08/19/15-08/24/15 Lecture Notes
08/19/15-08/24/15 Lecture Notes HIST 1020 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kassandra Balsters on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Sarah Renee Hamilton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
08192015 Sphinx s Nose Bias Napoleon Enlightenment Historians analyze stories 0 So how do they put the pieces together The Sphinx is a part of the great pyramid group in Giza Egypt very close to downtown Cairo Sphinx head of a human body of the lion 0 Common motif in Egyptian culture the Sphinx is viewed as a guardian within the culture Historians assume that the Sphinx is around 4500 years old o It was abandoned within a few centuries of it being built and was buried under the Saharan sand for some time Ancient Egyptians actually were the rst to excavate it 0 Sometimes pharaohs would modify it adding the beard etc 1920 s was when the modern full excavation took place inevitably pieces of the Sphinx were damaged however it was missing a large piece BEFORE the excavation took place its nose 0 The most common explanation is that Napoleon s soldiers shot off its nose with a cannon 17981801 he and his soldiers showed up in Africa to dominate trade lines 0 According to the legend he soldiers got bored and began to use the Sphinx s nose as target practice There is no actual evidence that Napoleon was involved or responsible for this so where does this story come from o The people who reiterate this story don t like France very much or Europe and they certainly don t like Napoleon Unfortunately for these people Napoleon was actually not a very likely candidate as he respected other cultures to an extent He was a child of the Enlightenment so he wouldn t go destroying another county s history haphazardly o The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement from the 18th century 0 Participants in the Enlightenment were often very involved with trying to gure out and analyze the history of the world and other societies Napoleon s Egyptian campaign was one of the rst attempts at an Egyptian survey and documentation by a Western historian 0 Basically they sucked Unfortunately they broke artifacts and stole them which is how many ancient Egyptian artifacts found their way into Europe Because of this it is not likely that he would allow his soldiers to shoot of the artifact s nose 60 years before the campaign in 1737 a Dutch tourist drew a picture of the Sphinx without its nose proving that it could not have been Napoleon Upon further investigation it appeared that the Sphinx s nose had been pried off with a crowbar 0 So who did this Egyptian historian explanations typically got ignored 0 However these historians have typically already gured the quotbig mysteryquot out while the western historians are struggling According to an Egyptian historian of the time period it probably fell off within the 14th century 0 At the time Egypt was ruled by Mamlues The historian wrote that peasants nearby Cairo were worshipping the Sphinx as a deity Most citizens were Muslim and this irritated them 0 The peasants infuriated one particular man an extremist He and some of his followers attacked the Sphinx and tore its ear and took off its nose The peasants then got pissed because their deity had been destroyed and they were hurt economically tourism did exist at this time 0 Later these peasants got together and executed the extremist The job of history is to look at all evidence establish a broad base and put the story together History is all about critical thinking and critical thinking is the number one skill which employers seek in future employees 08212015 World History Scale World System Core Periphery There are a lot of good reasons to take this course 0 This class is a graduation requirement because it makes you more well rounded and gives you a more knowledgeable outlook on the world With history we have to learn how people and events are truly connected 0 History gives us the quotgrand scopequot of life and its story Humanity and history is a story not just dates and facts 0 We re looking at how different groups connected together overtime There are numerous pieces that go into putting the puzzle together with history We are going to look at the greater events and themes as well as key gures and important people We cover history from about the 1700 s to the present day 0 You learn different things when you observe history from a larger point We intermittently scale in and out to nd different things within history Hamilton wants us to really emphasis scale within this course Scale allows us to link things together and comprehend patterns we learn how individuals and people groups are connected to one another 0 For some time their differences culture climate trade etc connect people Everyone is part of the same globalized WORLD SYSTEM o The choices we make have a very large impact on the global market A core is a place which has a lot of connections to the global market A periphery is a place where there is less impact less wealth and less globalization o A periphery doesn t have to be disconnected from the world they re just less powerful than core nations Gur a big tent of felt and wood that can be moved lived in by nomadic huntergatherer societies such as the Mongolians Mongolians are the prime examples of different modernities as they still live in their huntinggathering societies and yet have power electricity television and smart phones 0 Understand that people have different forms of modern life styles Individuals live their