast of Africa origins of the slave trade This increased trade brought about some new innovations for Portugal New kind of ships New methods of determining latitude at sea New mapmaking techniques developed quadrant northpole star Development of the Mercator map 1512 was the origin of the term atlas Mercator proj ectoions show a round earth on at paper In 1487 explorer Bartolomeau Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa The Book of Beasts 121h century gives physical description of animals The bulk of the book is allegoricalbiblical BEASTERIES ARE POPULAR MOST AREN T AUTHORED lEtymologyarame 2 physcial description 3moralallegorical lessons bulk of entry John Buridan ca 12951358described impetus early form of inertia Development of Portolean charts early l4Lh centuryused for naviagation EARLY MODERN Paracelsus 1493154lalchemy has 3 principle ingredients salt sulfur and mercury VERY IMPORTANT CLAIMS THESE THINGS MAKE UP THE HUMAN BODY NO MORE 4 H UM ORS LevinusLemnius 15051568wrote Ari H erball for the Bible which outlined the spiritual and medicinal uses of all plants listed in the Bible Eg wormwoodwvrath of God extraordinarily popular work on the secrets of nature an 39 quot quot quot of I 39 39 39 39 physical medical religious and moral topics attempting to explain extraordinary phenomena in nature Conrad Gesner 15161565a naturalists with awesome illustrations in his books John Gerard 15451612wrote The Herbal or General H istorie of Plants This was the rst major herbal in English with copied illustrations from other books Book WAS NOT organized alphabetically and included plants without medicinal uses similar to Antiquity Galileo Galilei lS64 l642 wrote Dialogue of Two Chief World Systems SimplicioAristotilian geocentric stationary earth and a rock s natural motion is to earth Salviatii heliocentric mobile earth and Sagredoneutral This book was meant to give equal weight to all arguments but Galileo was actually just cleverly arguing a heliocentric view In the book Simplicio says if the earth was movine if you threw a rock down from a tower it wouldn t end up at the base Salviati says that that is because the rock has two motions straight down and circular Also claimed that the path of a projectile was a parabolaBU T HE DENIED CONNECTION BETWEEN MOON AND TIDES Edward Topsell 1572 l 638 wrote H i storie of F our F ooteal Beasts Robert Hooke l635l703 Newton s rival wrote the bookMicrophagia Had drawings of his telescopeStudies eas louses etc Hooke said that Adam and Eve had much keener senses and that the microscope helped restore these lost senses Jan Swammerdam l637 l680 wrote Bible of Nature developed techniques for dissecting animals under the microscope May y study Fredrik Ruysch 1638173 lbaby skeleton diorama shows the brevity of life and the need to repent Isaac Newton l64l727wrote Princz39pia M athematica Wrote on Emerald table optics physics biblical interpretations the most on thisClaimed that the fall of the apple is the same thing that keeps planets in orbit White light is pure Thought that theology and alchemy were inseperable Discovered planets move in elipses used inverse square to prove it est of 3 laws BEASTERIES AT THIS TIME SHOWED HOW ANIMALS RELATED TO HUMANS IN A CHRISTIAN CONTEXT ALCHEMY Could turn base metals into goldSeen as a viable science Origins of alchemy date back to ancient Egypt Hermes TrismegistusEgyptian writer Originally alchemy was believed only to involve mercury and sulfur It was believed that only in special circumstances sis mercury and sulfur naturally make gold Man could make gold if they took impure metals and broke them into their components isolating the impurities removing them and forming gold SEEN AS A PURIFICATION TECHNIQUE In the l6Lh century there was an explosion of alchemical interest People believe you can make babies without sex humonculous Robert Boyle explained how to make a toad or a serpent Explained how to revive the deadALCHEMY BECOMES RELIGIOUS AT THIS TIME THE HEAVENS Time Periods Antiquity500 BC500 AD Middle Ages500l450 Early Modeml4501800 Five planets Visible to the naked eye Mercury Venus Jupiter Mars Saturn Greeks claimed there was order in the planets Planets exhibit 3 major things lbounded elongation mercury and venus are dog stars 2retrograde motionplanets seemingly stop and back up 3Variation in brightness not like stars Major Figures AnaXiander 610550 BCClaimed earth was a at disk with winds hitting it Eudoxus ca 400ca 347 BC Elaborated on the spherical model and argued for nested spheres Plato 427347 BC believed in ether so sun moon and planets would eXibit natural circular motion Aristarchus ca 310ca 230 BC proposed a heliocentric cosmos knew sun was further away than the moon Aritotle 384322 BC56 spheres instead of 27 Eudoxian Aristotle s Model doesn t let you calculate where planets will be at a certain time His model also isn t backed by mathematics BUT PTOLEMAIC MODEL SOLVES THIS Claudius Ptolemy c 100cl70Wrote Almagest and Tetrabiblos Wrote on horoscopic astrology PROPOSES