AGE OF REFORMATION
AGE OF REFORMATION HIST 310
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Dr. Eliezer Weber
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Eliezer Weber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 310 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by K. Edwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/229500/hist-310-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in History at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
ADVICE ON WRITING AN EXAM ESSAY A FEW POINTS TO KEEP IN MIND Position When you read a question take time to consider what you think about it Do you agree or disagree In what ways You will find it very useful to define your terms before you begin your argument Thesis You can construct a much stronger essay by limiting your topic In the beginning explain how you are going to set these limits and why This way you won39t feel obliged to cover a vast subject in a superficial manner You will find it much easier to argue for a specific point Outline Before you begin writing try to organize your main ideas in a brief outline Don39t spend too much time on this though You simply need to formulate your line of reasoning Ideas not facts are important at this stage Articulation Try to be as explicit as possible say exactly what you mean Don39t assume that your reader will intuitively know your point Evidence Never make an assertion without backing it up Specific examples are crucial they help both to illustrate your point and to provide persuasive proof Stay on Target Don39t let yourself be sidetracked make sure that everything you say contributes to your argument the thesis Avoid cluttering the argument with unnecessary details an essay should not be a recitation of facts but an integration of well chosen evidence with general assertions Signi cance When making a claim keep two questions in mind quotWhyquot and quotIn what wayquot These two questions will lead you to uncover deeper issues and these issues are what the studies of history and literature are all about Defense Remember that you are trying to persuade your reader If you see a hole in your argument fill it Try to anticipate and preempt criticisms However don39t point out such weaknesses unless you are able to counter them Completion If you are running out of time try to move ahead to your conclusion or at least provide an outline showing where you wanted to go with your argument Don t just drop off right in the middle The conclusion is the goal toward which the whole essay leads Ideally it is your moment of triumph 149 Providence and Predestination John Calvin 1540s When we raise our eyes to the secret providence of God who shapes and directs the counsels of men according to his own will it is certain that how ever much men may change in their purposes yet God never changes Let us then hold this doctrine that nothing is done except by God39s command and ordination and with the Holy Spirit regard with abhorrence those profane men who imagine that God sits idly as it were in his watch water and takes no notice of what is done in the world that human affairs change at random and that men turn and change independently of any higher power Nothing is more diabolical than this delirious impiety for as I have said it extinguishes all the acts and duties of religion For there will be no faith no prayer no patience in short no religion except we believe and know that God exercises such a care over the world of which he is the creator that nothing happens except through his certain and unchangeable decree Now they who object and say that God is thus made the author of evils may easily be refuted for nothing is more preposterous than to measure the incomprehensible judgment of God by our contracted minds Let us then learn not to subject God to our judgment but adore his judgments though they pass all our understanding and since the cause of them is hidden from us our highest wisdom is modesty and sobriety Thus we see that God is not the author of evils though nothing happens except by his nod and through his will for his design is far removed from that of wicked men God intimates that men would in vain clamor against his judgments for he would nevertheless perform what he has decreed He does not of course claim for himself that absolute power about which the sophists prattle separating that power from justice but God intimates that the causes are not always manifest to men when he executes his judgments For it is not without reason that the Scripture testifies that God39s judgments are a deep abyss but by such an expression it is not meant that there is anything in God s judgments which is confused or in disorder What then Simply that God works in an extraordinary way and that therefore his judgments are sometimes hidden from men Men stumble at many small difficulties particularly when they hear what Scripture teaches concerning predestination 150 The predestination of God is truly a labyrinth from which the mind of man is wholly incapable of extricating itself But the curiosity of man is so insistent that the more dangerous it is to inquire into a subject the more boldly he rushes to do so Thus when predestination is being discussed and because mankind cannot keep himself within proper limits he immediately plunges into the depths of the ocean by his impetuosity What remedy will there be for the godly Must they avoid every thought of predestination Not at all It has seemed good to God to enlighten some in order that they may be saved and blind others in order that they may be destroyed so that we may be satisfied in our minds with the difference which is evident between the elect and the reprobate and not inquire for any cause higher than His will Peter would seem to suggest here that the wicked obeyed God from which one of two absurdities would follow either that God is the author of evil or that men do not sin whatever evil they commit Concerning the second I would reply that the wicked are very far from obeying God in whatever way they execute what God in his own counsels has determined For obedience springs from a voluntary affection and we know that something far different is true of the wicked Again no one obeys God except the man who knows His will Obedience therefore depends upon the knowledge of the will of God Furthermore God has revealed His will to us in the Law Therefore only those men obey God who do what is agreeable to the Law of God who again submit themselves willingly to His government We see nothing of this kind in any of the wicked whom in their ignorance God drives to and fro No one then would say that they are to be excused for the reason that they obey God for the double reason that we are to seek the will of God in His Law and that they desire as far as they can to resist God As for the other point I deny that God is the author of evil because this expression carries certain implications For a wicked deed is judged according to the end at which it is aimed When men commit theft or murder they sin in being thieves or murderers in theft and murder there is a criminal intention But God who uses their wickedness stands on a different His object is entirely different for He wishes to chastise the one and exercise the patience of the other but in this He never declines from His own nature that is from perfect righteousness So then when Christ was delivered by the hand of wicked men and was crucified to came to pass by the appointment and ordinance of God Treachery however which is wicked in itself and murder in which such wickedness is found must not be thought to be the work of God We shall never be clearly persuaded as we ought to be that our salvation flows from the fountain of God39s free mercy until we come to know his eternal election which illustrates 151 God39s grace by this contrast that he does not indiscriminately adopt all into the hope of salvation but give to some what he denies to others No one dares simply deny predestination by which God adopts some to hope of life and sentences others to eternal death But our opponents especially those who make foreknowledge its cause envelop it in numerous petty objections When we attribute foreknowledge to God we mean that all things always were and perpetually remain under his eyes so that to his knowledge there is nothing future or past but all things are present And they are present in such a way that he not only conceives them through ideas but he truly looks upon them and discerns them as things placed before him And this foreknowledge is extended throughout the universe to every creature We call predestination God39s eternal decree by which he determined with himself what he willed to become of each man For we are not all created in equal condition rather eternal life is foreordained for some eternal damnation for others The decree of eternal predestination is I admit a fearful one and yet it is impossible to deny that God foreknew what the end of man was to be before he created him because he had so ordained by his decree If anyone inveighs at this point against the foreknowledge of God he does so rashly and thoughtlessly Why indeed should the heavenly judge be blamed because he was not ignorant of what was to happen If there is any just or plausible complaint it applies to predestination It ought not indeed to seem ridiculous for me to say that God not only foresaw the fall of the first man and in him the ruin of his posterity but also brought it about in accordance with his own will For as it belongs to his wisdom to know beforehand