lives in the midst of interconnected lives 0 Over the last 300 years the rate of change has accelerated immensely Societies have never been isolated You can t understand today s societies without understanding the past 08242015 Teology Afroeurasia Early Modern Period World System Mercantilism Tea Sugar quotRise of the Westquot A lot of what we study is Europeans moving out o 17th19th century shape the world we know today White people being in charge is a totally new factor For the majority of history Europeans were very peripheral Teology means that you as a historian look at an outcome and work backwards o This allows you to be able to come up with reasons Avoid teology because its bad and it gives inclination that they these societies were bound or destined to win 0 We want to start from a beginning stance giving us a stronger historical factor with actual facts We can t predict things with teology 0 We actually end up blinding ourselves with teology Again Europe prior to 1700 was peripheral o The center of the world system at the time was Chine 221 BC China was ruled by a uni ed dynasty 0 Full of wealth tons of innovation high technology etc China was extremely advanced compared to the rest of the world 0 Had these Chinese ideals spread we would be speaking Chinese Ming dynasty decided to turn inwards because of internal issues within the state and to protect the border for recurring attacks Early Modern World System is a global network 0 There is no longer three separate networks but one uni ed network It is at this time that Europe begins to awaken Europeans gured out how to sail and turn outwards to expand trade and commerce 0 Because of this new innovation for Europeans they decide to attempt to gure out a better route to China Columbus was sent out to nd India Suddenly Europeans found the Americas and gained a sudden steep advantage as it takes advantage of American resources 0 The Atlantic world begins to gain recollection for this sudden birth The Early Modern World System is characterized by globalization as everything was linked 0 World Systems are remember integrated economies of the nations of the world Massive numbers of people migrated heavily o Threefourths as many African Americans migrated as Europeans migrated Mass commodities were born because of sudden cheap transportation The economic system that drives the Early Modern World System is mercantilism o This established economic order is designed speci cally to forward economies A country s power and wealth is determined by the amount of precious metals they posses Gold and Silver 0 Increase in precious metals is found via trade Countries wanting to gain wealth had to import less and export more Many of the Europeans states were extremely resources poor 0 The Americans give Europeans something they can export Colonies enable small European states to shift their balance of trade 0 Portugal and Spain found raw materials they could export and took the operation to a GIGANTIC scale Colonies are not allowed to trade with anyone except their metropol o The logic behind this according to the metropol is that Colonies are EXTENSIONS of the state and not free to do as they choose Tea is one of the most heavily traded commodities at this time o It didn t arrive in Europe until 1610 by the Dutch East Trading Company By 16101800 imports went up by 40000 0 Mass market as commoners also began to drink tea Every bit of this tea that was being marketed and sold was coming from CHINA Chinese had been generally indifferent from European trade 0 China really only wanted their silver as all of their goods were remedial to them This was really bad for Europe because they didn t have much silver The tea market was nanced entirely by American silver mines 0 Silver from the new world nanced the European addiction 0 The Europeans also wanted a sweetener SUGAR Sugar was extremely hard to get in Europe as it would not grow in their nonconductive environments 0 Europeans claimed tropical territories planted tons of sugar and got the product shipped back to the metropol Because this turned out to be pro table they wanted to increase the sugar production to its maximum Africans were present in these tropical colonies to work the sugar plantations rather than Native Americans 0 Life expectancy of the average sugar plantation slave was approximately seven years It was difficult and unpleasant work and their overseers generally worked them to death One of the biggest causes of the slave trade was the demand for sugar 0 Tea was based on the exploitation of American resources and African slaves as well as the globalization The west generally means western European states 0 These states rising happened because of their exploitation of these new found resources 0 African labor and American resources are major causes as stated above Understand what rises looked like what globalization means Understand that the European rise was all via exploitation of resources other than their own IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT EUROPEANS ARE NOT UNILATERALLY IN CHARGE The reasons Europeans were expanding was so that they could be competitive with China in order to gain the commodities they desired from that powerful state 0 Even in Africa they were not in charge Europe once nding the Americas became the intermediary between these two worlds 0 The Europeans however had to move because their densely populated countries could handle no more Regardless the EASTERN world China Asia Japan etc were still very much more powerful than the expanding Europeans