Week 1 Lecture and Reading Notes
Week 1 Lecture and Reading Notes CJ 100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Owens on Friday January 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 421 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/16/15
Matt Owens Criminal Justice January 7th 2015 Syllabus Day Outline of Class Topics 0 Mainstream media and the CJ system 0 Bill of rights Constitution 0 Police Courts and Corrections I Three main components of the criminal justice system 0 Trials of the Centuryquot I OJ Simpson I Kasey Anthony I Zodiac Killer Intro To Criminal Justice Criminal Justice Society s response to crime Involves the three components of the CJ system we will discuss this semester police courts and corrections Crime An intentional act or omission in violation of the criminal law committed without defense or justification and penalized by the government Criminology Study of why people commit crimes Matt Owens Criminal Justice January 9th 2015 Media In uence on the C System The Illusion of Choicequot 0 Did you know that almost all media comes from the same six sources 0 6 media giants now control 90 of what we read watch or listen to In 1983 about 50 corporations controlled the same 90 media There is a monopoly of information forming which worries many people If you control the news you control perceived reality Can the Media Handle the Truth UCR data Uniform Crime Reports 0 Put out by the FBI yearly 0 Local state and federal law agencies combining data in order to form an overview of crime that year 0 Crime has been declining at a significant rate since the 1990s despite the media saying crime is growing 0 Past to present 1992 vs 2011 I 1992 Violent Crime Rate 757 per 100000 I 1992 Murder Rate 93 per 100000 I 2013 Violent Crime Rate 382 per 100000 I 2013 Murder Rate 46 per 100000 Media In uence on the C System Media Sensationalism Tendency to present information about crime in a way that provokes public interest and excitement usually at the expense of accuracy Public opinion frequently contradicts findings from crime data Why Sensationalize 0 Ratings 0 The media tries to grab the attention of anybody and everybody by connecting the story to the individuals Trial by Media Trial by Media The media reaching a verdict in a case before the jury does 0 Notable examples Casey Anthony 0 Simpson etc Very problematic in people s perception of the C system The Role of Public Opinion Public opinion greatly in uences political leaders Mass media greatly in uences public opinion Edward Bernays 0 Edward Bernays Publishing in uential work propaganda I Nephew of Sigmund Freud New age of social media has changed everything Youtube Facebook Twitter etc SOPA PIPA etc Internet censorship Age Demographics Changes in the age makeup of the population are key to the analysis of crime trends 0 1624 year olds are the peak crime committing years 1970 rise in crime PostWWII Baby Boom During the 1990s the 1624 year old age cohort was smaller than it had been at any time since the early 1960s Government spending towards public safety has been increasing exponen a y USA incarcerates at a much larger rate than other countries Current Events Annual cost of crime 0 Safety expenditures victimization etc o 17 2 trillion I Does not include some of the biggest white collar crimes I Could go up to even 15 trillion with white collar crimes National Debt Clock 0 18 trillion and increasing at a constant rate Libor Scandal 0 Wasn t covered much by media 0 In terms of money this was this largest crime ever committed o Directly effects every single person Matt Owens Criminal Justice January 12 2015 Review From Last Class Media and the Criminal Justice System 0 Consolidation sensationalism propaganda trail by media Crime Rate 0 Longitudinal trend Steadily decreasing 0 Age Demographics 1624 peak crime age LIBOR Scandal LIBOR Rate London InterBank foered Bate Average interest rate calculated estimated by major banks Financial institutions mortgage lenders and credit card agencies set their own rates relative to LIBOR Basically major banks get together and determine how expensive money should be Interest rates on borrowing money Libor Scandal Banks decided to rig interest rates in order to keep from giving money Shaved off hundreds of trillions of dollars from the world economy 345 trillion ish Estimated to affect 300900 trillion in global derivatives 0 In terms of money this was the largest crime ever committed Banks were falsely in ating and de ating their rates Why 0 To maximize profit Why does it still happen 0 There is no deterrence consequences to keep them from committing crimes again Media barely covered the Crime of the Centuryquot 0 CNN gave the most coverage at 2143 minutes 0 Coverage on shark attacks got 5 times this amount of coverage New Information New York Fed Federal Reserve released