everything that is to happen so it belongs to his power to rule and direct everything by his hand Source Jean Calvin Commentary of Jeremiah 5 Lamentations 428 30 192 Commentary on Romans 202 3 207 Commentary on Acts 1 66 Institutes III xxi 1 III xxi 5 II xxxii 7 133 Genevan Ecclesiastical Ordinances 1541 The words in square brackets were modifications to Calvin s draft ordinances made at the insistence of the Genevan magistrature before it was enacted First there are four orders of offices instituted by our Saviour for the government of his Church namely the pastors then the doctors next the elders nominated and appointed by the government and fourthly the deacons If we wish to see the Church well ordered and maintained we ought to observe this form of government The duty of pastors Pastors are sometimes named in the Bible as overseers elders and ministers Their work is to proclaim the Word of God to teach admonish exhort and reprove publicly and privately to administer the sacraments and with the elders or their deputies to issue fraternal warnings The examination of pastors This consists of two parts The first concerns doctrine to find out if the candidate has a good and sound knowledge of the Bible and secondly comes his suitability for expounding this to the people for their edification Further to avoid any danger of his having any wrong ideas it is fitting that he should profess to accept and uphold the teaching approved by the Church Questions must be asked to find out if he is a good teacher and he must privately set forth the teaching of our Lord Next it must be ascertained that he is a man of good principles without any known faults The selection of pastors First the ministers should choose someone suitable for the position and notify the government Then he is to be presented to the council If he is approved he will be accepted and received by the council as it thinks fit He is then given a certificate to be produced when he preaches to the people so that he can be received by the common consent of the faithful If he is found to be unsuitable and this demonstrated by evidence there must be a new selection to find another As to the manner of introducing him because the ceremonies previously used led to a great deal of superstition all that is needed is that a minister should explain the nature of the position to which he has been appointed and then prayers and pleas should be made that our Lord will give him grace to do what is needed After election he must take an oath of allegiance to the government following a written form as required of a minister Weekly meetings to be arranged 134 In the first place it is desirable that all ministers should meet together once a week This is to maintain purity and agreement in their teaching and to hold Bible discussions Attendance shall be compulsory unless there is good reason for absence As for the preachers in the villages under the control of the government it is for the city ministers to urge them to attend whenever possible What should be done in cases of difference about doctrine If any differences of opinion concerning doctrine should arise the ministers should gather together and discuss the matter If necessary they should call in the elders and commissioners appointed by the government to assist in the settlement of any difficulties There must be some means available to discipline ministersto prevent scandalous living In this way respect for the ministry can be maintained and the Word of God not debased by any minister bringing it into scorn and derision Those who deserve it must be corrected but at the same time care must be taken to deal with gossip and malicious rumours which can bring harm to innocent parties But it is of first importance to notice that certain crimes are quite incompatible with the ministry and cannot be dealt with by fraternal rebuke Namely heresy schism rebellion against Church discipline open blasphemy deserving civil punishment simony and corrupt inducement intriguing to take over one another39s position leaving the Church without special permission forgery There follows the second order which we have called the doctors The special duty of the doctors is to instruct the faithful in sound doctrine so that the purity of the gospel is not corrupted by ignorance or wrong opinion As thing stand at present every agent assisting in the upholding of God39s teaching is included so that the Church is not in difficulties from a lack of pastors and ministers This is in common parlance the order of school teachers The degree nearest the minister and closely joined to the government of the Church is the lecturer in theology Establishment of a college Because it is only possible to profit from such teaching if one is first instructed in languages and humanities and also because it is necessary to lay the foundations for the futurea college should be instituted for instructing children to prepare them for the ministry as well as for civil government In the first place suitable accommodation needs to be provided for the teaching of children and others who want to take advantage of it We also need a literate scholarly and trained teacher who can take care of the establishment and their education He should be chosen and paid on the understanding that he should have under his charge teachers in languages and logic if they can be found He should also have some student teachers bacheliers to teach the little ones All who are engaged must be subject to the same ecclesiastical ordinances as apply to the ministers 135 There is to be no other school in the city for small children although the girls are to have a separate school of their own as has been the case up to now No one is to be appointed without the approval of the ministers essential to avoid trouble The candidate must first have been notified to the government and then presented to the council Two members of the council of 24 should be present at all interviews Here follows the third order or elders Their duty is to supervise every person s conduct In friendly fashion they should warn backsliders and those of disorderly life After that where necessary they should report to the Company of pastors who will arrange for fraternal correction As our Church is now arranged it would be most suitable to have two elected from the council of 24 four from the council of 60 and six from the council of 200 They should be men of good repute and conductThey should be chosen from each quarter of the city so that they can keep an eye on the whole of it Method of choosing the elders Further we have decided upon the machinery for choosing them The council of 24 will be asked to nominate the most suitable and adequate men they can discover In order to do this they should discuss the matter with the ministers and then present their suggestion to the council of 200 for approval If they are found worthy land and approved they must take an oath in the same form as it is presented to the ministers At the end of the year and after the elections to the council they should present themselves to the government so that a decision can be made as to whether they shall be re appointed or not but they should not be changed frequently and without good cause provided that they are doing their work faithfully The fourth order of 39 39 government namelv the deacons There have always been two kinds of these in the early Church One has to receive distribute and care for the goods of the poor ie daily alms as well as possessions rents and pensions the other has to tend and look after the sick and administer the allowances to the poor as is customary In order to avoid confusion since we have officials and hospital staff one of the four officials of the said hospital should be responsible for the whole of its property and revenues and he should have an adequate salary in order to do his work properly Concerning the hospital Care should be taken to see that the general hospital is properly maintained This applies to the sick to old people no longer able to work to widows orphans children and other poor people These are to be kept apart and separate from others and to form their own community Care for the poor who are scattered throughout the city shall be the responsibility of the officials In addition to the hospital for those visiting the city which is to be kept up separate arrangements are to be made for those who need special treatment To this end a room must be set apart to act as a reception room for those that are sent there by the officials 136 Further both for the poor people in the hospital and for those in the city who have no means there must be a good physician and surgeon provided at the city39s expense As for the plague hospital it must be kept entirely separate Be in In order to stop begging which is contrary to good order the government should use some of its officers to remove any beggars who are obstinately present when people come out of Church And this especially if it should happen that the city is visited by this scourge of God Of the sacraments Baptism is to take place only at sermon time and is to be administered only by ministers or their assistants A register is to be kept of the names of the children and of their parents the justice department is to be informed of any bastard Since the Supper was instituted by our Lord to be more often observed by us and also since this was the case in the early Church until such time as the devil upset everything by setting up the mass in its place the defect ought to be remedied by celebrating it a little