Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PSYC 1001 - General Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Notetaker on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at George Washington University taught by Fettig in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 Punishment 0 Any event or object that when following a response makes that response less likely to happen again Punishment by applicationthe punishment of a response by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus Punishment by removal the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable experience Four Ways to Modify Behavior 0 Positive adding 0 Reinforcementsomething positivepleasurable o Punishmentsomething unpleasant Negative Removing o Reinforcement stopping at red light to prevent accident 0 Punishment by removal losing driving privilege because you are in too many accidents Problems with Punishment 0 Severe punishment 0 May cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished 0 May encourage lying to avoid punishment 0 Creates fear amp anxiety How to Make Punishment More Effective 0 Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish Punishment should be consistent Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior Operant Stimuli and Stimulus Control 0 Discriminative stimulusany stimulus such as a stop sign or a doorknob that provides the organism o Extinction occurs if the behavior response is not reinforced One way to deal with a child s temper tantrum is to ignore it lack of positive reinforcement will eventually result in extinction o Operantly Conditioned responses also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similarnot identicalto the original stimulus Spontaneous Recovery Shapingreinforcement of simple steps leading to a desired complex behavior dolphin jumping through hoop training DUPIDY Successive Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 Behavior Resistant to Conditioning Instinctive driftthe tendency for an animal s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns 0 Each animal comes into the world and laboratory with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior in place These instincts differ from species to species Ex raccoons commonly dunk their food in and out of water This quotwashing behavior is controlled by instinct and is dif cult to change through operant conditioning techniques 0 Behavior Modi cationuse of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior Token economya type of behavior modi cation in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens o TimeOut form of mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal child or adult is placed in special area away from the attention of others 0 Essentially the organism is being removed from any possibility of positive reinforcement in the form of attention 0 Applied Behavior Analysismodern term for a form of behavior modi cation that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response 0 Used frequently with Autistic individuals Biofeedback and Neurofeedback 0 Biofeedbackuse of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control 0 Neurofeedbackform of biofeedback using devices EEG or FMRI to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior Cognitive Learning Theory 0 In the early days of learning researchers focus was on behavior 0 Edward Tolmanearly cognitive scientist o Maze experiment Group 1 rewarded each time at end of maze learned maze quickly Group 2 in maze everyday only rewarded on tenth day demonstrated learning of maze almost immediately after reward Group 3 didn t get reward didn t learn 0 Latent Learninglearning remains hidden until its application becomes useful Insight Kohler Class Notes Chpt 6 10615 0 Insight the sudden perception of relationships among various forms of a problem allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly 0 Cannot be gained through trial and error learning alone 0 quotAha moment Learned Helplessness Seligman Learned helplessness a tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past 0 Positive psychology a new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy that focuses on the adaptive creative psychologically more ful lling aspects of human experience rather than disorders Observational Learning Bandura 0 Observational learninglearning a new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll experiment Extra Credit paragraph that re ects the psychological concepts we39ve discussed about learning focusing on how media in uences learning due next Tuesday October Observational Learning Elements 0 Attentionto learn anything through observation 0 Retention Imitation Motivation Clive wea ring