Chapter 9: Love & Sexuality
Chapter 9: Love & Sexuality PSYC-3390-01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 9 Love amp Sexuality ALL IN BLUE NOT FROM SLIDES PROJECTOR BROKEN Changes in Dating Used to be 0 Guy goes to girl s house meets her parents 0 Formal 0 Under supervision Moved towards 0 Parents have less control 0 Less boy girl formal set up dates more group dating or just hanging out When do adolescents begin dating Is when you date related to your physical maturation Stage of puberty Chronological age AGE has more in uence Older you get the more likely you are to have gone on a date Why does anybody want to form a romantic relationship The ones that do don t all do it for the same reasons Several different reasons 0 Recreation for fun something to try 0 Learning practicing how to be attractive how to be a boyfriend girlfriend 0 Status does it help you and your status in high school to date someone who s really popular 0 Companionship nice to have someone to do things with o Intimacy emotional closeness sometimes it is someone that you connect with o Courtship trying to nd a spouse more common several generations ago When you study young adolescence 1112 the most common reason they mention is recreation When you study 1516 year olds most common reason is recreation 2nd most common intimacy 3rd most common status College years status becomes obsolete 0 Mostly mention intimacy 0 2nd companionship What do you look for in a romantic partner Middle adolescence 1415 0 Boys look for I Physical attraction 0 Girls look for I Interpersonal qualities we feel connected supportive he loves me he s kind he ll be there for me Late adolescence 18 0 Boys AND girls look for I Interpersonal qualities Social Scripts There are dating scripts Boys and girls typically don t learn the same scripts BOYS tend to learn PROACTIVE dating script 0 Boys supposed to ask girl out say where we re gonna go what we re gonna do initiate sex Girls tend to learn REACTIVE dating script 0 Girls are the ones that are supposed to go along with what the guy says go along with his advances submit to his proactive script Media 0 Portrays girls as submissive 0 Sexy to be yielding and submissive People who do have romantic relationships Dating early middle school 6th 7th grade tends to lead to popularity Different ndings for boys and girls in terms of serious romantic relationships Young adolescent girls 0 Having a serious romantic relationship is related to problems 0 Increased risk of I Depression I Substance use I Delinquent behavior 0 Thought that young adolescent girls are NOT ready for this relationship I You don t know that much yet I Go along with what other people do Dating Scripts Dating scripts are still highly in uenced by GENDER with the power mostly on the side of the boys 0 Males proactive script 0 Females reactive script Romantic experiences are associated with positive and negative outcomes in adolescence ampdepends on age 0 Have a romantic relationship tend to be more popular 0 Early adolescent girls serious love relationship related to negative outcomes eg depressed mood 0 Longitudinal amount of romantic experience associated with I Social acceptance friendship competence romantic competence I Greater substance use more delinquent behavior Sternberg s Theory of Love Different types of love involve combining 3 fundamental qualities of love in different ways 1 Passion 2 Intimacy 3 Commitment 7 Forms of love Liking intimacy only Infatuation passion only Empty love commitment only Romantic love intimacy and passion Companionate love intimacy and commitment I Ex couple married for a long time not a lot of passion anymore Fatuous passion and commitment I Ex people fall madly in love and get married a week later 0 Consummate love passion intimacy AND commitment Applying Stemberg to Adolescence Typically no longterm commitment in adolescence 2 principal types of adolescent love infatuation and romantic love The prominence of intimacy in romantic relationships tends to grow through adolescence and emerging adulthood 00000 O Keep in mind 0 In industrialized countries people are not likely to get married until they are in at least their mid to late twenties Adolescent Passion in NonWestem Cultures Feelings of passion appear to be a universal characteristic of young people However romantic love as the basis for marriage is a new cultural idea Marriages arranged by parents have been the norm Falling in Love How to choose romantic partners Similarity eg intelligence social class ethnicity religious beliefs personality physical attractiveness Attachments to romantic partners may be similar to attachments to parents 0 Maintain proximity seek comfort psychological security etc 0 Secure attachments 9 seek emotional support and have concern for the partner s wellbeing o Insecure attachments 9 either an excess of dependence or an excess of distance When Love Goes Bad Breaking Up Adolescent egocentrism may contribute to the intense emotions after a breakup 0 Can t understand situation from another s point of view 0 Personal Fable idea of uniqueness no one has EVER felt this way before College students breakups 0 Lower levels of intimacy amp love Less similar in personal characteristics attitudes Less balanced e g unequal levels of commitment A lack of common interests Rejected men tend to be lonelier and more depressed than rejected women I Women are more likely to get support from others and more OK to talk about feelings 0000 Choosing a Marriage Partner Study on the importance of traits in mate selection over 10000 young people in 37 countries impressive consistencies across countries and across genders 1 Mutual attraction love 2 Dependable character includes emotional stability can count on them 3 Emotional stability and maturity 4 Pleasing disposition physically attractive Sharpest crosscultural division the issue of chastity 0 Western cultures rate chastity low 0 Nonwesternmiddle eastern countries rate chastity as extremely important Arranged Marriages Marriage an alliance between two families Economic considerations family s status religion wealth Much less is demanded of marriage 0 A lot less divorce in traditional cultures I Because less is expected of marriage I Develop emotional intimacy with friends AND family you don t HAVE to find that in a spouse People expect to nd intimacy mainly with their family of origin Increasingly young people in these cultures believe they should have at least have some say in a marriage partner 0 Semiarranged marriage Cohabitation US and northern European countries cohabitation before marriage is experienced by at least twothirds of emerging adults Tends to be brief and unstable for young Americans Cohabit partly because they want to make it more likely that the marriage will last 0 Need to try it out and see if it will work BEFORE we get