more frequently All the same for the time being we have agreed and ordained that it should be administered four times a year ie at Christmas Easter Pentecost and the first Sunday in September in the autumn The ministers shall distribute the bread in orderly and reverent fashion and no other person shall offer the chalice except those appointed or the deacons along with the ministers and for this reason there is no need for many plates and cups The tables should be set up close to the pulpit so that the mystery can be more suitably set forth near by Celebration should take place only in church and at the most suitable time Of the order which must be observed in obedience to those in authority for the maintenance of supervision in the Church A day should be fixed for the consistory The elders should meet once a week with the ministers on a Thursday to ensure that there is no disorder in the Church and to discuss together any necessary remedial action Since they have neither the power nor the authority to use force we have agreed to assign one of our officials to them to summon those whom they wish to admonish If any one should deliberately refuse to appear the council is to be informed so as to take action If any one teaches things contrary to the received doctrine he shall be summoned to a conference If he listens to reason let him be sent back without any scandal or disgrace If he is obstinate he should be admonished several times until it is apparent that greater severity is needed then he shall be forbidden to attend the communion of the Supper and he shall be reported to the magistrates If any one fails to come to church to such a degree that there is real dislike for the community of believers manifested or if any one shows that he cares nothing for ecclesiastical order let him be admonished and if he is tractable let him be amicably sent 137 back If however he goes from bad to worse after having been warned three times let him be cut off from the Church and be denounced to the magistrate All this must be done in such a way that the ministers have no civil jurisdiction nor use anything but the spiritual sword of the word of God as St Paul commands them nor is the authority of the consistory to diminish in any way that of the magistrate or ordinary justice The civil power must remain unimpaired In cases where in future there may be a need to impose punishments or constrain individuals then the ministers and the consistory having heard the case and used such admonitions and exhortations as are appropriate should report the whole matter to the council which in turn will judge and sentence according to the needs of the case Source J F Bergier and R M Kingdon Registres de la Compagnie des pasteurs de Geneve au temps de Calvin 2 vols n p 1962 4 11 13 Translated by GR Potter and M Greengrass under the title Jean Calvin Edward Arnold London 1983 71 6 161 Genevan Ordinances on Marriage and Divorce November 1561 Those who are not allowed to marry without permission 1 Young people who have not previously been married and whose fathers are alive cannot contract a marriage unless they have reached the legitimate age Viz 24 years for a young man and 20 years for a young woman If after this age they ask for their fathers permission and it is refused then they can marry without consent 3 If two young people become engaged to be married without consent through foolishness or lightheartedness they are to be punished and reprimanded and the marriage is to be rescinded by those who are in charge of them 4 If any one is found to have been forced to become betrothed then those responsible spend three days on bread and water and afterwards supplicate the magistrates for clemency 6 There shall be no secret promises between young people who are not yet married except before two witnesses 7 If children marry without permission of their father and mother but at the permitted age they shall be accepted as having been married despite the over rigorous attitude of their father In these cases fathers shall be compelled to provide a dowry or agree to such terms and conditions as Genevan laws lay down for dowries as if they had agreed 8 No father can constrain his child to a marriage which seems good to him but not the wishes and consent of the child 9 At the same time if having refused one match against paternal wishes the child should afterwards choose another which proves less profitable and advantageous then because of the previous disobedience and stubbornness the father should not be required to give the couple anything during his lifetime Celebration of Matrimony When the time comes for the marriage service the parties should arrive at church modestly without drummers or fiddlers They should present themselves with the order and decorum becoming to Christians before the church bells ring so that the marriage can be blessed before the sermon If they are late or negligent they should be sent away Causes for a divorce If a husband accuses his wife of adultery and proves it with witnesses of sufficient reliability and asks for a divorce it shall be granted to him He shall be asked however to pardon his wife but he should not be further constrained if he has made up his mind It used to be the case that the rights of women did not equal those of men in the matter of divorce However the words of the apostle make it clear that marriage is reciprocal and a mutual obligation so far as conjugal rights are concerned 162 Therefore a wife should be no more subject to her husband than a husband to his wife If a man is convicted of adultery and his wife asks to be separated from him it be granted provided that the partners cannot be mutually reconciled All matrimonial cases concerning conjugal matters apart from the property rights involved should go in the first instance before the Consistory where if they can be happily resolved they will be settled in the sight of the Lord If a judgement in law is required then the parties should be sent back to the Genevan council with the opinion of the Consistory in the matter so that it can be firmly decided upon Source G Baum E Caunitz and E Reuss eds Corpus Reformatorum Opera Calvini 59 vols Brunswick 1863 90 vol 38 cols 33 44 trans by GR Potter and M Greengrass London Edward Arnold 1983 78 9 Glossary of Terms used in Reformation Studies C Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass The following are very summary working de nitions of a variety of terms used in Reformation studies Some are theological terms which are at the heart of the Protestant Reformation and require a much fuller exposition than is given here Adult baptism see quotAnabaptismquot Advent The four Sundays occasionally five before Christmas the first of which Advent Sunday is the Sunday next to St Andrew s Day 30 November This is traditionally taken as the beginning of the church year Anabaptism Formally speaking the term applies to those who challenged the scriptural basis for infant baptism The issue came to the fore in the process of the Zurich reformation and the term quotcatabaptistsquot or quotantibaptistsquot was initially coined by Zwingli His successor at Zurich Heinrich Bullinger first used the term quotAnabaptistquot meaning quotre baptistquot which the Anabaptists themselves rejected because for them there was only one baptism and that was for adults only The Anabaptists came to be the most Visible and the most attacked congregations of quotradicalsquot in the Protestant Reformation Antichrist The embodiment of all the anti Christian forces at work in the world It had strong associations with the apocalyptic traditions of the return of Christ to earth which would be preceded by cataclysmic change associated with the Antichrist The notion of Antichrist was utilized by the Protestant reformers to embody the papacy and its instruments Attrition The beginnings of repentance for sins as perceived by medieval theologians Unlike contrition it arose out of fear of God39s retribution ie punishment Augsburg f 39 Confessin Augustanal 1530 This became the principal Lutheran confession and was widely adopted in the first two generations of the Reformation It originated with an invitation from the elector of Saxony to his Protestant theologians to summarize their doctrines with reference to scripture for the forthcoming diet at Augsburg The resulting document became known as the Torgau Articles and it formed the seven chapters of the second part of the confession The first part was an expansion of the 15 articles which Luther had drawn up after the colloquy at Marburg on 5 October 1529 Augsburg peace of 1 15551 The peace of Augsburg recognized both Catholicism and Lutheranism as legitimate religions in the Empire extending legal recognition to those who accepted the Augsburg confession of 1530 and guaranteeing them the right to exercise their religion The peace incorporated the decisions in the recess of the diet of Augsburg meeting from February to September 1555 The peace also provided that in the secular territories of princes and imperial knights the ruler had the right to determine the religion of his subjects This was subsequently known as the principle of cuius regio eius religio Other Protestant confessions were by implication officially banned from the empire Special clauses applied to the ecclesiastical estates of the empire Augustinianism39 Augustinian The teachings of St Augustine 345 430 AD bishop of Hippo and one of the great quotdoctors of the churchquot His substantial theological and philosophical writings had an enormous impact on the