MODELS WITH MATHEMATICAL BACKING lEccentric modelearth is offcentered 2Epicyle on Deferentaccounts for retrograde motion 3Equant model planet sweeps out equal angles in equal times based on this noncentral point FOLLOWING PTOLOMY THERE IS A DECLINE IN INTEREST IN COSMOS BC OF FALL OF WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE ASTRONOMY NOT SEEN AS REALLY IMPORTANT Around 1000 AD European scholars travel to Islamic lands and discorverPtolomyastronomy again Gerard of Cremona 11141187Translated works of many Greek philosophers from Arabic into Latin translated Ptolomy s Almagest Scholars got their hands on these translations and edits Thomas Aquinas ca 12241274Reconcilliation of Aristotilian natural philosophy and Christian theology Argued for the usefulness of Aristotle to Christianity Johannes de Sacrobosco ca 1230wrote De sphaera an intro astronomy text for university students re ects the increasing importance of Aristotilian natural philosophy not a super mathematical text A liberal arts curriculum PHILPSOPHY IS USEFUL TO THEOLOGY THE BIBLE DOESN T DESCRIBE AN ARISTOTILIAN COSMOS THE BIBLE NEVER SAYS THE EARTH IS AT THE CENTER OF THE COSMOS Three different heavens in celestial region lEmpireuimhome of God lSt day 2Crystalline heavens waters above the waters 3Fermamentvisible cosmos 2quotd day Condemnations of 1277things God can t do moving the earth creation of more than one world Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas are forbidden to propose these things 3134 Whi ecrscm mac rm aha math X gll xlil39ltll51l76339311l l dt xgkl lill lrwatx a gums Mmipumt Nicholas Copernicus 14731543HELIOCENTRICM explained bounded elongation mercury and venus retrograde lantage point on earth gave appearance of retrograde motion keeps epicycle theory C ommentarz39oulsa manuscript description of the heliocentric system commentary on Ptolomy On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbsdedicated to Pope Paul follows the Almagest in using the same mathematical principles of Ptolomy Only wanted to reform Ptolomeic model He was afraid of ridicule not religious censure He claimed motion in heavens was uniform and circular He did not however like Ptolomy sequant In Ptolomeic model each planet had one epicycle In Copernican model each planet had 2 epicycles ADVANTAGES OF COPERNICAN SYSTEM lBounded elongationexplains that mercury and venus are closer to the sun than the earth is 2retrograde motionhe says it wasn t because of epicycles but bc of vantage point on earth DISAD WIN T A GES MAJOR REASON FOR NOT ACCEPTING HIS MODEL IS HE DIDN T PROPOSE A PHYSICS BEHIND IT couldn t explain fallin of heavy bodies or planetary motion said there could be multiple centers in the cosmos earth in quintessence He didn t publish his work because he couldn t prove his physics Thycho Brahe 15461601saw nova changing AntiAristolian since cosmos can change but geocentric Wanted to eliminate solid spheres Galileo Galilei lS64 l642 Wrote The Starry Messenger first work on telescopic astrology What he sees is not compatable with AritotilianPtolomeic cosmos Describes rocky pock marked moon describes stars or Jupiter moons orbiting it Venus has phases like the moon The sun has spots Saturn appears to have appendages This is anto AristotilianPtoomeicbecause it claimed there was more than 1 center of rotationCreates physics that explains Copernican theory ALSO observes Saturn mistaking the rings for satellites Observes venus shows hases are compatiable with Copernican model but not Ptoloemaic Notes sunspots Johannes Kepler lS7ll630 Copernican astrologer Wrote MysteriumCosmogrphaicum which shows Platonic solids Also wrote New Astronomy O irst two laws which was his heliocentric argument since it outlined the motion of Mars Wrote Harmonies of the Worldthird law which claimed that motion eXists in harmony and proportions Claimed heavens were uid Which of the celestial bodies is always found in the ecliptic Stars mars sun Which instruments account for retrograde motion Epicycledeferent eudoxian concentric spheres What was the language of learning in the Roman empire Greek In aristotilian cosmology what is the boundary between the celestial and terrestrial The surface of the moon sacrobosco Who rst described an empyrean heaven Thomas Acquinas Copernicus on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres Kepler rejected the Copernican idea that planets move with uniform circular motion mondinodeiluizi Robert hooke 39the motion of the tides Johann storch did perfrom dissectionsautopsy ptolemaic map wr I39dhtt mama WWIMMW i u mm 1 lona MnN Etymology Physical description Habits and behavior Moral signi cance Allegorical signi cance Conrad Gesner historie of animals Thomas moffet Mideval herbals Name or names of plant Description of physical appearance sometimes With illustration Description of habitat Medicinal properties Main difference between ancient Ptolemaic astrology and medievalearly modern astrology In medievalearly modern period astrology becomes an integral part of MEDICINE