married Cohabitation before marriage is related to higher likelihood of divorce 0 Those who cohabit tend to be different from those who do not in ways that are related to higher risk for divorce I Less religious more skeptical of the institution of marriage more accepting of divorce Sexuality Biological sexual development sexual values beliefs thoughts feelings relationships amp behavior Hormones DO NOT drive sexual behavior Usually progression of sexual behavior is o Masturbation o Necking amp petting 0 Sexual intercourse 0 Oral sex Boys report higher rates of masturbation than girls Social desirability effects could affect reporting Kissing amp necking above waist are usually the rst sexual experiences with a partner 0 By age 16 more than half reported kissing amp necking Followed by petting below waist o By age 18 more than half reported petting Sexual Intercourse Percent of high school students reported having sex at least once 19251965 0 10 of females 25 of males 2012 o 46 of students Average age of rst intercourse 17 Percent of college students reported having sex at least once Before 1960 0 About 40 1980K 0 About 80 and has remained stable Ethnic differences high school students who have had sex Lowest to highest 0 Asian American White Latino African American Pornography Most popular intemet sites Increased use from early adolescence to emerging adulthood More common among boys Viewing pornography is correlated with delinquency substance use more favorable attitudes toward premarital sex greater likelihood of reported sexual activity Degrading ways of depicting women Separation of sex from intimacy Desensitization 0 When you become desensitized to something you get used to it o The more porn you are exposed to the less attractive your partner is and the less exciting your own sex life is 0 Come to believe the rape myth women enjoy being coerced into sex 0 As exposure to porn goes up the more likely males are to hurt women and to devalue their own partners Cultural Beliefs amp Adolescent Sexuality Cultures can be restrictive semirestrictive or permissive o Restrictive a lot of limits on sexuality rules that can t be broken 0 Permissive a lot of freedom in sexuality dressexpress yourself have sex 0 Semirestrictive in between No culture punishes violations of male premarital chastity with the severity that they punish female violations of chastity American majority culture probably semirestrictive Gender amp The Meaning of Sex Adolescent boys and girls learn different sexual scripts Female adolescents learn to link sex with love affection Males experience a lot of peer pressure to have sex Males more likely to take pride in sexual experiences Many females report mixed feelings In Western countries adolescent sex is more disapproved for girls than for boys Sexually Active Adolescents Adolescents who have sex early age 15 or younger more likely 0 To be early users or drugs amp alcohol 0 To be from single parent families 0 To have grown up in poverty less to hope and plan for Parem al monitoring is related to later sexual initiation Friends in uence and selective association 0 Do in uence somewhat but you also pick those people to be their friend so there is some in uence back and forth Earlymaturing girls tend to attract older boys and may become sexually active early Sexual Harassment amp Date Rape Percentage of male and female high school students who have ever experienced various forms of sexual harassment graph in textbook Early maturing girls are especially likely to be targeting for sexual harassment Majority who are harassed also report sexually harassing others Adolescents rates of date rape highest for those who have sex at early age Alcohol plays a big part in date rape on college campuses Lesbian Gay amp Bisexual Adolescents Prevalence of samesex attractions is higher than samesex behavior which is in turn higher than prevalence of LGB identity lesbian gay or bisexual Awareness of LGB identity usually begins in early adolescence Average age of coming out 16 Higher rates of substance abuse school dif culties depression and running away from home are higher among LGB adolescents 0 Because of discrimination ostracism 0 Possible parental rejection peer abuse Contraceptive Use amp Nonuse Many American adolescents who are having sex do not use contraception consistently 0 About 60 of adolescents report using contraception always 0 Most adolescent sexual activity is unplanned and infrequent 0 Personal fable I don t see myself getting pregnant that won t happen to me I m different I m unique I m not going to get an STD etc o Embarrassment over purchasing amp using contraception Late teens more likely to use contraception than early teens US has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy among developed countries NOT due to differing rates of sexual activity not because US adolescents have more sex Cultural Factors American adolescents receive mixed messages about sexuality sex not strongly prohibited or widely accepted Different socialization sources give different messages 0 Media TV shows movies Internet recreational sex is completely fme don t talk about pregnancies or STDs 0 Parents 0 Peers 0 Teachers School sex education rarely includes explicit discussion of contraceptives Discomfort discussing it with parents Religion 2 types of countries with LOW rates of teenage pregnancy those that are permissive about teenage sex and those that adamantly forbid it Pregnancy Parenthood amp Abortion in Adolescence Teenage pregnancies 0 About 30 end in abortion 14 miscarriage 5 adoption 0 87 of teenage births are to unmarried mothers Teen birth rates in different ethnic groups 0 Highest rates among Black and Latina adolescents Marriage in late teens has now become quite rare Pregnancy is no longer seen as a reason for marriage Consequences of Early Parenthood Teen Moms Twice as likely to drop out of school Less likely to become employed or go to college Less likely to get married and more likely to get divorced if they do marry Often had problems before getting pregnant eg school conduct psychological issues Less competent at child rearing The Children Babies more likely to be premature to have low birth weight which both predict physical and cognitive problems Behavioral problems School problems All increase risk of problems 1 Mother is young 2 Mother is unmarried 3 Mother is poor Sexually Transmitted Infections Rates of sexually transmitted infections STIs are higher in emerging adulthood than in any other life stage in US and Europe Most young people in Western countries have a series of sexual partners during emerging adulthood Many STIs leaver women at higher risk for later infertility Many people who have STIs are asymptomatic 9 especially likely to infect others Some STIs have a latency period not showing symptoms that can last for years