theologians of the Protestant Reformation The Augustinians The Augustinian Friars were one of the principal monastic orders They had been formed from various Italian congregations of hermits who were placed under the Rule of St Augustine by the papacy in 1256 Their constitution was modeled on that of the Dominicans There were also various quotreformedquot congregations of Augustinians by the time of the reformation It was to the German Reformed Congregations of Augustinians that Luther belonged Ban The temporary exclusion of an individual from a worshipping exclusion to be distinguished from a permanent exclusion quotexcommunicationquot Baptism The rite of initiation into the Christian community of which there were in the late medieval church many local variants The ceremony involved a series of prayers and exorcisms performed over the child to be baptized sometimes using salt to symbolize the candidate s savoring of the faith Other ceremonies including the quotopeningquot of the child to spiritual regeneration The priest would touch the eyes and nose of the child to make him or her open to spiritual regeneration The water in the font was blessed and sometimes mixed with holy oil Godparents were invited to renounce Satan and his works before the priest dipped the child three times in the water The child was then dressed in a white robe anointed with chrism and presented with a candle Traditionally the church held that baptism was not only a sign of grace but actually conferred grace upon the baptized Protestant reformers were agreed in retaining baptism as one of the sacraments of the church In other respects however there were fundamental differences of liturgical practice and underlying theology Luther s first baptismal service 1523 and his revised version 1526 eliminated most but not all of the exorcisms of the traditional rite and eliminated the blessing of the font The rite was designed to indicate that it was not the water which had the power of salvation but the word of God acting in and through it In Geneva the baptismal rite prepared for use by Calvin was even more unambiguous Baptism should take place during ordinary Sunday worship as a sacrament in which the sign of Christ s life and death for us is communicated to us all Exorcism was completely omitted as superstitious The ceremony did not apparently involve quotdippingquot but only quotpouringquot the water over the child39s head The question of the Christian name was accorded considerable significance Calvin being particularly concerned about the relationship between the name of something and the thing signified Basilica of St Peter39s The cathedral of the bishop of Rome the pope Benefice A church office carrying an endowment to provide a remuneration for the individual carrying out the office The Bible The return to the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments formed a central focus of the Protestant Reformation in its doctrine and ecclesiastical practice But how passages of the Bible should be interpreted was the subject of intense scrutiny and considerable debate amongst the Protestant reformers What constituted the quotcanonquot of scripture grew more defined and circumscribed in the course of the reformation The so called quotApocryphalquot books of the Bible were gradually excluded from the canon by Protestant confessions At the same time doubts about the canonical status of some of the New Testament books especially 11 Peter 11 and III John Jude and James were suppressed The Protestant reformers rejected the complex divisions introduced by medieval Biblical commentators into the task of exegesis in their place they tended to stress the significance of placing a text in its historical context and elucidating the linguistic complexity of particular phrases For Catholics the Latin version of the Bible compiled by St Jerome and known as the quotVulgatequot remained the only authentic text Bull From the Latin bulla meaning a quotsealquot It was a written papal authorization with a seal to guarantee its authenticity Calvinism Calvinist The doctrines and ecclesiology approaches to church government advocated by Jean Calvin and harmonized with those established by Huldrych Zwingli at Zurich It was characterized in the sixteenth century by the confession known as the Zurich Consensus Consensus Tigurinus of 1549 a common confessional drawn up after lengthy negotiations between Heinrich Bullinger and Jean Calvin This in turn provided the basis for the Second Helvetic Confession Confessio Helvetica Posterior of March 1566 which laid out in thirty chapters a clear exposition of reformed faith Published in Latin German and French it became one of the best known and highly regarded confessions from the Reformed Calvinist tradition of Protestant ism Canon law The legislation which governed the church in all aspects of its organization morality and beliefs Catechism Derived from the Greek quotto instruct quot It was applied by the Protestant reformers to refer to books of instruction in the faith which were extensively utilized to enable ministers and others to teach the elements of the faith to the unlearned or the young They were extremely numerous in the sixteenth century Celibacy The unmarried condition of the clergy and regular orders since the central middle ages It was rejected by Protestant reformers Chambre ardente The notorious chamber attached to the Parlement of Paris which from 1547 to 1559 specialized in the prosecution and conviction of cases of heresy Christian humanism The term quothumanismquot Humanismus in German was first utilized in 1808 by a German educationalist to describe the emphasis placed on the Greek and Latin classics in education The word has come to be used to refer to the revival of classical studies in the Italian renaissance and the desire to return quotto the original texts quot Part of the revival involved the more technical aspects of critical textual scholarship known as quotphilologyquot by which more reliable and precise editions of classical texts could be established Humanism was not therefore a precisely delineated philosophical system as the medieval scholastic philosophers would have understood it but a methodology which became a general intellectual trend which had specific educational objectives It had its effects on the writing and teaching of theology and biblical studies on the eve of the reformation This is best characterized by the writings of the quotChristian humanistsquot exemplified by the great Desiderius Erasmus in Latin Erasmus Raterodamus c 1467 1536 Church services see quotBaptismquot quotEucharistquot and quotMassquot Church visitations Canon law required bishops to undertake a regular visitation of their diocese known as Ad limina Apostolorum visitations They had occurred in a sporadic fashion in the late medieval church and tended to be devolved to a commissioner of the bishop such as his vicar general They tended to concentrate on the conditions of buildings and furnishings Cases of abuse were generally referred to the ecclesiastical courts for further investigation Some efforts were made to evaluate the educational standards of the clergy but the moral behavior and religious education of the laity was rarely the subject of investigation in pre reformation visitations In Lutheran churches the practice of visitations was continued by the quotsuperintendantsquot appointed by the prince and reporting to the appropriate ecclesiastical council These visitations were more detailed and more searching in their examination of the laity Communion quotin both kindsquot As the perceived holy power of the Eucharist had increased so the risks of its defilement had also grown The possibilities of spillage of the wine host led to its being withdrawn from the laity in the central middle ages leaving the clergy to receive quotin both kindsquot thus emphasizing the separation between clergy and laity The Protestants insisted that the Lord39s Supper be reinstituted as a communion quotin both kindsquot for both laity and clergy alike Confession The public and private acknowledgement of vvrong doing sin The word was also used for the public profession often under oath to the principles of a particular faith in the reformation period e g quotConfession of Augsburgquot Confession of Au sbur see quotAugsburg confessionquot m I J I c 39 u Confession of J I El S66 g Confirmation One of the seven sacraments accepted by St Thomas Aquinas and formally affirmed as an article of belief at the council of Florence in 1439 Candidates for confirmation were anointed with unction by the confirming bishop in the sign of the cross to confirm their baptism Children were not expected to receive the Eucharist before they were ten The Protestant reformers were united in regarding confirmation as an important ecclesiastical rite but not a sacrament It had they said no scriptural basis contained no divine promise and was not essential to salvation Although the service continued albeit in various contexts the practice of anointing at confirmation was abandoned by the Protestant churches Consistory see quotPresbyterianismquot Consubstantiation Consubstantiation was one of the explanations for the presence of Christ in the Eucharist which had been developed by medieval scholastic theologians It contrasted with the more commonly held view of quottransubstantiationquot Unlike the latter it upheld that the body of Christ was truly present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist but that there was no supernatural change in the substance