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Exam 3

by: hannah gagnon

Exam 3 PHIL 1030 - 002

hannah gagnon
Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice of Bioethics
Dr. Joshua Johnson

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Exam 3 Notes part 1
Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice of Bioethics
Dr. Joshua Johnson
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by hannah gagnon on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Joshua Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice of Bioethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
3 Bioethics 102115 Roe v Wade rst term abortions are legal in all 50 states Abortion laws in Alabama Find a clinic only 3 in Alabama You go and get counseling they try and persuade you not to get it and then you have to wait at least 48 hours until you can come back and get the procedure they give you an ultrasound and make you look at the picture Parental consent for under 19 years old Most are out of pocket unless you can prove rape incest or dangerof death around 500 Roe v Wade 1973 72 vote Wade was the doctor that refused the abortion Roe was a pseudonym that the defense used Prior to 1973 it was illegal except in cases of rape incest or risk of mother s help 18th century abortion laws were very lenient why did it get stricter 11Victorian sensibility to discourage elicit sexual behavior If we didn t have abortion laws women would be having sex without any consequences wasn t proper of ladies of the time QAbortions are dangerous 1 State has an interest in protecting life including prenatal m How did the court come to their conclusionwhat is their justi cation 14th amendment right to privacy quotLife liberty and the pursuit of happinessquot They focus on LIBERTY right to privacy protects abortions If all abortions are illegal the state would be imposing on your Hbe y If a fetus is considered a person they have the same rights THIS IS WHERE THE CONTROVERSY COMES IN Roe supporters would claim that a fetus is not a person They claim that the writers of the constitution were not planning on including the unborn when they wrote the amendment How do they handle the quotlife begins at conceptionquot issue They sort of sweep it under the rug in this case deem it unimportant to the decision Why limit the abortions to rst term only in this case The federal government can only regulate up to the point of viability after the rst trimester the baby can live outside the womb with arti cial aide The state has the right to allow further along abortions but the federal government regulates it to this limit Judge Rehnquist voted against it says that the liberty aspect of the 14th amendment includes abortion 3 Bioethics 101415 Roberts Right to Reproduce Procreative liberty right to have children or not to have children A maiority of people do have the right to procreate 1 Procreative liberty is a NEGATIVE right the right not to be interfered with 2 Not everything that occurs in and around procreation falls within liberty interests that are distinctively procreative a If the father is present b Midwives involved c Hospital or at home Where does this right nd its basiswhat grounds procreative liberty Personal identity The meanings of one s life Dignity Why should we protect this right History shows us that people who don t have this right encountered severe problems Ex you were forced to have a baby if you were pregnant no abortion gtgt the fetus is the state s property They would have government officials go door to door and nd out when the girls last periods were Ex gtgt you can only have one child females are typically aborted or given up for adoption this has messed up the ratio to male to female in China Ex gtgt forcibly sterilized mentally incapacitated people Ex gtgt a woman had a Csection a couple years ago tries again and can t get pregnant she was sterilized without her knowing during the Csection gtgt 7000 more cases were found since then Procreative liberty protects abortion What does this procreative liberty entail Choosing a partner having sex getting pregnant carrying to term giving birth and rearing the baby What blocks procreative liberty Unwillingness or unavailability of a partner infertility state marriage laws etc DOES EVERYONE HAVE THIS RIGHT NO One should have at minimum the mental capacity to understand or appreciate the meanings associated with reproduction Does not remove their right to bodily integrity forcibly sterilizing severely retarded people is still wrong because it de les their human dignity Un t parents ex crackheads have the right to reproduce but not the right to rear children Noncoital Reproduction Coital reproduction through sexual intercourse Most popular form lVF Adoonn Surrogacy Arti cial insemination These people have a procreative liberty too Noncoital technologies are protected under this law NCT gives the option to genetically engineer your baby Some say that their choice on having a child depends on said child being healthy does this fall under procreative liberty Roberts says so Roberts doesn t go far enough to say that genetically enhancing to create a quotdesigner babyquot6 foot 4 blonde male engineered for sports is permissible 3 Bioethics 101915 Laura Purdy Is is morally wrong to have a genetically related child when you know that the child is going to carry on a serious genetic defect Purdy says YES it is wrong She says that conception can sometimes be morally wrong on grounds of genetic risk quotIt is morally wrong to reproduce when we know that there is a high risk of transmitting a genetic disease or defectquot This limits procreative liberty Robertson she would further limit this in order to prevent the carrying on of a serious genetic disease Ex Huntington s disease Symptoms are on pg 410 If one parent has the trait their offspring have a 5050 chance of getting it There is now a for Huntington s disease Purdy says that if you nd the mark for the disease in a prenatal test you are doing something immoral if you carry on with the pregnancy and deliver No cure but there is a way to eradicate it by stopping people from reproducing with the disease it would be faster than nding the cure EX DANIEL look him up on YouTube What is the underlying principle to her claim What do we quotowequot our possible children What constitutes minimally satisfying She focuses on health quotnormal