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by: Edwin Considine


Edwin Considine

GPA 3.61


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edwin Considine on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDRM 711 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/229495/edrm-711-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in OTHER at University of South Carolina - Columbia.




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Date Created: 10/26/15
One of the primary purposes of scientific investigation is to infer general principles based on the observation of specific instances l A causal inference is made in a study when the conclusion is reached that the observed relationship of the explanatory and response variable is one of cause and effect I A population inference is made in a study when the conclusion is reached that the observed relationship of variables or a certain value of a parameter is present in the population IIIIID EllIII Causal inference depends on one randomization Population inference depends on one sample l Statistical methods can be used to rationally determine what if anything can be inferred about a population parameter based upon the statistic derived from observed data I A point estimate provides the best single estimate of a population parameter I A hypothesis test provides a controlled means for making a conclusion about a statistical hypothesis concerning a population parameter I A confidence interval provides a specific level of confidence in a range estimate of a parameter I I I I I I a EllIII J Foam lEsThjmmwcmes ESTIMATES p I ESTIMATES 0 Hyipoi39neses ii 39 w A hy pothesis test is a way to detenmiine how likely it is that the observed data would occur if speculation about a parameter is true I CXESEZEFS39ZED Data is unlikely if speculation PARAMETER about the parameter IS true speculation null hypothesis D 4 therefore reject this particular I I I I D E I I I Cam 1 CJEmJCe JIm w fexrv 91H four nut so con dence intervals will capture the pmamdnn u I I 0 5 10T 15 20 V J D L PARAM ETER I Errors of the first kind Type I are usually viewed as the most serious I The error rate is said to be conservative when the actual rate is less than the nominal significance level I The error rate is said to be liberal when the actual rate is greater than the nominal significance level I Errors of the second kind Type II occur often if the power of the method is low I Increasing the effect of the treatment increases power I Increasing sample size increases power I Reducing error of measurement increases power I Choice of statistical method affects power 39REG IQN The I rate of a test 4 the probability of rejecting H0 when H0 is true 01 Statistic JUL IIICDC


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