Bio Lecture 23: Vertebrates 3
Bio Lecture 23: Vertebrates 3 BIO 209L-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Lecture 23 Vertebrates 3 1 Birds 1a 1b Characteristics quotReptiliaquot includes birds and traditional reptiles are often called quotnonavian reptiles Aves Birds 1 Feather for ight and insulation made of keratin like reptile skin 2 Wings modi ed forelimbs 3 Flight muscles attached to Keeled Sternum blade like bone against chest Evidence of Bird Nonavian reptile relatedness includes 1 Extant alive bird traitsgt egg is amniotic scale on legs 2 Archaeopteryx Transitional extinct evidencegt fossils a Bird trait Ex Feathers b Reptilian traits Ex Teeth long tail abdominal ribs c Traits in between birds and nonavian reptiles not birds amount of fusion in limbs transitional fossils of feathered dinosaurs dinosaursgt birds Adaptations Many birds characteristics are adaptions for ight reduce weight body 1 No teeth instead gizzard muscular grinder in gut 2 Usually only one functioning ovary 3 Hollow bones light weight but rigid Many bird characteristics are adaptions for ight efficient metabolism a lot of energy and oxygen 1 Lungs with many air sacs and oneway air ow to maximize O2 absorption 2 4 chambered heart separates O2rich and poor blood mammals but larger 3 Endothermic metabolism creates heat and maintains relatively constant body temperature homoeothermic generate their own heat Note Exothermic where they getting the heat outside environment digestion of food for heat 2 Mammals A Characteristics l Hair made of Keratin Ex Whiskers or fur providing insulation g1 Mammary glands sweat glandsgt milk 3 Diaphragm muscular sheet between thorax and abdomen relaxgt air pushes out of lungs contractgt air sucked in move up and down i Internal fertilization and quotlive birth except for platypus Q 4chambered heart separate rich and poor blood oxygen Q Endothermic makes own heat Homoeothermic constant temperature 1 Teeth a Differentiated heterodont gt replaced O1x Front teeth Incisors Canines Premolars Molars Back teeth bVs Retiles relatively uniform conical continuously replaced 2 Mammals dentition re ects its diet Carnivore cheetah Big sharp canines and premolars to cuttear eash Herbivore Bison No top incisors or canines broad at premolars and molars to grind plants a Fleshy External ears in many mammals ears lobs g1 Secondary palate separates food and air path prey in mouth and still breath chew longer suckled and breaths vs most reptiles Major Groups A Monotremes Young develop in egg laying mammals B Marsupials Young develop some with placenta some in marsupium pouch C Eutherians Young develop with placenta live birth