Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes 3366-10
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Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 Punishment 0 Any event or object that when following a response makes that response less likely to happen again Punishment by applicationthe punishment of a response by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by removal the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable experience Four Ways to Modify Behavior 0 Positive adding 0 Reinforcementsomething positivepleasurable o Punishmentsomething unpleasant Negative Removing o Reinforcement stopping at red light to prevent accident 0 Punishment by removal losing driving privilege because you are in too many accidents Problems with Punishment 0 Severe punishment 0 May cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished 0 May encourage lying to avoid punishment 0 Creates fear amp anxiety How to Make Punishment More Effective 0 Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish Punishment should be consistent Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior Operant Stimuli and Stimulus Control 0 Discriminative stimulusany stimulus such as a stop sign or a doorknob that provides the organism o Extinction occurs if the behavior response is not reinforced One way to deal with a child s temper tantrum is to ignore it lack of positive reinforcement will eventually result in extinction o Operantly Conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similarnot identicalto the original stimulus Spontaneous Recovery Shapingreinforcement of simple steps leading to a desired complex behavior dolphin jumping through hoop training DUPIDY Successive Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 Behavior Resistant to Conditioning Instinctive driftthe tendency for an animal s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns 0 Each animal comes into the world and laboratory with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior in place These instincts differ from species to species Ex raccoons commonly dunk their food in and out of water This quotwashing behavior is controlled by instinct and is dif cult to change through operant conditioning techniques 0 Behavior Modi cationuse of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior Token economya type of behavior modi cation in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens o TimeOut form of mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal child or adult is placed in special area away from the attention of others 0 Essentially the organism is being removed from any possibility of positive reinforcement in the form of attention 0 Applied Behavior Analysismodern term for a form of behavior modi cation that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response 0 Used frequently with Autistic individuals Biofeedback and Neurofeedback 0 Biofeedbackuse of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control 0 Neurofeedbackform of biofeedback using devices EEG or FMRI to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior Cognitive Learning Theory 0 In the early days of learning researchers focus was on behavior 0 Edward Tolmanearly cognitive scientist o Maze experiment Group 1 rewarded each time at end of maze learned maze quickly Group 2 in maze everyday only rewarded on tenth day demonstrated learning of maze almost immediately after reward Group 3 didn t get reward didn t learn 0 Latent Learninglearning remains hidden until its application becomes useful Insight Kohler Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 0 Insight the sudden perception of relationships among various forms of a problem allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly 0 Cannot be gained through trial and error learning alone 0 quotAha moment Learned Helplessness Seligman Learned helplessness a tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past 0 Positive psychology a new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy that focuses on the adaptive creative psychologically more ful lling aspects of human experience rather than disorders Observational Learning Bandura 0 Observational learninglearning a new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll experiment Extra Credit paragraph that re ects the psychological concepts we39ve discussed about learning focusing on how media in uences learning due next Tuesday October Observational Learning Elements 0 Attentionto learn anything through observation 0 Retention Imitation Motivation Clive wea ring Book Notes Chapter 5 10815 Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Maturation Classical Conditioning Pavlov Re exan unlearned involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice Stimulusany object event or experience that causes a response Classical Conditioninglearning to elicit an involuntary re ex like response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces it Unconditioned stimulusunlearned naturally occurring ordinarily leads to involuntary response in Pavlov s experiment tisfood Unconditioned Responseautomatic anol involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus unlearned amp occurs due to genetic wiring dog salivating to food Conditioned Stimulusany kind of stimulus can be associated with the unconditioned stimulus if it is paired with unconditioned stimulus often enough sight of dog dish became stimulus before ologs even got food bc every time they got food they saw the dish amp