of these elements During the Protestant Reformation Luther rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation but retained the quotreal presencequot of Christ quotin with and underquot the bread and wine of the Eucharist This led his thinking to be linked with the quotconsubstantiationquot views of medieval theologians by Zwingli Calvin and others In reality Luther himself never used the term quotconsubstantiationquot to describe his doctrine of the quotreal presencequot and his followers rejected it as a misrepresentation of their views Contrition The repentance for wrong doing sins out of a love for God Council of Constance One of the great general councils of the church held at Constance from 1414 18 The Roman Curia The papal court which encompassed the domestic and administrative offices within the papal quotpalace quot It included the college of cardinals and the pope39s domestic prelates Cult The word used in the reformation period from the Latin cultus and reflected in the French culte for religious worship sometimes more specifically the worship of saints or holy relics It is thus distinct from more modern usage of the word to mean a quotsec quot The Decalo gue The quotTen Commandmentsquot delivered to Moses from God Deuteronomy 5 Decretal A papal decision or decree quotBullquot Diet Reichstag The meeting of the representatives of the German estates or Parliament By the reformation period the diets consisted of three colleges curiae known as the imperial estates Reichst39ande These were the electors excluding the king of Bohemia who generally only attended for the election of a new emperor the princes the group also included prelates counts and other nobility and the free imperial cities When the diet had concluded its decisions and the emperor s assent to them appeared in the form of a recess Dominicans also known as the quotOrder of Preachersquot and in England as the quotBlack Friarsquot from the black cuppa or mantle worn over their white habits In France they were known as the Jacobins after the name of their first house in Paris which was dedicated to St James ie quotSt Jacquesquot One of the major monastic orders The order took shape under the direction of St Dominic in the early thirteenth century It often provided the personnel for the Inquisition and thus inevitably attracted the particular criticism of Protestant propagandists Donatism39 Donatists A schism from the fourth century AD The Donatists stressed the sanctity of the church and made the validity and efficacy of its preaching and sacraments dependant on the moral purity of the priesthood It was condemned as heresy by the western Church Elders see quotPresbyterianismquot Eschatology eschatological The belief in the coming of the end of the world and time The Eucharist Lit quotThanksgivingquot in Greek This is the name given to the central rite of worship in the Christian church It is also known as quotcommunionquot quotLord s Supperquot and the quotmassquot Debates over the nature of the Eucharist were central to the Protestant Reformation They were based on a limited range of scriptural references but they went to the heart of how scriptures should be interpreted and revealed fundamental underlying issues about how holy power was to be interpreted Evangelism evangelical As Luther said the Gospel Lat Evangelium is a Greek word meaning quota good message good tidings good news a good reportquot For Protestant reformers the central significance of the quotGospelquot or quotWordquot gives an appropriateness to the use of the terms quotevangelismquot and quotevangelicalquot by modern historians to describe the infectious enthusiasm initiated by the early Protestant Reformation in the period before it became doctrinally well defined and confessionally divided The term has also been used by historians of the French and Italian reformations in a similar fashion to delineate those whose sympathies were towards the Protestant Reformation but whose support for the movement was for various reasons more a matter of intellectual tendency rather than overt and demonstrative conviction Excommunication The formal and permanent exclusion of an individual from the community of the church and its rituals Protestant reformers were united in accepting the need for church discipline They differed over how they saw that discipline contributing to individual salvation For Luther the quotinner disciplinequot of an individual39s life was primarily inculcated by education preaching and the progressive indoctrination of religious values Church discipline was more a matter of maintaining public order by legal sanction necessary for the maintenance of a Christian society but not fundamental to salvation Lutheran church retained some elements of episcopal government and consistories at Wittenberg and elsewhere utilized the power of excommunication to maintain church discipline For Zwingli Bucer and Calvin however excommunication was a more fundamental part of church discipline since they argued it was only within a public community that individual Christians were educated and inculcated with the true values of Christian living So the stress upon the necessity and visibility of church quotdisciplinequot was much more evident within the Reformed Calvinist tradition Exegesis The exposition and interpretation of the scriptures Faith see quotJustification by Faith quot Feast days These were the various days designated by the catholic church as holy days On such days the laity and clergy were forbidden to work and were obliged to attend Mass Such days included of course Sundays In addition to various fixed dates such as Candlemas 2 February the feast of the Annunciation 25 March and Christmas day 25 December there were variable dates and festivals in the Christian year These were calculated from the date of Easter which was assigned each year to the Sunday after the full moon on or next after 21 March each year Franciscans known in England as the quotGrey Friarsquot from the color of their habit The mendicants order of friars founded by St Francis of Assisi in 1209 The original distinguishing mark of the order was the insistence on complete poverty for individual friars and for the whole order General Councils of the Church The great councils of the early church as well as aspects of canon law gave fundamental legitimacy to the proposition that a general council of the church could embody the universal church Such councils were held periodically in the later medieval period and became associated with ecclesiastical reform A further and more radical strand of thought wanted to make the councils a more regular part of the institutional framework of the church A still more contentious element of quotconciliarquot thinking was the supposition that in certain circumstances a church council had supremacy in the church even over the papacy It was the dangers implicit in such a development that made the papacy wary of general councils of the church at the time of the Protestant Reformation Good works The central proposition of the Protestant Reformation was that no amount of quotgood worksquot could earn or work a way into heaven That could only come about through the grace of God mediated to us through Christ Only through the grace of Christ could the Christian pilgrim do the good works which would in the end enable him to stand before the quotjusticequot of God Although their catholic critics assailed the Protestant reformers for the primacy of faith over works Luther Zwingli and Calvin never identified the freedom of faith as a freedom from good works On the contrary they stressed that though good works never contributed to justification the effects of a passively received faith from God would naturally and inevitably be actively engaged works of charity in the world Grace St Augustine s theology of grace was a fundamental starting point for all Protestant thinking on this complex subject It had ramifications for how the Eucharist and other sacraments were conceived and much else besides Augustine s insistence on the necessity for God to initiate our salvation was shared by all the reformers even if they had very different ways of interpreting how this happened For Luther the process was utterly dependant on Christ We receive grace when we believe in Christ His righteousness becomes ours at that moment In this mystical union with Christ which goes beyond any attempt at rational explanation the believer receives his forgiveness and renewal of life and is justified This is what happened when we are offered the real body and blood of Christ at the Eucharist and also when the word of God is received within our hearts Calvin was also impressed with Luther s formulations and used the image of Christ being quotingraftedquot in us through our faith in the loving kindness of God from whom we like lost sheep receive a grace which we do not deserve How Calvin explained the process of quotingraftingquot was highly complex and still the subject of debate amongst theologians It depended on how he interpreted a quotsignquot The preaching of the word and the offering of the sacraments quotrepresentquot ie quotre presentquot God39s grace to us in a way which meant that they were neither merely a symbol nor an active agent crudely conceived for the conveyal of grace Gregorian Reforms The ecclesiastical reform of the church associated with Pope Gregory IX 1227 41 Holv Roman Empire lquotthe Old Reichquotl The complex polity in central Europe ruled by the elective holy roman emperor Humanism humanist see quotChristian