INTRODUCTION TO MUSIC
INTRODUCTION TO MUSIC MUSC 110
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caden Wolf PhD on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 110 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by J. Carteret in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/229505/musc-110-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Music at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Music 110 Final Exam Study Guide ITJ J the mai or ideas trends and eras A with the following I The Baroque 1600 1750 0 J S Bach o Considered greatest composter in music history 0 German born 0 Bach s entire family were musicians o Orphaned at age 10 and educated by brother 0 Master of Fugues 0 Antonio Vivaldi O O O 0 Italian Wrote all kinds of Operas Known for concertos solo Violin and orchestra Wrote over 500 concertos Established basic pattern of fast slow fast Composition 0 Four Seasons 4 part concerto and early example of program music I Classical Era 1750 1820 0 Mozart O O O From Salzburg Austria Most famous child prodigy Patron Archbishop Concentration Piano Concertos Classical composer who wrote all kinds of music 0 Beethoven O O O O O O O 0 German Composer Bonn Germany Transitional Composer straddles between classicism and romanticism Had idea of Motive Set the standard for Symphonies Wrote 9 total symphonies Developed extremes in dynamics Went through phases 0 Early imitative sounds like Mozart and Haydn 0 Middle heroic deafness started music is forceful and bombastic 0 Late experimental Stone deaf experimented with sound Compositions 0 Symphony No7 0 Sonata No8 Pathetique 0 9m symphony Ode to Joy 0 Fidelio only opera 0 Symphony No 5 in C minor 0 Symphony No 40 I Romantic Era 1820 1900 0 Chopin 0 Polish born father was French 0 Was a child prodigy o Moved to Paris 0 Wrote Etudes 0 Known as the Poet of the Piano 0 At best in the very small Wrote miniatures o Brahms Child prodigy Performer piano German born Left Schumann s House and went to Vienna Brahms studied absolute music concertos symphonies etc said a lot can be said about traditional forms Saw inspiration from the past Wrote 4 symphonies numerous concertos chamber music art songs etc Achieved culmination of Romantic Era but was conservative o Franz Schubert o Vienese Composer 0 Was a school teacher not a good one 0 Supported by friends Schubertiadenismall scale chamber music 0 Transitional composer 0 Master of the Art song wrote over 600 o Wrote 9 symphonies 8Lh was the unfinished o Wagner 0 German Composer from Late Romanticism o Controversial composer AntiJewish 0 NOT a childhood prodigy o Wrote music for stage area of interest 0 Said to combine music with other art forms which resulted in operas Wrote a lot of them 0 Thought it was pointless to write symphonies etc Wanted to keep music fresh 0 Music had a continuous ow of soundiendless hard to visualize standalone o Compositions o The Ring Cycle Orchestral writing orchestral pit played so it went under the stage Was a huge writing all together 0 Berlioz 0 Composition 0 Symphony Fantastique o Realm of orchestration o 5 movements Id ee Fixe o BedrichSmetena O O 0 Artist when Bohemia was under Austrian domination Fled to Sweden Went deaf best known for compositions after death Compositions 0 Ma Vlasta set of 6 poems for orchestra Most popular poem was the Moldav o Antonin Dvorak O O O Bohemian composer Internationally famous by Brahms Invited to America Taught for the National Conservatory of Music in New York 1892 Taught Americans how to write music The New England Romantics Composition 0 Symphony No 9 The New World 0 Said US had 2 important sources 0 Native Americans 0 Spirituals o ModesteMusorgsky 0 Russian Amateur musician 0 Part of the Mighty Handful and was known as weakest link 0 Russian Romantic nationalistic member of the mighty 5 o Compositions o The Great Gate of Kiev 0 Pictures at an Exhibition 0 Example of a suite 0 Peter Tchaikovsky 0 Russian Composer 0 Created masterpieces in a variety of genres 0 Had a patron who admired him 0 Compositions o The Nutcracker o Compositions were versatile 0 Very good at ballets o Tchaikovsky could write the best ballets because he had compositional skills wasn t a developer and had the GIFT to create a melody and move on 0 Had a great sense of orchestration 0 Absolute Music symphonies concertos etc 0 Piano concertos and violin concertos o Wrote 6 symphonies last was like requiem 20th century before WWII 0 Claude Debussy 0 French 0 Child prodigy 0 Very opinionated and radical o Kicked out of conservatory of music 0 Musical components softblurryfade Sketchlike Achieved by use of whole tone scales pentatonic scales and ambiguous chords Impressionist base subject matter on everyday objects Less emphasis on form Use of exible rhythms o Schoenberg 0 Leader of 2quotdVienese School 0 Expressionist reacting against impressionist o Says language is about emotion 0 Put so much dissonance and tension into music and reached atonality 0 Igor Stravinsky 0 Russian born composer 0 Possibly greatest composer of 201h century 0 EarliestGreatest