Introduction to Fine Arts
Introduction to Fine Arts DRAM 2713
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Lynch on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DRAM 2713 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jan Russell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/229319/dram-2713-university-of-oklahoma in Drama at University of Oklahoma.
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Introduction Know the definition of the following terms art Some sight sound or movement or combination intended as human communication Result of human action A made thing aesthetic A way of perceiving a framework for perception My aesthetic shapes my responses gestalt uni ed whole The whole is greater than the sum of its parts im agery The total sensory content of any work of art im agin ation Capacity of being able to hold an image in our minds of something that isn t there which we can manipulate and change The human habit of manipulating images inside our own heads verisimilitude The quality of appearing to be real or true What is the difference between denotation and connotation denotative is the actual definition and connotation brings in emotions feelings metaphor a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance simile an instance of such a figure of speech or a use of words exemplifying it LIKE or AS How can you tell them apart a simile is specific while a metaphor is poetic What would be the subject matter of a portrait a still life or a landscape representational objective Criticism What is the purpose of criticism A process of observation description and analysis that leads to enhanced understanding What is the critical process What is it What was the artist trying to do Was it worth the effort ReportDescribeAnalyzeJudgment What is propaganda Propaganda is the task of creating and directing public opinion Be able to define Glittering Generalities Associating something with deeply held values or beliefs by connecting it with virtue words or glad words Honor glory love of county Card Stacking Use only those facts that support one side of the argument while attempting to lead the audience into accepting facts as a conclusion omit key words or stats one sided story Name Calling Attach a negative label Calls for a conclusion without examining the evidence Often employed using sarcasm and ridicule in political cartoons and writing Bandwagon Persuade the audience to follow the crowd Keeping up with the Joneses philosophy Encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something you should do it too so you re not left out While we borrow these terms from the field of propaganda consider how these things can weaken a critical argument Style What is style How something ism done The techniques the artist uses to create the artwork The basic set of values behind the artwork The characteristic appearance of the artwork What is the difference between representational and nonrepresentational art Know the 4 Big Isms of style we discussed in class 1 realism Realism focuses on everyday existence contemporary social problems conflicts and problems familiarto most people Subject matter often peasants and laborers doing their real work Not kings or gods or pirates Just like the people in the audience or those viewing the art Language sounded like everyday speech Subject matter is limited to what could be perceived by the 5 senses Refuses to gloss over or idealize reality Stresses the ACTUAL over the IMAGINARY FANCIFUL FANTASY MYTHOLOGICAL Tries to be TRUTHFUL OBJECTIVE to REPORT ratherthan INTERPRET 2 impressionism Started in France Similar to Realism in terms of subject matter but less concerned with communicating objective reality and more concerned with communicating subjective sensory impressions and subtle moods Impressionists worked outdoors en pe n air as the French say in order to capture the effects of light and color as we perceive them In uenced by advances in science in understanding light and color Artists tried to break up light into its component colors and show how this light plays on objects how it transforms our perception of the visual world as it changes Tended to use short brush strokes ofintense colors to capture the IMPRESSION of something at a particular moment in time Shadows and dark tones are created by using complementary colors Impressionists seldom used black 3 expressionism movement began in Germany around the turn of the 20th century the Expressionists were all about feeling Expressionists tried to project their strong often violent feelings into their depiction of objects often through the techniques of distortion and exaggeration of both SHAPE and COLOR 4 surrealism an artistic style that attempts to give visual representation to dreams fantasies and the unconscious mind lt s means above or beyond realism Disillusioned and alienated by their experiences in World War the young painters poets philosophers who began this movement turned their backs on reason and the values of the prewar world For them dependence on rational thought and reality was what led the world into war Far better they declared to trust the inner workings of our unconscious They were much influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud especially his work