humanism quot The Hussites Followers of Jan Hus c 1369 1415 the Bohemian reformer and heretic He derived some of his doctrines from John Wycliffe and rejected the papacy putting in its place the authority of the quotLaw of Godquot the scriptures and the agreed doctrines of the universal church In practice the Hussites actively promoted the reading of the Bible in the vernacular and the distribution of the Communion to the laity quotin both kinds quot Iconoclasm The destruction of images icons and others objects associated with Christ the holy family or the saints and perceived to have holy power Idolatry The worship of images or other objects of perceived holy power Images Objects of holy power The Imperial Cameral Court Reichskammergericht The supreme court of the Empire created at the diet of Worms in 1495 Indulgences A letter of indulgence was a remission of temporal penalties for sin granted by the hierarchy of the Roman church for individual who had shown penitence It was always granted on condition that defined penitential acts were carried out by the indulged such as visiting the holy places of Jerusalem or contributing money to the building of St Peter39s in Rome The sale of indulgences especially quotplenaryquot indulgences led to widespread criticism which was focused by the Protestant Reformation The Inguisition The Inquisition from the Latin inquirere to look into was a special ecclesiastical institution established in the thirteenth century to suppress heresy It was most significant in those places where such heresy had been prevalent The Spanish kingdoms along with many other parts of Europe had a version of the medieval Inquisition However the revived and reorganized quotSpanish Inquisitionquot was a more recent and distinctive tribunal on the eve of the reformation established specifically to deal with the problems of pseudo conversions of Jews Marranos and Moors Moriscos to Christianity Imputed righteousness see quotJustificationquot Justification by faith Sold Fidel This was the fundamental theological change imparted by the Protestant Reformation It lay close to the heart of how Luther and with different emphases other Protestant s reformers regarded salvation The term quotjustificationquot occurred within the New Testament especially in the Pauline writings as a metaphor to explain how human beings are quotmade righteousquot by God Luther held that man is the recipient of God s mercy through faith alone Lat S0ld fide Salvation cannot depend on human merit or upon good works or upon the church Our faith is a gift of grace from God who mysteriously elects to save us and it works in a mysterious way in us Luther talks about faith as a quottrustquot fiducia in Latin in God39s promises as revealed to us in Christ Through this trust we become sinners who at the same time have a hope of righteousness which God imparts to us or quotimputesquot in us Calvin stressed that our faith in Christ enables Him to live in us as a real and living force and becomes the route by which we can share in the benefits of His passion We quotpossessquot Christ and he becomes quotingraftedquot into our beings and lives justifying and sanctifying them at one and the same time The Lateran Council General councils held at Rome were known as quotLateranquot councils because they met in the Lateran Basilica Lent A forty day period of fast which preceded Easter and began with the communal act of penance on Ash Wednesday L seMaiest divine et humaine Treason Liturgy Lit quotthe work of the peoplequot in Greek In general it is taken to refer to the church39s services and church worship In particular it can refer to the Eucharist as the central element of that worship The Lollards The name probably means quotmumblers of prayersquot Initially restricted to the followers of John Wycliffe c1329 84 the English reformer and philosopher the term became more generally applied in England to all who criticized the church The original Lollards had distinctive teachings on personal faith the importance of Divine election and above all the significance of the Bible The scriptures were the sole authority in religion and every man had the right to read and interpret them for himself The Lollards attacked clerical celibacy transubstantiation indulgences and pilgrimages in ways which led the Protestant martyrologists to claim the Lollards as their spiritual forebears The Magdeburg Confession In reality this was a manifesto of the rights of lesser magistrates to resist legitimate authority It was issued during the siege of the city of Magdeburg after the Schmalkaldic War 1546 7 The city refused to accept the Augsburg Interim imposed by the emperor after his military success and it was invested by his troops This publication became a reference point for later resistance theory in the sixteenth century Magisterial reform The religious changes proposed by the theologically trained masters magistri of the Protestant Reformation such as Luther Zwingli and Calvin and the secular authority whose religious changes they orchestrated Martyrology39 martyrs Martyrs were the faithful who suffered for their faith Martyrologies were the accounts which retold their lives and suffering The Mass Missal The name given to the Latin service the office or actio of the Eucharist in the traditional church The central part of the rite the quotcanonquot began with the words Te igitur leading through to the consecration and distribution of the host A quothigh massquot was an elaborate sung form of the service A quotlow massquot was a simple form of mass involving only one server no deacon or choir and no part of the service was sung The term quotmassquot was rejected by the reformers because of its association with the doctrine of transubstantiation and because of the theology of quotsacrificequot which underlay it The Mendicants Those monastic orders which were committed to corporate poverty such as the Franciscans the Dominicans and the Carmelites The Millennium39 millennial millenarian The belief in the coming of a thousand year reign of blessedness by Christ and his saints as envisaged in the Bible esp Revelation 20 Monasteries see quotRegular Ordersquot The Novatians A third century Roman sect Holy Orders Being in quotholy ordersquot or quotordainedquot by the church was perceived within the traditional church as like baptism imparting a sacramental grace which could not be completely removed The council of Trent clarified this position defining holy orders as a sacrament instituted by Christ and conveying the Holy Ghost The Protestant reformers mostly rejected the idea that holy ordination was a sacrament although in certain places notably amongst the English episcopacy the notion of an episcopacy ordained by divine right de jure divino continued to be maintained Original Sin see quotSinquot The Papacy The institutions of the papacy fulfilled a dual role which reflected the double nature of the papal monarchy as both the titular and administrative head of the church of Latin Christendom and also the prince of the Papal States the largest and most coherent political entity in sixteenth century Italy The term was used by Protestant reformers to refer not merely to the pope the quotApostolic Seequot who claimed direct descent from St Peter and supremacy the quotsupreme Pontiffquot within Western Christianity It was taken to refer to the papal institutions as well as by implication the church more generally The Parlements The sovereign royal lawcourts in France The Parlement of Paris was the oldest and most renowned but there were also provincial lawcourts in Toulouse Rouen Rennes and elsewhere Pelagianism39 Pelagius A British monk in c 400 AD who gave his name to a theology which held that mankind took the first stops towards salvation by its own efforts and without the assistance of divine grace The theology and its associated followers were declared heretical in the early fifth century AD Penance One of the seven sacraments of the Roman church The word derives from the Latin poena for punishment As conceived by medieval theologians penance contained various stages from attrition and contrition through confession to absolution In general the word is often taken to refer to the various disciplines adopted by the church for the control of wrong doing sin Pilgrimages Journeys to holy places such as a shrine of a saint as an act of thanksgiving or penance Predestination Predestination from the Latin praedestinare to quotfore ordainquot is the belief that certain individuals the quotelectquot are foreshadowed for eternal salvation on the basis of the Pauline scriptures St Augustine had developed it as a mystery which the human mind had to accept but which could not be further investigated It was evident as a feature in the works of Luther but later developments somewhat caricatured it as a doctrine of unique significance to Calvin Calvin argued not merely that some the quotelectquot were fore ordained to salvation but also that the remainder of fallen humanity the quotreprobatequot were foreordained to damnation This is sometimes referred to as quotdouble predestination quot Presbyterianism39 presbytery The name derives from the Scottish terminology for the system of church government associated with the Calvinist reformation in Europe Calvin39s church discipline was developed to provide an ascending and interlocking pattern of ecclesiastical courts comprising both clergy and lay elders At the level of the parish or congregation the minister and elders met together as the quotconsistoryquot in Scottish