were Ballets o Compositions o The Firebird ballet o Pretrouckka folktale o The Rite of Spring 0 Copland 0 American Composer 0 One of the most in uential o EXpressionistic ideas 0 Studied in Paris 0 Advocate for Stravinsky O Bridged the gap for the audience 0 Wrote nationalistic music 0 Folk dances 0 Descriptive of America 0 American Sound 20th century after WWII after 1945 0 John Cage o wrote piano pieces 0 asked performers to take objects and insert them into piano 0 very radical and extreme 0 Why can t music be around us 0 Compositions o Pendereskyivictims of Hiroshima o 4 33 silence o utilizedaleatoric music chance 0 do not plan out piece V J J the de nitions and ideas 39 A with the following terms 1 2 Gregorian Chant earliest form of written West music Name after Gregory I Wasn t a composer but was an organizer Songs were messy and said we needed organization Word Painting associated with the Renaissance Wanted music to speak to the listener Conveys emotion and helps to illustrate music Music depiction of text 3 AriaRecitative a Aria long song accompanying a solo voice Usually in an opera b Recitative to recite sung quickly 5 Concerto most important instrumental genre Dealt with contrast Orchestra against soloist Solo versus orchestra 5quot Symphony most important genre associated w classical era Multimovement Worked for entire orchestra Standard 4 movements 0 Neo classicism musical characteristic of Modernism Early part of 20Lh century Before WWII a Brought back classical ideas b Reaction against romanticism gt Chamber music denotes music for small more intimate setting More conversational 8 Opera most popular genre created in the baroque Re ection of culture and society Play that is sung Includes theatre costume and orchestra Started around the year 1600 beginning of the baroque P Imitation the repetition of a melody in a polyphonic texture shortly after it s first appearance Hallmark of the Renaissance Parts imitate each other sing melody that will harmonize with itself 10 Leitmotif made by Wagner Leading motive was a musical fragment Used to represent characters etc 11 Madrigal type of secular music form of secular music Was a secular love poem set to music Began in Italy and spread to England b t 2 Consonance pitch combos that sound natural or pitches sounding agreeable and stable 13 Dissonance pitch combos that sound unstable don t work together create tension and want to resolve in consonance 14 Nationalism music that displays own nationality a Nationalism exploded because of French Revolution and Napolean Bonaparte b Composer can achieve nationalistic pieces by i Art music based on folk tunesmusic ii Music is descriptive of particular region iii Dramatic music based on national story or history 15 Impressionism around 1900 a French reaction to German Romanticism b Link between romanticism and modernism c Base subject matter on everyday object H 9 Expressionism musical characteristic of Modernism a Expressionist react against impressionist b Language is about emotion c Dominated by group of composers known as second Vienese school H l Sonata genre type of musical composition usually for a solo instrument Consists of two to four movements H W Polyphony 2 or more melodies at once Requires two or more lines in the musical fabric H O Exoticism Borrowing a foreign musical style Atonality music without tone center a HAD to happen b Lots of dissonance N O N H Program music was important in the Romantic Era Tells us a story Not about logic or form Art song lied solo voice with piano accompaniment N N a Similar to poem set to music b Dominated by Franz Schubert 23 Minimalism musical trend after WWII 1945 a Reaction against several things b Focuses on barest minimum c Small minute details d Small changes e Asked why does music have to develop 24 Modernism music before WWII a Musical characteristics neoclassicism expressionism nationalism 25 Basso continuo dead giveaway of the baroque Low register Must have a bass part to keep everything together Needs 2 performers cello amp harpsichord Know the major trends and musical characteristics of the following eras I Middle Ages 476 1450 0 When music was first written down 0 Western System began 0 Church was very in uentialiRoman Catholic o Gregorian Chant earliest form of written music I Monophonic texture I Acapella I Latin I Free verse rhythm I The Renaissance 1450 1600 0 What brought about the Renaissance Invention of the printing press ideas spread Already began in the am nova but took off with the printing press Means rebirth Golden Age of Acapella Music Characteristics 0 Polyphonic texture began in middle ages 0 Polyphony becomes advancediadd bass line 0 Add in equal parts 0 Female voices Imitation hallmark of renaissance music parts imitate each 0 other sing melody that will harmonize with itself 0 Text painting music speaks to listeners conveys image I The Baroque 1600 1750 Reaction to the Renaissance O 0000 Extravagance Divided into Early and Late late was most dramatic Birth of opera Characteristics 0 0000000000 Relentless activity Art of twistingtuming