documents that showed they were aware that banks were rigging the LIBOR rate Civil suits class action lawsuits by individuals cities and municipalities etc Potentially billions of dollars UPDATE 0 Cities sued due to severe loss of money 0 Banks admitted to it 0 Federal courts dismissed it I Case supposedly didn t have merit I Shows that this scandal probably runs deeper than the private sector White Collar Crime Edwin Sutherland was the first to publish on this subject in 1940 White Collar Criminality 0 Father of WhiteCollar Crimequot Scholarly community was stunned by the claim that quotrespectablequot executives physicians and politicians whitecollarquot jobs frequently violated the public s trust and committed fraud costing millions of dollars Very rarely covered by media 1960s 1970s Political unrest 0 People began to look at Sutherland s work with acceptance 0 Questioning government and federal business Sutherland s Views Two distinct criteria for whitecollar crime 0 1 Crime Had to be committed in the course of the occupation o 2 Crime is undertaken by a person of respectability and high social statusquot I EX Bernie Madoff respected high social status Why Study WhiteCollar Crime 0 WhiteCollar crime and Social costsquot 0 Lose confidence in the system 0 Lose trust in government and federal businesses Bad as the economic costs are the more worrisome effects involve lower morale and creation of distrust ex Financial institutions Physical Costs of WhiteCollar Crime People killed inured or made ill Lack of safety regulations violating safety regulations ex Coal mining Toxins in the workplace toxins released into the community Defective products and false advertising pharmaceuticals automobiles etc o Campbell s Soup I Showed a big bowl of soup with lots of ingredients however their soup was 99 water I Sued from people and forced to put more ingredients in their soup Exposure to a Criminal Culture Newcomers arrive for work they soon learn that certain unethical and illegal business practices are normative Resistance to breaking the law treated like the new workers are not team playersquot denied advancement within the company Engaging in shady dealings increased profits are rewarded WhiteCollar Crime Fullrange of frauds committed by business and government proessionals MF Global Bernie Madoff Enron Victimless 0 NO 0 They are widespread and affect us all to some capacity Matt Owens Intro to Criminal justice Ianuary 14 2015 Review From Monday What is whitecollar crime 0 Full range of frauds committed by a business or business professional 0 Edwin Sutherland o Victimization It impacts us all Social costs vs physical costs 0 Social costs Emotional 0 Physical costs debt injury illness as result of cutting corners budgeting etc Ponzi Schemes Ponzi Scheme Fraudulent business model When somebody takes money from new investors to pay it out to existing investors 0 Bernie Madoff Major ponzi scheme 0 Component 1 ofponzi schemes I They seem legitimate 0 Component 2 ofponzi schemes I Ran by a respected successful individual 0 Component 3 of sponzi schemese I They all come to an end get exposed Ponzi schemes always fail due to the lack of new investors Normalizing Behavior Case Study The Ford Pinto o A lot of people were buying Iapanese and German automobiles due to their fuel efficiency during this energy crisis 0 Ford rushed the design of the Ford Pinto to compete 0 Gas tank placed six inches from the rear bumper I If it is rear ended it s likely to have an explosion or combustion o Iapanese compacts were coming out after rush production 0 quotNormalizedquot the risk 0 Aware of the design aw refused to pay for a redesign an decided it would be cheaper to pay off possible lawsuits even though people could become injured or killed WhiteCollar Crime Today Bernie Madoff O O O O O O Scam of the Century 50 billion dollar heistPonzi Scheme Nicknamed the Thief of Wall Street Had strong connections with very wealthy people People trusted him looked upon as a kind and wise man Early suspicions of ponzi scheme Sentenced to about 156 years in federal prison MF Global 0 0 000000 0 Never really made mainstream media Headed by John Corzine I Has faced no criminal charges I Former governor of New Jersey I Was potentially the next Secretary of the Treasury After Corzine left the office of the Governor of New Jersey he returned to Wall Street by leading the firm known as MF Global which was surprising since it was such a small firm compared to what he was expected to be involved in MF Global dealt with trading with commodities MF Global was losing money before Corzine took control Brought in a new team Corzine himself was the chief trader MF Global was focused along with agricultural futures trading Somebody in the firm took out clients money in order to pay back a bad investment I Highly illegal Corzine claimed he