terminology a quotsessionquot The consistory provided the base unit for 13 church discipline Above it came a regular meeting of representatives from individual churches called a quotclassisquot or in France a quotcolloquequot in Scotland a quotpresbyteryquot to deal with common problems Then above that lay more occasional national synods or in Scotland quotgeneral assembliesquot The basis for the presbyterian pattern of government was laid down by Calvin in Geneva in his Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1541 Purgatory The foundation of the medieval doctrine of purgatory lay in the belief located in the writings of St Augustine that the fate of the individual soul is decided immediately after death and the certainty of purifying pains of the afterlife Purgatory was gradually elaborated by medieval theologians as a place of waiting for the sinful who could not be admitted to heaven until penance had been done for their sins According to St Thomas Aquinas the guilt culpa of venial sin was expiated immediately after death and only the punishment remained to be served That punishment greater than the greatest pain on earth might be helped however by the faithful on earth especially by the offering of masses for the souls of the departed The official teaching of the church on purgatory was finally defined at the councils of Lyons 1274 and Florence 1439 Purgatory gradually assumed a central place in the penitential fabric of the church The attack on the belief by Martin Luther was therefore of critical significance The Real Presence To medieval theologians the elements of bread and wine were commonly interpreted as being miraculously changed into the very body and blood of Christ the quotReal Presencequot at the moment when the priest uttered the words of consecration They explained the process as quottransubstantiationquot transubstantio By this they meant that the quotsubstancequot the reality within the bread and the wine was quottransformedquot into the substance of the body and blood of Christ leaving only the quotaccidentsquot or superficial properties what you could see touch or taste unchanged In common with some later medieval philosophers and theologians Luther rejected this explanation but retained the notion of a quotReal Presencequot He regarded is as having undisputed Biblical attestation It was analogous to the fact that Christ incarnate both God and Man had been on earth Christ s body and blood were not to be equated with the bread and the wine but they lay quotin with and underquot it in ways that God had not intended us fully to understand When we eat and drink the sacrament we become one body quotincorporatedquot with all the saints Recess Abschiedl The conclusions of an imperial diet issued by the imperial chancellery and including the decisions of the diet and the assent of the emperor Regular Orders The monastic orders were known as the quotregularquot orders of the church because they were composed of men or women living in a community under a religious rule regula as a monk or nun and who had taken vows or quotmade professionquot to live according to the rule of their particular order Reich see quotHoly Roman Empire quot Ecclesiastical Rites Forms of worship Remission See quotSinquot Righteousness of God in Latin iustitia Dei This was the embodiment of the arbitrary to mankind decisions of the divine will Sacraments According to St Thomas Aquinas d1274 a sacrament was quotthe sign of a sacred thing in so far as it sanctifies menquot In Christian theology the scope of what constitutes a sacrament varied widely By the late Middle Ages however Aquinas seven sacraments had been formally affirmed as an article of belief at the council of Florence 1439 These were baptism confirmation matrimony extreme unction penance the Eucharist and holy orders These were radically reduced by the Protestant reformers amongst whom only baptism and the Eucharist were accepted without reservation as sacraments Satisfaction Lat satisfacio Satisfaction of God39s righteousness was the explanation commonly offered by medieval theologians for the process of penitence leading to salvation God had been mortally offended by the quotdisgracequot afforded to his honor by the disobedience of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden Their kin human kind inherited that disgrace and God s wrath Human beings did not have sufficient merit to offer God by way of satisfaction or compurgation for the injury afforded They had instead to rely on a gift from God of someone ie Christ who with kinship to God as his son and also as a human being could act as a mediator and compurgator It was the critique of this explanation of salvation which led Protestant reformers to offer the alternative of quotjustificationquot in place of quotsatisfactionquot Scriptures see quotSola Scripturaquot Secularization In the sixteenth century this term applied to lands formerly belonging to the church which were transferred into lay ownership These lands included substantial territories in Germany which had formerly belonged to the catholic church and which were secularized in the course of the reformation Sin Scholastic theologians and confessors manuals had identified seven quotdeadlyquot sins pride avarice extravagance wrath gluttony envy and sloth There was much scholarly and ecclesiastical debate as to the relative seriousness of the deadly sins The Protestant reformers radically transformed this notion of sin This resulted from their different conception of salvation and also of the human psyche Scholastic theologians had regarded human beings as having a superior rational faculty in control of the sensual and potentially sinful lesser corporal elements of the body including the emotions and the senses It was these lesser elements which contained the roots of human sins which were duly dissected into the sins connected with particular senses and emotions God saved human beings from these sins by operating upon the 15 rational faculties but the nature of that operation remained a matter of great conjecture for medieval theologians Protestant reformers had a more balanced and holistic conception of the human psyche Mind and body lay in a profound interrelationship one with another Both were integrally touched by the original sin which was part of our human nature That sin was indivisible all embracing and all pervasive Only faith in Christ by which we were given the grace to be better than our fundamentally sinful nature could transform us But that faith reached us at least as much by the word of God appealing to our emotions as to our rational faculties So for Luther we are at one and the time quotjustified and sinfulquot simul iustus etpeccator By faith the quotsin that rules usquot peccatum regnans can be transformed into the quotsin that is ruledquot peccalum regnalum In this way our sin is quotremittedquot For Calvin the language is even more graphic Sin was unbounded lust quotconcupiscencequot a quotpollutionquot to which we were as human beings quotenslavedquot Only the grace of Christ could set limits to the bounds of our lust and prevent us from mixing up quotpollutingquot the holy with our sin Sold scrigtura g quotScripture alonequot Protestant theologians were not the first theologians to regard scripture as the prime validator of doctrine They were however the first to place scripture in direct opposition to the traditions and practices of the church They did so because so they argued the medieval church had granted itself the authority to determine what scripture said and how it should be interpreted By contrast the reformers regarded all traditions within the church as only carrying weight if they conformed to scripture The Protestant reformers further argued that scripture had within it the guiding lights and inspiration for its own interpretation Sold scriptura was also a principle of Biblical exegesis Scripture was the holy word of God and inspired by the Holy Spirit However there was an assumed distinction between the substance of the scriptures in Latin res and the words verba they contained The latter might be lost in translation without affecting the former whose quottruthquot and quotcertaintyquot would still be capable of being conveyed to our consciences and minds despite the limits of our capacities for understanding them The Sorbonne The Faculty of Theology of the University of Paris It was an important school of theology in western Europe and a staunch opponent of the Protestant Reformation It censured Luther s works in 1521 and played an important part in the censorship of printed books in France Superstition The battle launched by the Protestant reformers against quotsuperstitionquot indicated much of what was central to their preoccupations Following St Augustine and medieval theologians they defined superstition as not merely the credulous notions of the unlearned but the dangerous worship of false gods The latter extended to idolatry divination sorcery and magic The Lord39s Su er see quot the Eucharistquot Synod An assembly for the government of the church The Tetrapolitan Confession Confessio Tetrapolitana A confession produced for the diet of Augsburg in 1530 by Wolfgang Capito Martin Bucer and Caspar Hedio for the four cities of Strasbourg Constance Memmingen and Lindau Although the statement was not accepted by the diet and although they went on to accept the Augsburg Confession in the following year the articles of the Tetrapolitan Confession continued to be of significance in the development of the Protestant