in dream analysis For the Surrealists what our unconscious minds produced was more truthful more meaningful than anything our reason could come up with Be able to recognize Visual examples of these styles Elements and Techniques of Composition Know the elements of composition Line Actual Implied Lines can be described in terms of their width length direction focus and feeling Shape Form is the area enclosed by other elements implied or actual Geometrical Biomorphic Natural Texture is the feel of an object It too can be actual or implied Mass Space Is the actual or implied distance or area between around above below or within things The difference between space and mass is similar to the difference between shape and form and for much the same reasons Space can refer to a 2 dimensional art and mass usually refers to 3 dimensional arts Color is probably the element that most of us react to rst Know and understand what primary colors red blue yellow can39t mix to get them secondary colors mix two equal primaries to get green orange Violet tertiary colors mixing two secondaries Know these terms regarding color complementary Opposite colors analogous Colors next to each other hue The elemental idea of the color Ch mm a How pure the hue is in relation to gray saturation Degree ofpurity ofa hue intensity Brightness or dullness shade add black to a hue tint add white to a hue palette An artist s overall use of color or the general color tonality in a particular painting Know and understand Perspective How we understand distance and size What we observe from our particular point of view The further away something is from us the smaller and less distinct Help us understand the size of the space and give us a sense of distance between the objects linear perspective Converging real or implied lines draw the eye to a vanishing point aerial perspective creates a sense of depth by imitating the way the atmosphere makes distant objects appear less distinct and more bluish than they would be if nearby chiaroscu 3903 Works on the principal that the closer a surface is to a light source the brighter it is When and how the surface begins to move away from the light source and thus falls into shadow tells us about shape and surface dynamics The sense of motion or stillness created in a work of art balance is how the aitist has distributed the visual weigh of the composition Axial The aXis being the center line of the painting Radial The composition growing outward in a circle from a center point Symmetrical Same on both sides Asymmetrical balance created by how we perceive and compare the visual weight or different elements in the painting why do artists use these techniques S culpture What is our definition of sculpture An art form that communicates through design in three dimensional spaces Know the four ways of making sculpture we discussed Manipulation playdoh clay Subtraction carving stone and stuff Addition welding Substitution make a mold then ll with something else Know the difference between fullround sculpture and relief sculpture fullround is free standing and is meant to be seen from all sides where relief is attached to a background and only meant to be seen from front Arm atu re skeletonlike framework to help support material being molded Music Elements of sound Pitch is the perception of the frequency of the sound experienced and is perceived as how quotlowquot or quothighquot Tim bre quality of sound intensity how loud or quiet a sound is duration temporal aspect of music how long the sound goes on What is our definition of music Tempo Aagioslow Anddanteon the slow side but not too slow Moderatomoderate tempo Allegrettoon the fast side but not too fast Allegrofast Prestovery fast Prestissimo very very fast Accelerandogradually getting faster ritardandogradually getting slower Volume PianissimoVery softly Pianosoftly Mezzo Pianomoderately softly Mezzo Fortemoderately loudly F0 rteloudly FortissimoVery loudly Crescendogradually louder Decrescendogradually softer Know the four types of musical texture l homophonya texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony the relationship between them creating chords 2 polyphonya texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices 3 heterophonya type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line 4 simultaneitya texture Know these terms with regard to music rhythm any kind of movement characterized by the regular and recurrence of strong and weak elements beat the regular recurrent pulsation of sound that divides music into equal units of time m eter the organization of accented and unaccented beats into regular recurring groups measure one full expression of the meter in music syncopation Purposer going against the expected rhythm pattern Word Art iamb weak STRONG trochee STRONG weak dactyl STRONG weak weak anapest weak weak STRONG trimeter three feet in a line tetram eter four feet in a line pentam eter five feet in a line hexam eter six feet in a line formal verse poetry that uses regular metrical patterns and rhyme schemes blank verse poetry that uses regular metrical patterns but is not rhymed free verse poetry that does not have any metrical or rhyme patterns Be able to determine the of a poem and express in the appropriate language accented