had no idea where the money was and no criminal charges were filed Billions of dollars misplaced PFG Financial 0 O Commodities brokers firm similar to MF Global People who had money left after losing from MF Global invested their money into PFG Financial Not long after PFG Financial declared bankruptcy It became known that this was also another ponzi scheme Matt Owens Intro to Criminal Justice January 14th 2015 Pages 6268 Theoretical Foundation Social Control Theory People are essentially rational beings but they are motivated by desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain 0 Possible explanation of the unlawful behavior involved with White collar crime Corporate Crime crimes committed by wealthy or powerful individuals in the course of their professions or occupations includes pricefixing insider trading and other whitecollarquot crimes Whitecollar crime is the largest and the most costly type of crime in the United States Origin and Measurement Problems Whitecollar crime was first introduced in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland WhiteCollar Crime A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation Sutherland examined 40 years of data and reported that of the 70 largest corporations all of them had violated at least one law Today we recognize whitecollar crime but it s extent is still unknown to us 0 Collecting accurate data is difficult o The official statistics of the Uniform Crime Reports do not include much information about whitecollar crimes 0 Corporations maintain a code of silence on this issue to protect public image Punishing Whitecollar crime 0 Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 I Federal statute that prohibits a business to intentionally prevent or reduce competition in a certain market I It also employs the federal government to investigate these crimes 0 Hundreds of other laws and agencies exist to police corporations in order to prevent whitecollar crime 0 Agencies can se recalls warnings consent agreements injunctions fines and criminal proceedings to prevent or reprimand whitecollar crimes 0 However companies often maintain legions of attorneys that ensure their bosses seldom if ever receive punishment Types Ponzi Scheme Where one basically uses new investors funds to pay early investors rather than using profits earned by the individual or organization running the operation Bernie Madoff 0 50 billion fraudulent Ponzi scheme 0 Sentenced to 150 years in federal prison Martha Stewart 0 Committed and lied about insider trading 0 Insider Trading The illegal practice of trading on the stock exchange to one s own advantage through having access to confidential information Further examples of the variations of whitecollar crimes 0 A Swiss pharmaceutical company paid 500 million in fines for price fixing on vitamins 0 False medical diagnoses along with unnecessary surgical procedure victimize more than 2 million Americans cost 4 billion and result in 12000 deaths per year Fee splitting and pingpongingquot doctors referring patients to other doctors within their own office also occur 0 Ford Pinto Ford was aware of a defect which would cost 11 per car to repair in their car known as the Pinto The aw could result in a fiery explosion in a rearend collision due to the location of the gas tank 6 inches from the back bumper They decided it would be cheaper to pay drivers injury and death claims rather than recall and repair the vehicles 0 Lawyers engage in ambulance chasingquot A form of self advertising file unnecessary lawsuits and falsify evidence 0 Corporations dump or release toxic chemicals and hazardous materials into the environment to cut costs and avoid regulatory laws 0 Companies steal secrets and patents from one another and thus commit corporate espionage Related Fraudulent Acts quotCousinsquot of whitecollar crime 0 Identity Theft The offender assumes someone else s identity uses the other person s stolen credit cards steals his or her login credentials and performs countless other such ruses I These cost some 405 million Americans about 15 billion per year in losses 0 Postal Schemes Widespread they involve I Leaving town with payments for orders I Offering to arrange a guaranteed business loan or employment for an advance feequot I Chain letters I Workathome schemes I Fraudulent sales of property Religious Cons Religious cults televangelists or organizers skim money from the church Phony accident claims One of many forms of insurance fraud people fake accidents or forge accident claims Nigerian Letter Scams Often emailed these are pleas to help transfer money from Nigeria or some other part of the world for which the recipients will be rewarded Paper Hanging Passing bad checks forgery and other fraudulent acts Phony FundRaising offenders may target Victims of natural disasters or other types of Victims