reformed tradition for its formulations of doctrine on the Lord39s Supper and on images Tithe Payments from the laity for the maintenance of the clergy Theoretically a tenth portion of production tithes were in fact of varying proportions and composed of differing elements depending on the products being tithed and the methods of payment agreed Many tithes were quotcommutedquot to fixed money payments by the sixteenth century Transubstantiation see quotThe Real Presencequot The Council of Trent The general council of the catholic church meeting initially at Trent on 13 December 1545 It eventually concluded its deliberations in the 25th session in December 1563 The Trinity The doctrine of the Trinity ie that the one God exists in three persons Father Son and Holy Spirit but one substance is central to Christian theology It had been defined by the early church councils in the face of the antitrinitarian quotheresiesquot of Arius 256 356 and others Antitrinitarianism would resurface during the Protestant Reformation The Vernacular The native languages written and spoken by ordinary people from the Latin for quotnativequot or quotcommonquot as distinct from the Latin used by the clergy Via antigua via moderna There were various schools of thought or Viae in medieval universities They were named after great exponents of the classical philosophical and theological problems of the day or after the name given to a particular approach to the problem One such debate was about the degree to which and how we quotknewquot and quotunderstoodquot the world around us In philosophy it is known as the problem of quotuniversalsquot Most common nouns are quotuniversalsquot eg bat brick Aristotle and Plato to an even greater degree had argued that on the basis of our sense impressions we abstract the underlying common forms which exist in the objects to form what is understood as a quotbrickquot or a quotbatquot That is known as quotrealismquot because the form is not merely an abstraction in our minds but derived from the quotrealityquot of the form as represented to us This analysis was broadly accepted by the greatest of the medieval philosophers St Thomas Aquinas After Aquinas however medieval philosophers questioned this understanding They have become collectively known as quotnominalistsquot although the term covers several different approaches to the problem of quotuniversalsquot The most representative and best known of them was William of Ockham c 1285 c 1349 For Ockham the categories into which we place our sense impressions are created within our minds only quotUniversalsquot thus only exist as a mental concept or quotnamequot 17 hence quotnominalismquot which we have either abstracted from reality or intuitively ascribed to it So if God chose to destroy all the bats in the world we would still quotknowquot what a quotbatquot was In university curricula relating to the faculty of arts where philosophy was studied this was sometimes known as the quotmodern way of thoughtquot via moderna to distinguish it from quotthe ancient wayquot via antiqua of Aquinas and Duns Scotus These debates in term had an impact on the other great set of debates in medieval universities over how man was quotsavedquot by God The Vulgate The Latin translation of the Bible believed in the sixteenth century to have been undertaken by St Jerome d 420 The Waldenses Followers of the twelfth century Peter Waldo of Lyon They preached poverty and the renunciation of the world appointed their own ministers known as quotbarbesquot in French because of their beards and because united with the Hussites On the eve of the reformation and despite persecution the Waldenses survived in the rural upland communities of Alpine France and Italy Zwinglianism Zwinglian The doctrines advanced by the Protestant reformer at Zurich Huldrych Zwingli Copyright by C Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass 1997 256 Church Ordinance of Saxony 1580 Articles to be asked of the pastors deacons and all church servants 1 Article one assesses the belief conduct and understanding of the church servants in relation to the main statements of Lutheran belief The remaining articles assess the quality of religious life and belief in the individual parishes 2 Whether the church servant knows of any failing or insufficiency in teaching or conduct on the part of his colleagues and neighboring pastors or whether he has heard anything bad said about them 3 How the district officials councilors magistrates castellans those of the nobility and other commissioned officers and authorities conduct themselves with reference to church attendance and Holy Communion 4 Also whether any of these men are considered notorious and if so whether this individual lives in wild public and despicable sin and refuses to leave off The church official should also inquire into the nature of the crimes 5 Whether our district officials city councilors and other of our officers and authorities in each of the districts pay proper attention to our church ordinance church servants and other of our church constitutions and ordinances 6 Whether the church servant knows of anyone in his parish who persists in false mistaken beliefs or whether hospitality is given to such people who do 7 Whether the other parishioners attend church regularly with their children and dependents on Sundays and religious holidays as well as during the week to hear the preaching of God39s Word And if on Sundays and religious holidays they do not attend we should like to know whether they are punished and through which means 8 Equally whether they make sure that their children and dependents attend the midday catechism sessions on Sunday and holiday afternoons in particular those who otherwise watch the herd 9 Whether the church servant knows of anyone in the parish who scorns the Word of God and the reverend sacrament of the Lord39s Supper those who do not take communion but rather speak ill of it 257 10 Whether the parishioners loiter or stroll in the lanes streets church green or other public places during the office and the sermon Also whether the officials forbid such conduct who these perpetrators are and to what degree they are punished 11 Whether the parishioners run out of the church during the sermon before the common prayer without just cause 12 Whether the parishioners are negligent in their attendance on Sundays or special holidays and fasts working with the horses or manual labor instead And whether those who are guilty are punished in what manner and to what degree 13 Whether wares are peddled wine and beer is drunk public and private amusements such as cards dice or ball games or village matters and the communal assembly takes place during the service and the sermon and nevertheless go unpunished 14 Whether on the high feasts such as Whitsun or Christmas before or during the sermon communal beer drinking and shooting is allowed 15 Whether the people sing the German songs in the church with the chorus and whether they start and end where the cantor or the sexton instructs 16 Whether the parishioners themselves go regularly to the catechism sessions in particular the examination session Account should be made of those who persistently refuse to attend 17 Whether the people who live in filial hamlets take themselves to the Lord39s Supper and confession 18 Whether there are blasphemers among them who curse Christ s passion his wounds the sacraments etc And if there are how they are punished by the authorities 19 Whether there are cunning folk in the parish who bless the people and the animals 20 Whether they know of any soothsayers who are visited by people seeking help 21 Whether there are parents among them who do not make their children say their prayers or their daily blessings 22 Whether there are children among them who curse their parents strike them or otherwise with gestures words or deeds treat them badly Whether these children misbehave will suffer no discipline but rather fly from their parents as well as school work and labor 258 23 Whether there are people among them who live together in conflict and irreconcilable rage 24 Whether there are married people among them who live together in conflict and will not let themselves be reconciled 25 Whether the husband behaves in a tyrannical or otherwise unseemly fashion towards his wife and whether the wife displays an unreasonable disobedience toward the husband 26 Whether married people to the discomfort of the community do not live together 27 Whether there are those among them who are engaged to be married yet once the vow was taken refused to enter the state of matrimony Instead they remain silent and refuse to enter the marriage though they have not yet been properly separated 28 Whether there is whoring and adultery among them 29 Whether married or single people go about with a wild or evil aspect and whether their indecency has become a public offence 30 Whether shameful and indecent songs are sung among them 31 Whether the authorities allow for the continuance of Spinning Bees and other indecent disorderly night dances and gatherings or whether and by what means they punish the offenders 32 Whether there are usurers among them who continue the forbidden and godless practice usury with money and grain 33 Whether there are those among them whose harmful and excessive gaming has led to the ruin of his wife and children Source AL Richter edDie quot 39 Ki 39 39 o des 39 39 quot 39 39 m trans 0 Scott Dixon Nieuwkoop B de Graaf 1967 401
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