and unaccented m eter the organization of accented and unaccented beats into regular recurring groups line lengthwhat meter it39s in rhyme pattern iambic trochee dactyl anapest What does foot mean in metered poetry one full expression of the meter Why do we say some words are mimetic feeling imitates meaning Be able to recognize lists both catalog and climbing figure repetitions and balances What is pI OSOdy7is the rhythm stress and intonation of speech Theatre What is our definition of theatre When a person isolated in space and time presents himself into another catharsis to purge or cleanse completely 111 im etic Imitation of actions events synthetic Many elements work of many disciplines many sensory emotional and intellectual responses are synthesized into a singular experience ephem era Fleeting momentary transient im 11 ediate Direct effect Instantaneous no time to re ect the willing suspension of disbelief and who came up with that phrase Samuel Taylor Coleridge It s where the audience accepts the fact that the actors aren t real but they don t care aside When the other characters don t hear what another character on stage says Speaking to self Speaking to audience direct address soliloquy Character alone on stage Thinks out loud Spatial and temporal convention Time and Space are uid on stage Aristotle was first critic Aristotle s six elements of dram a Plot The order of the action the shape of the play Character The human agents who carry out the plot Thought The intellectual aspect of the play the theme Diction The kind of language used by the characters Music all that can be heard aural elements Spectacle all that can be seen visual elements Plot the order of the actions shape of play Parts of a plot Exposition Background info Inciting Incident First con ict Propels the characters into action Rising Action Results when major characters encounter complications meet opposing forces Creates more con ict Creates more action Increases suspense emotional tension Possible complications Discovery major character learns discovers something important Reversal of fortune major character s situation changes reverses for better or for worse Foreshadowing hinting at future events Climax Most intense point of con ict Point of highest tension Falling action Undoing all remaining complications Denouement Resolution Tying up all loose ends Explaining any leftover points putting a button on the experience Closure Know the difference between climactic and episodic plots Climactic Plot Usually begins late in the story near the climax Limited number of characters and locations We see on stage only the characters and events needed to tell one story no subplots Events are linked by obvious causeandeffect Episodic Plot Tells a story that covers a long time and begins early in the story Often many characters and locations Often several stories being told plots are interwoven Constructed with a series of short scenes episodes C 0n ict result of intersection of 2 or more forces Armies Ideas Single character s unresolved issue Without Con ict there is no drama To be worth the effort Action What it is something a character does that can be perceived by the audience What it does move sthe plot forward Building block of drama De nition of acting the process of communicating to an audience a characters active struggle to overcome obstacles and achieve a goal 4 Questions every actor must answer about his character 1 Who am 1 Physical characteristics Place in the society ofthe play Psychological makeup 2 What do I want Determine the character s main goal super objective Must be of life and death importance to the character 3 What stands in my way Determine the character s obstacle EXtemal Other characters Door Situation Time Internal Fear Anger Guilt Ignorance 4 What am I willing to do to get it Determine the character s tactics Tactics are the active things a character does physically and vocally to overcome an obstacle and achieve the goal Musical Form Know AABA song form A 8 bars A 8 bars B 8 bars A 8 bars Know sonata form Know 12bar blues form Know what bridge and coda mean and where you would find them in a piece of music Bridgetransitions C0datai1closure end of song DRAM 271 3 00 SPRING 201 1 RE VIE WSHEE T F OR FIM4L EX4M Distributed 42820 This review sheet should not be interpreted as a guarantee of what will or will not be on the nal exam It is intended as a guide to help you structure your studying Here 5 the deal on points for this course To make an quotA quot you must earn at least 180 points To make a B you must earn at least 160 points To make a quot0quot you must earn at least 140 points To make a D you must earn at least 120 points The nal exam will be multiple choice and will have at least 90 questions Each question t will be worth 1 pain My plan at the moment is to have the test machinegraded I will pro Vide answer sheets Please bring a 2 pencil and some method of keeping it sharpened It s always a good idea to bring a spare pencil and a good eraser The test will be given on WEDNESDA Y 11 MA Y2011 You will have from 130 pm to 330 pm to complete the exam HELPFUL HINT Several short 20 or 30 minutes study sessions spread over several days will do you much more good than one long session the night before a test