Constant melody Fortspinnuing Continuous melody Dramatic contrast Terraced and at planes Terraced dynamics Omamentation decoration or embellishing of music Polyphonic Instrumental O Basso continue dead giveaway Classical Era 1750 1820 0 O O O O Dominated by the city of Vienna Austria Wealthy city capital of Roman Empire Music strove for clarity Age of Enlightenment age of reason and login No more emotional aspect Classical Melody o Shorter o Lyrical 0 Really catchy added words to the music 0 Balanced phrases o Homophonic texture harmony with one melody 0 Important elements 0 Standardized orchestra string woodwind brass percussion o Basso continuo gradually disappeared 0 Musical form 0 More emphasis on form 0 Includes binary ternary sonataallegro minuet amp trio rondo and theme and variations 0 Forms Described o Binary AB 0 Ternary ABA o Sonata Allegro viewed as very elaborate ternary form 0 Minuet and Trio basis is dance Dance in triple meter Ternary form 0 Rondo main theme A keeps coming back Theme and Variations o Genres 0 Symphony most important genre Associate it with the classical era 0 The sinfoniawhich worked for the orchestra to set the mood eventually developed into the symphony o A symphony is large scale multimovement o 4 movements I I fastsonataallegro I II slowrelaxed can vary I III must contrast w previous 2 movements 0 Example dancelike minuet and trio I IV Fast tempo 0 Can vary 0 Concerto solo versus orchestra o Concerto gross discontinued only SOLO concertos 0 New piano concerto developed 0 Multimovementamp large scale 0 Chamber Music denotes music for smaller more intimate settings small room 0 Conversational o 1 player per part 0 Included the string quartet I Romantic Era 1820 1900 0 About freedom emotion 0 French Revolution end of classicism shaped society system of patronage began to die away 0 Industrial Revolution more access to instruments speci cally the piano 0 Musical Characteristics 0 Expressive o Emotionally involved 0 Impressive because of the expression 0 Extremes of musical elements 0 Dynamics romantics used ff PPPPP o Dissonance harnessed for musical emotion to promote tension 0 NatureSupernatural both popular in romantic era Romantics were fascinated w nature seen in literature 0 Melody o Longer amp expansive 0 Still lyrical o Emphases on tone color 0 Unique quality of each individual instrument 0 Was the Age of Dichotomies O Exoticism amp nationalism I 20 11 century before WWII o modernism music before WWII 0 characteristics 0 O O O angular melody melody is now least important Not as singable Flexible Rhythm Impressionism blurry soft harmony whole tone scales Neo classicism early part of 201h century before WWII Brought back classical ideas rxn against romanticism 20th century after WWII after 1945 o post modemism 0 Musical Trends 0 O O O O Minimalism Liberation of sound music doesn t have to be in certain intervals chords structure etc Electronic Music nontraditional new arsenal of instruments new pitches Musical Quotation don t have to write something new take something older and give it new meaning Return to tonality music with harmonic center Know the composer and main ideas 39 A with each ofthe r quot 39 pieces I The Four Seasons 0 Vivaldi 0 Example of Ritornello returning ideal 0 Example of Program music paints a picture 0 Conceno 3 part fast slow fast I Messiah o Handel o masterpiece 0 Charles Jennings British Poet brought this text to Handel 0 King George II heard Messiah and rose to feet I Symphony No 5 in C minor 0 Beethoven 0 Based on single motive o Exposition development recapituation I The Moldav o Smetena o The Moldav was a river n the region of Prague created by 2 streams 0 Part ofthe 6 poems known as Ma Vlast o 2 utes represent 2 streams 0 Great example of Romantic Program Music 0 Great example of Nationalism o Melody River theme I The Erlking The Elf King 0 Franz Schubert 0 Art Song 0 SupematuralFolk Legend o Triplet Motion 0 Piano in equal partner with voice 0 Solo voice w piano accompaniment I SymphonieFantastique o Hector Berlioz 0 Written in 1830 o Realm of Orchestration 0 Five Movements I The Ring of Nibelung The Ring Cycle 0 Richard Wagner 0 Orchestral writing 0 Invented own instruments 0 Orchestral pit was under the stage I The Rite of Spring 0 Igor Stravinsky 0 Paris 0 At premiere audience was shocked Caused a huge riot 0 Village Ritual sacri ce Practice listening to the following pieces to identify the representative musical eras genres and musical characteristsics Be able to identify these pieces by title and composer as well 1 Agnus Dei of the M issaPapaeM arcelliPalestrina Violin Concerto in E Major Spring from The Four Seasons mvt 1 Vivaldi Brandenburg Concerto no 5 mvt I Bach Trumpet Concerto in E at major mvt III Haydn Symphony No 40 in g minor mvt IMozart Symphony No 5 in c minor mvt IBeethoven Nocturne in E at major Chopin The M oldauSmetana available on Youtube T he Rite of SpringStravinsky beginning at Augurs of Spring Dances ofthe Adolescents Short Ride in a Fast Machine Adams
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