Ch. 11 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000
Ch. 11 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000 Psych 1000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
CH 11 MOTIVATION I What is motivation a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal ll Theories of Motivation What Motivates Us a Instinct Theory i All motivations come from instincts ii instincts automatic involuntary unlearned behavior that is occurs in response to particular stimuli that is consistent in a species exhibited in the same way across the specie 1 everything is inborn doesn t account for learning iii human behavior more exibility than this theory allows b Drive Reduction Theory i Physiological imbalance creates a need that leads to an aroused mental state drive that prompts us to engage in behaviors that correct the imbalance and ful ll the need ii Imbalanceneed aroused statedrive behavior to reduce need iii homeostasis constant steady ideal internal state 1 if we fall out of the homeostatic range our body wants to right it iv satisfvind biolodical needs focuses on biological rather than psychological needs c Arousal Theory i arousal general activation level of the body and brain ii motivated to maintain personal optimal level of arousal individual differences 1 tend to seek out excitement and stimulation when we re underaroused seek calmer environments when we re overaroused 2 genetically based d Incentive Theory i Motivated to gain positive incentives while avoiding negative consequences II e Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs i 6 categories of hierarchically arranged needs Biological needs Safety needs Belongingness and love Esteem needs Selfactualization living up to your own unique potential Transcendence focusing beyond the self U39lbUUNH P ii Needs lower on the hierarchy tend to take precedence over higher needs iii Physiological needs take precedence over all others iv Lower needs need to be at least partially ful lled to move on to the rest lll Hunger and Eating a Biological factors i brain especially hypothalamus associated with hunge ea ng 1 receives signals from organs and blood regarding fullness and hormonenutrient levels a organs stomach intestines liver b blood nutrient levels hormones ii Setpoint 1 homeostatic body weight range weight range that the body wants to stay in a in uenced by heredity 2 brainbody resists deviations a by altering hunger activity level basal metabolic rate b basal metabolic rate BMR amount of energy body burns at rest 3 Caloric restriction and overfeeding experiments a Decreasing caloric intake does not necessarily mean as much weight will be lost as calories decreased 4 Can change set point b Psychological and social factors i More to hunger and eating than biological factors ii Not necessarily because we need fuel 1 Eat more if there is variety buffet eat more if the portion is larger eat because it s time to eat eat when stressedbored iii Biology is often overridden by environment c Obesity i 20 above healthy weight ii rate increasing doubled among adults and quadrupled among children 1 35 of Americans are obese iii health problems that often come with obesity diabetes high blood pressure high cholesterol heart disease etc iv psychologicalsocial problems 1 lowered selfesteem increased risk of depression exclusion discrimination bullying 2 seen as less sincere less friendly meaner more obnoxious less likely to hire especially overweight women 3 personality not related to obesity no particular personality pro le that is associated with obesity v Causes complex 1 Often more to it than just eating too much or not exercising enough not necessarily eating more calories without exercisingnot everyone who eats well and exercises will be thin 2 genetic predisposition a weights identical twins will be more similar than that of fraternal twins b weights of unrelated children growing up in the same home are uncorrelated c adopted children will have body weights more like their biological parents d thought to be thousands of genes that in uence bodyweight and many different ways genes can have in uence i different genes can in uence different things like fullness signals metabolism conversion to fat activity level brain reward system fat cells ii can add more fat cells but cannot subtract e reward de ciency syndrome dopamine de ciency 3 social in uences d Eating Disorders problems regulating hunger or eating i Anorexia nervosa 1 selfstarvation one of the deadliest psychological disorders more people die from it than almost any others a they are hungry they just refuse to eat enough main symptoms a signi cantly underweight b irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat c distorted body image perceive themselves as fat even when they re very thin typically begins in earlymid teens mostly affects females perfectionism high achieving low selfesteem depression anxiety 5 parents perfectionists overprotective competitive high achieving controlling ii Bulimia nervosa 1 binge and purge pattern of eating a eating an abnormally large amount of food in a short period of time b often followed by guilt c purging induced vomiting laxative abuse excessive exercising starving themselves 2 similarities with anorexia mainly affects females preoccupation with food fear of weight gain low self esteem symptoms of depression and anxiety e moms preoccupied with appearance f almost as deadly as anorexia 3 differences a onset slightly later than anorexia late teensearly 205 b weight tend to be more normal to overweight iii Anorexia and Bulimia 1 difficult to treat most of those who suffer are resistant to treatment a combo of psychotherapy and antidepressants seems to be somewhat effective 2 Causes a genetic predisposition i genes can in uence personality characteristics which are associated with anorexiabulimia ii more likely to have a gene that is associated with decreased availability of serotonin in the brain b cultural obsession with thinness and emphasis on appearance i media looks matter almost more than anything else only one body type ultra thin is attractiveacceptable ii fashionable ideal excludes 9598 of women most women cannot look like a super model no matter what they do iii historical and cultural differences 1 thin ideal not universal cultures where thin is not considered the goom ideal have very low rates of eating disorders very rare 2 rates of anorexia and bulimia increase as a culture becomes more westernized IV Sexual Behavior a Difficult to study complex i mostly studied through anonymous surveys ii males tend to report a higher number of sexual