Know and understand the significance of the following termspeopleevents as we have used or discussed them in class as you have read about them in your text andor course pack ABSTRACT ACTION AESTHETIC ALEXANDER THE GREAT ARCHITECTURE ARCHON ARETE ARIA ARISTOTLE ASIDE BASSO CONTINUO BLACK DEATH BYZANTIUM CATHARSIS CHOREGOS CNQUENTO CITY DIONYSIA COLERIDGE SAMUEL TAYLOR CONFLICT CONNOTATION CONSTANTINE CONSTANTINOPLE COURTLY LOVE CRITICISM CYNICISM DEUS EX MACHINA DISCOVERY DITHYRAMB DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS EMPIRICISM EPICUREANISM ETHELWOLD EXPOSITION FEAST OF CORPUS CHRISTI FEUDALISM FLYING BUTTRESS FORESHADOWING GREGORIAN CHANT HANNIBAL HROSWITHA VON GANDERSHEIM HUMANISM ICON ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT IMAGERY INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ISTANBUL KEYSTONE LITURGICAL DRAMA LOGOS LOCKE JOHN MADRIGAL MANSION METAPHOR METER IN VERSE AND IN MUSIC MOTET MYSTICISM NEWTON SIR ISAAC OFFICIUM ORCHESTRA IN AN ANCIENT GREEK THEATER PAGEANT WAGON PIETAS PLAINCHANT PLATO POETIC LICENSE POST AND LINTEL CONTRUCTION PROSODY QUA TTROCENTO QUEM QUAERTS RATIONALISM RECITATIVE REVERSAL OF FORTUNE ROMULUS AND REMUS ROSETTA STONE ROYAL ABSOLUTISM SALONS SCHOLASTICISM SIMILE SKENE SOLILOQUY STOICISM SYMBOLSYMBOLISM SYNCOPATION TEMPO THESPIS TONE POEM TRADE GUILDS TRAGEDY TROUBADOURS UTILITARIANISM VIRTUS DRAM 271 3 00 SPRING 2011 RE VIE WSHEE T F OR FIM4L EM 2 Distributed 42820 The Steves book has quite a few pages that illustrate the changes from one era to the next For instance check out pp 178 180 270 303 320 and 473 Study these pages If you haven t found it already your text also has section on Music Appreciation p 489 And have a look at the section that starts on p 495 Only about 20 of the questions on the exam will be taken from what we covered before the midterm The balance will come from What we have covered since the midterm and most of this part will be from the historical survey Know the time line of the historical eras we ve discussed For each of the historical eras we have considered know the defining characteristics of the art and music of that age and knowwhat forces andor ideas inspired those characteristics For instance 0 To what era would the phrase Man is the measure of all thingsquot refer and how was that shown in the art of that era 0 Who were the Barbarians and what did they bring to the story of art In ancient Greek art what distinguishes Archaic Classical and Hellenistic styles 0 Where would you find the Parthenon Where would you find the Pantheon What is the difference between aiete and 39 5397 Vn u What made the art of the Baroque different from the art of the Rococo period 0 What s the difference between Greek Revival and Gothic Revival architecture How might you recognize a Gregorian chant How can you tell 5 Medieval church from a Renaissance church A Renaissance building from a Baroque building On what artistic points might a Classical composer and a Romantic composer disagree 0 What are the differences between Doric Ionic and Corinthian columns How can you tell a Romanesque church from a Gothic church How can you tell a Renaissance sculpture from a Baroque sculpture What are the basic tenets of Mysticism Scholasticism Humanism Empiricism Rationalism and Utilitarianism With which historical area are these ismsquot associated How are they expressed in the art of that era 0 Who were Plautus Terence and Seneca Be able to look at a painting sculpture or architectural example and decide which historical artistic era it is from Below is a list of events with some peopIepIacesthings associated with those events You will find information on all of these in the Steves book With a couple of exceptions these events are not specifically about art Instead they are watershed events that had significant impact on the direction of western civilization For that reason alone you should be familiarwith them But since they did affect human experience and since art is an expression of human experience you should be able to match these eventspeopleplacesthings with the appropriate artistic era All dates are AD or CE if you prefer o 313 Constantine legalized Christianity 0 800 Christmas Day Charlemagne Charles the Great crowned first Holy Roman Emperor First Reich 1054 The Great Schism Roman Catholic Church under the Pope splits from What became known as the Orthodox Church headquartered in Constantinople 1066 Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror Bayeaux Tapes 1215 Magna Carta King John Runnymede 11001300 Crusades 1450 Johannes Gutenberg movable type printing press 1478 The Spanish Inquisition Tomas de Torquemada auto da fe 1517 Martin Luther the NheryFie Theses the Protestant Reformation 16421648 English Civil War King Charles I Oliver Cromwell 1776 July 4 Declaration of Independence 1789 July 14 Bastille French Revolution Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette 17931794 Reign of Terror guiIIotine Robespierre Marat see the painting Dear7 ofMaa 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte proclaims himself Emperor 1815 Battle of Waterloo Napoleon Wellington 0 19h century 0 In Italy Risorgimento Carbonari Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel 0 In Germany Otto von Bismarck