salivated 0 Neutral Stimulus dish itself had no effect on salvation 0 When a previously neutral stimulus begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response learning has occurred dish paired with food so many times eventually produces save response as food 0 The neutral stimulus can now be referred to as conditioned stimulus39 Conditioned Responseresponse to conditioned stimulus not as strong as original unconditioned response CS must come before the UCS CS amp UCS must come very close together no more than 5 sec apart for association to be made Neutral stimulus must be paired with UCS several times before conditioning can take place The CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from competing stimuli Stimulus Generalizationtendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus Extinctiondog doesn t get food with metronome sound unconditioned stimulus anymore so no more salivation Book Notes Chapter 5 10815 0 Learning is relatively permanent Spontaneous Recoverythe conditioned response can brie y reappear when original CS returns but response usually week and short lived 0 Higher Order Conditioningoccurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus o Stimulus Substitution 0 Cognitive perspectivemental activity of consciously expecting something to occur Classical Conditioning Applied to Human Beings Conditioned Emotional Responsethe learning of phobias fear dentist chair fear of dogs by someone who s been bitten Vicarious conditioningcan become classically conditioned by watching someone else respond to a stimulus Conditioned Taste Aversions amp Biological Preparedness Operant Conditioning 0 Classical conditioningkind of learning that occurs with automatic involuntary behavior Contributions of Thordike amp Skinner 0 Thordike o quotpuzzle boxquot put hungry cat in box cat had to press lever to escape food was outside of box 0 Law of Effectif an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated amp vice versa wt unpleasant consequences 0 Skinner o Operant conditioningvoluntary 0 Effect of consequences on behavior 0 Learning depends on what happens after the response consequence o quotlfl do this what s in it for me Concept of Reinforcement o Reinforcementanything that when following a response causes that response to be more likely to happen again 0 Primary Reinforcer candy bar that satis es basic need like hunger Secondary reinforcermoney gets its reinforcing properties from being associated with primary reinforcers in the past 0 Positive reinforcementthe reinforcement of that response by the addition or experience of pleasurable consequence negative opposite Schedules of Reinforcement 0 Partial Reinforcement EffectA response that is reinforced after some but not all correctness responses will be more Book Notes Chapter 5 10815 resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement o Interval schedulewhen the timing of the responses is important 0 Ratio Schedulecertain number of responses is required for each reinforcer 0 Fixedthe same in each case number of responses or interval of time Variabledifferent number or interval required in each case The Role of Punishment in Operant Conditioning Punishmentactually the opposite of reinforcement It is any event or stimulus that when following a response causes that response to less likely to happen again 0 Punishment by Applicationoccurs when something unpleasant is added to the situation or applied Punishment by Removalbehavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs 0 Punishment should 0 Immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish 0 Be consistent 0 Pair wrong with right Other Aspects of Operant Conditioning Discrimative stimulusany stimulus that provides an organism with a cue for making certain response in order to obtain reinforcement Extinctionremoval of the UCS that eventually acts as a reinforcer of the CSCR bond Applications of Operant Conditioning 0 Shapingsmall steps toward some ultimate goal are reinforced until the goal itself is achieved 0 Successive Approximation small steps one after the other that get you closer and closer to the goal 0 Behavior Modi cationan application of operant conditioning to bring about such changes Token Economythe use of tokens to modify behavior 0 Applied behavior analysisABAform of behavior modi cation that uses both analysis of current behavior and behavioral techniques as a mold for desired behavior or response Biofeedback traditional term used to describe the kind of biological feedback of information and through its many problems can be relieved or controlled 0 Neurofeedbacktrying to change brainwave activity Book Notes Chapter 5 10815 Cognitive Learning Theory Tolman39s Mazerunning rats 0 Edward Tolman Groupleach rat placed in maze amp reinforced with food for making its way out 2nOI grouptreated similar to rst but they never received any reinforcement upon nishing maze 3rCI groupcontrol group not reinforced and not given reinforcement for entire duration of experiment Latent learningwhen rats learned amp stored information but the information remained hidden until they had reson to demonstrate their knowledge by getting to the food 0 Insight Learning 0 Wolfgang Kohler o Insightrapid perception o Learned Helplessnessthe tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past to explain depression 0 Learning performance distinctionthe fact that learning can take place without actual performance Four Elements of Observational Learning Attention Memory Imitation Desire