partners than women mathematicians say this is statistically impossible people aren t being truthful b Biology of sex i Human Sexual Response Cycle 1 Masters and Johnson 2 Excitement genitals engorge with blood vagina expands and lubricates breasts and nipples may enlarge 3 Plateau excitement peaks breathing pulse blood pressure increases penis fully engorged may secrete some semen clitoris retracts 4 Orgasm muscle contractions all over body further increase in breathing pulse blood pressure 5 Resolution body gradually returns to normal unaroused state takes longer without orgasm a Refractory period males time during which the male cannot repeat the cycle minutes hours etc ii Hormones 1 Human sexual behavior less tied to hormones 2 Normal short term hormone uctuations don t have much of an impact on human sexual behavior and motivation a Sexual motivation of females varies over the menstrual cycle b When males become aroused testosterone levels increase more of a result than a cause 3 Affected by psychological factors a Psychology affects biology i If playing or watching sports and team wins testosterone increases ii Handling guns increases testosterone b Behavior can in uence hormones more likely than hormones in uencing behavior c In rats and other animals sex hormones impact behavior by acting on a certain part of the hypothalamus i In humans higher brain regions involved in thinking regulate how responsive the hypothalamus is to sex hormones d Psychological factors are more important than biological factors c Psychological factors i Attitudes and interpretation ii Experience of sexual arousal and enjoyment depends on how we interpret stimuli and situations as well as our general attitudes toward sex 1 Strongly in uenced by culture cultures vary when it comes to rulesnorms about sexual behavior d Social and Cultural Factors i Cultures have widely varying sexual quotrulesquot 1 Inis Beag sex was seen as a necessary evil only for procreating nudity was avoided bathing and breast feeding was uncommon female orgasm was extremely rare Mangaia sex was a major recreational activity engaged in most nights of the week kids received instructions on sex boys would be assigned to have sex with an older woman who would teach them how to delay their orgasm to increase their partner s orgasm women were also encouraged to have premarital sex high rate of female orgasm ii Sources of arousal 1 2 3 4 Acceptance of nonheterosexuality 1 2 In some cultures breasts aren t sexual arousal Large breasts vs small breasts Big penises vs small penises Armpits erotic Some cultures are encouraged to have sex with others of the same sex Some cultures see it as punishable by death e Sexual Orientation nature of someone enduring sexual or romantic interest i De ning and categorizing orientation 1 2 direction of emotional romantic sexual attraction classifying orientation tend to categorize people however in reality human sexuality is more variable than categorization would suggest a behavior vs identity b Orientation as a continuum varying degrees spectrum c Sambia of New Guinea boys cannot become men until they ingest semen more the better the more they ingest the ercer of warriors they are perform oral sex on older men in the society d Fa afafine of Samoa third gender biological males that adopt female gender rolescharacteristics dress as women can have sex with females or nonfa afafine males not considered gay men who have sex with them not considered gay well accepted in society ii Correcting misconceptions 1 Homosexuality is not a mental disorder 2 Nonheterosexual people are no more likely to sexually abuse kids than are people with a heterosexual orientation studies indicate they are less likely to sexually abuse kids 3 Gaylesbian couples are similar to heterosexual couples in relationship love and satisfaction 4 Most gay men are not effeminate most lesbians are not masculine iii What determines sexual orientation 1 Genetic in uence a Identical twins are more likely to have the same orientation than fraternal twins if 1 is gay 50 chance the other will be gay much higher rate than in the entire population b Probably just in uence the likelihoodprobability of having a particular orientation 2 Hormones a Adult hormone levels no difference in circulating hormone levels b effects of prenatal hormonal abnormalities unclear in humans i individuals exposed to abnormal levels of hormones as fetuses in utero are more likely NOT to be heterosexual 3 The Brain a cause or effect i Could be an effect brain is plastic changes with our experiences ii could go either way b Some studies nd differences in structurefunction some don t 4 Fraternal birthorder effect a aka the older brother effect b the more older brothers a boy has the more likely he is to be gay how many boys were in the mother s womb priorquothow many male fetuses were carried to termquot doesn t apply to left handed men adopted brothers don t matter sisters don t matter doesn t matter if the boy is raised with his brothers e Maternal Immunity Hypothesis some evidence not proven i in some women when they carry male fetuses bodies react like it s a foreign invader immune systems mount a response antibodies to the fetal tissues ii antibodies increase with each male fetus pregnancy iii more and more antibodies more likely to in uence the child 5 Environment a Little to no in uence of shared environment or caregiver orientation i Unrelated kids raised in the same home likelihood doesn t increase with presence of homosexuality when one is no change in likelihood for the others b attempts to alter orientation generally ineffective i kids adoptedraised by homosexual couples show little to no increase in erHhood c like handedness not chosen not easily changed an V Belongingness a humans are social have need to belong desire to feel accepted by others close enduring relationships b how accepted and valued we feel we are to others affects self esteem c rejectionostracism tends to hurt i shown to cause similar brain patterns as physical pain ii aggression and depression iii disrupts performance on cognitive tasks after being rejected iv pain tolerance those more sensitive to physical pain are more sensitive to rejection Vl Achievement Motivation a Intrinsic motivation enjoyment b Extrinsic motivation reward approval avoid punishment c Paradoxical effects of reward on achievement i Overiustification effect external motivators result in decline of intrinsic motivation 1 2 motivation shifts more likely with concrete rewards bribes attempts to control creative tasks anticipated rather than unanticipated rewards