healthquot based on culture this excludes the difference between situations in the United States versus rural India Huntington s is not normal in any society Some people think we should exercise a right not to know as long as our ignorance does not put others at harm others includes possible children Purdy is ne with things like adoption she doesn39t want to cut them off from raising children altogether This topic in the light of pro life vs pro choice ProChoice option is abortion if your kid tests positive for Huntington s ProLife option is to have the child with Huntington s Purdy calls this an immoral act To accept Purdy as a prolife person adoption is one of the only option 3 Bioethics 101215 Schneiderman jecker and Jonsen Medical futility Main question Is a doctor obligated to perform a medical intervention when that intervention is deemed futile and are they obligated to inform the patient andor the patient s family about the treatment They say NO doctors are not obligated to do either of these things Rise in autonomy reason that there s the preconceived notion that doctors have to dotell everything possible to the patient and family BASIS FOR THIS CLAIM Medical care is to improve the patient s prognosis if the treatment is not improving the patient s prognosis then you re not doing medicine They say that the goal of medical treatment is not merely to cause an effect on some of the patient s anatomy but to bene t the patient as a These ethicists consider arti cial food and hydration to be a futile effort A futile action is one that cannot achieve the goals of an action no matter how many times said action is repeated Futility property of an action Hopelessness psychological state AN ACT CANNOT BE HOPELESS quotI know this act is futile but I have hopequot What are the categories of futile actions 1 Quantitative relies on empirical data this treatment has been done before so you have stuff to base it on If the treatment has less than 1 chance of working the treatment is deemed futile 2 Qualitative any treatment that merely preserves permanent unconsciousness or that fails to end total dependence on intensive medical care should be regarded as non bene cial and therefore futile Are there exceptions YES for example someone is dying and is in the last stages of cancer but he hasn t seen his children who are ying in to see him before he dies if the man has a heart attack before they get there he can be resuscitated only as long as this action doesn t directly effect the health care of others medical staff hospital itself other patients etc 3 Bioethics 10915 US Bishops Council Withholding treatment 3 important catholic principles 1 Suffering is a fact of human life and has special signi cance in participating in Christ s redemptive suffering 2 Everyone has the duty to care for his or her own life and health and to seek necessary medical care from others if medical care involved excessive burdens then it39s an extraordinary means and you can let them go 3 In the nal stage of dying one is not obligated to prolong the life of a patient by every means possible When inevitable death is eminent it is permissible to withhold burdensome care so long as the normal care due to the sick person in normal cases is not interrupted 6 questions used to help the bishops determine further a If the patient is going to die regardless of administering food and water then it is acceptable b If the patient has a chance of living and they would only die if food and water were removed this is considered euthanasia by omission and is considered killing c Many people feel that the latter option is conducted with more regards to the burden that s placed on the family the patient is seen as burdensome to the family and said family may choose to remove food and water in order to speed the dying process along and relieve themselves of the burden of caring for the patient a a b C an Care vs treatment arti cial food and water starts as care there becomes a point where it s hard to discern what is care vs what is treatment if the treatment becomes exceptionally burdensome then it s okay to withdraw i these means must have reasonable means of sustaining life not necessarily making one s life better pg 469 Sustains life expresses loving concern and solidarity for the helpless If there s a hope for a cure you need arti cial food and water to keep the person alive long enough to receive the cure Can prevent the suffering for the immediately dying even if you have an incurable disease Repugnance when you re not in their shoes you might say that you don39t want it but when you re in their shoes you may have a different view Cost macroeconomically speaking all people who want the care should get the care the government should step in and provide the care Family burden nancially speaking Prolonged issues digestive issues weaning off the arti cial etc Arti cial food is different you can t get the right nutrients as naturally as you get it the normal way Tubefeeding is not any more expensive than regular feeding IT SHOULDNT Just because someone is disabled there life is still sacred You should strive to correct their living situation a You need to end the needless suffering and support ways to improve quality of life b Sometimes disabling conditions can in uence their treatment c A decision to directly end a life is not the same as deciding to avoiding new burdens or risk by adding a new treatment they say that the quality of life judgment doesn t have a role in this decision pushes the sanctity of life over the quality of life a NO QAn unconscious person has to be treated with dignity and value cArguing against McCormick he writes that the spiritual quality of life determines if a life is worth living having human relations Q Conclude that the decision based on McCormick would be that if the cause of death was taking away food and water it would be wrong the bishops take into consideration the dignity of life Q Does treatment of someone with PVS someone treated who has a terminal illness NO f PVS extreme form of mental or physical disability inevitable death is not eminent therefore sustaining these people for as long as possible on food and water Because arti cial food and water is a form of care and not treatment and is not burdensome then it is morally wrong for anyone to take someone off arti cial food and water


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