Popular in General Chemistry 1 Honors
Popular in Chemistry
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by mak15k on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM1050 at Florida State University taught by Dr. DePrince in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 Honors in Chemistry at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
CHM1050 Molly Kitchen NOTES 08242015 Chemistry the study of matter historically eat mineralschemicaly treat them Copper one of the rst metals probably began being used because it could be resharpened as opposed to stone blue mineral color was attractive CuCO3 azurite azurebue If heated Cuco3 A CuO co2 9 Cu co C Hydrogen is the most abundant 95 Helium is also abundant 5the rest is so minute they don39t really make a difference Hydrogen and Helium in fusion reactions on the sun create the heavier elements only due to enough pressureheat from the sun39s energy Nitrogen is about 70 of the air and Oxygen is about 20 Earth abundant elements are those above including ironquotOsquot is not an earth abundantLelement Carbon 24 elements essential to life 1 O 47 C H O N amino acids essential for life 2 Si 28 Fe Cu Zn hemoglobin 3 Al 8 Si thyroid metabolism thyroxin ALSO Co Mn Mo F Sn g Se V B Al Ni Ge Heme Enzyme quothemoglobinquot Hematite Fe203 Heavier element less abundant on the periodic table CHM1050 Molly Kitchen Use oder names because discovered long ago quotwolframquot German for quotwolf frothquot legend then translated to quottungstenquot Swedish for quotheavy stonequot Argentum Aurum Hydrogyrumwater Sulfur brimstone Bible Greece place that was worldly inspiration for Hell 4OOBC marked the turning point Greeksdue to abundant resources of seriously thinking about metals and how they can be used Leucippus Democritus asking questions about the fundamentals of nature discovered quotatomosquot which birthed eventually atomic studies 185039s the scale was the only tool science used in Chemistry later became balances hence periodic table around this time was arranged by the mass of elements originally 160039s pseudoscience with goal of transmutation caed quotAlchemyquot basicay gold from lead similar physical properties yielded Phosphorous and many of other isolated elements pure elements which led to metaurgy Modern nuclear reactors give us reactions that do change e ents Chemistry CHM1050 Molly Kitchen NOTES 08262015 Hg Au Ag Cu Fe Pb easiest elements to obtain when alchemy was gaining popularity Newton studied alchemy on the DL George Bauer came up with systematic for isolating these elements Paracelsus came up with the medical applications of minerals 160039s Robert Boyle looked at the physical relationships between pressure and vmume he said that a substance is an element unless it can be broken down furtheratomsparticles The Large Hadrian dbllidlerr39LHE is the wdrl39s largest and mast pdwerTl ul partiele eellider the largest mbst samples experimental aaeility eyer built and the largest single machine in the iyr1rld1E it was built by the Eurbpean drganizatidn tbr hiuelear Fteseareh tdEFthlj between iddd and Eddd in bdllabdratibn with dyer idddd seientists and engineers tirbm dyer idd eeuntries as well as hundreds prquot uniyersities and Iabdl atdl39iESE it lies in a tunnel Eiquot ltilbmetres ti mi in eireumterenee as deep as Nd metres rdT d ft beneath the FranceSwiss bbrder near Geneya Switzerland llts tirst researeh run tbdlt plaee tram dd hiareh Edid tb id February Edid at an initial energy dfdd teraeleetrbnyblts Te y per beam r Te ytbtalj almbst 4 times mere than the preyidus trbrld reeerd her a CdllidEl E rising tb ail Te y per beam rd Te d tbtalj ltrdm EdiEl mSI in id February Edi d the LHt j39s first run bft ibially ended and it was shut dbwn tdr planned upgrades 39Test39 bdllisibns restarted in the upgraded spllider an 5 april Edi diam reaehing lid Te y per beam en Ed hiay Edi d 13 Te ytdtal the eurrent wbrld reesrd tdr partiele bdll isibnsj its SyEEdl ld researeh run bdmmeneed bn schedule an d June Edidl l The LHIE39s aim istb allbw physicists tb test the predietidns brl di39dt erentthebries bf particle physics highenergy physics and in partieular tb prbye dr disprbye the estistenee dt39the thebrized Higgs bdsdnlESE and the large family dt39new partieles predieted by supersrymmetriethebriesJ E39i and either unsblyed duestibns pfphysies adyaneing human understanding pt physieal lasss lt ebntains seyen deteetdrs eaeh designed tdr pertain lrins bf research The prdtpnprdtbn ebllisibn is the primary bperatibn methbd but the LHC has alsb edllided prbtdns with lead nuelei fertwb mbnths in Edid and used lead lead ebllisidns tbr abdut dne menth eaeh in Edid Edi i and Edid tier dther in39yestigatidns Chemistry is substantially affected by the nucleus but it is primarily about electrons Mid170039s concept of phlogiston was born I dephlogisticaated air 02 Priestly The phlddlistaii theory is an dhsdlete sdentitidthedry that dstdlated a tirelire element talle dhldglsidh is edhtaihed within ddiiitidstihle riddles and released during dddihdstidh The name deities trdrh the hnderrl Greer stewards dlilgisidd striding did trdrh asst pales tildl rid it has tirst stated llT iddi hy idhahh Jdddl39lllTT dether The thedry attempted td esplaih hurling tiradesses sdeh as edmhdstidh and resting d39hidh are new ddllediyely lthddh as dddatidh f A Lavoisier AKA quotThe Father of Chemistry 17431796 he was beheadedBUT he was doubtful of the theory disproved it amp proved that 02 was a new element CHM1050 Molly Kitchen He measured very carefully 1 Law of Conservation of Mass 2 02 needed for life 3 He took careful measurements J Proust H95 in its mineral form is actually very beautiful metallic red if heated it breaks down HgS A Hg 502 gt 02 Law of De nite Proportions Hg S HgS 11 YBCO Y332CU3O75 123 90K 0C 273K YBa2Cu3O65 180C Substoichiometry compounds contain elements in de nite proportions H9252 is the same ratio as HgS 1111 AgClZA gCIZ is not the same ratio 1112 doesn39t exist FeC2 iron ll chloride ferrous chloride FeCl3 iron III chloride ferric chloride if you end up with any noninteger values it39s wrong for this course Law of De nite Proportions isn39t technically a law JDa on atoms are particles atoms of each element are unique Law of De nite Propoertions atoms of a given element are the me CHM1050 Molly Kitchen I 1 Molecular Builder 392 Isotope different number of neutrons 1 1H proton electron D 2 1H deuterium proton neutron electron 3 1Htritium proton 2 neutrons electron CHM1050L Molly Kitchen FRIDAY 08282015 Lecture Notes FeC15 violates law of de nite proportions the atomic model represents a spherecan39t cut a sphere in half and still make it beasphere So FeC15 compound two or more elements pure substance PbS not PbS N02 gas N204 solid x2 F92C3 in this transition you lose information Most quantitative chemistry done early on was using gasses Gay Lussac found that two volumes of hydrogen reacts with one volume of oxygen 2 H2 02 of oxygen to yield two equivalents of waterquot quottwo equivalents of hydrogen reacts with one equivalent Avagadro 1811 1 mol gas 5 224 L gas 5 6022 x 1023 atoms or molecules 5 quotLquot A angstrom E 103910 m 100micrometer limit of sightthis is why we need an electron microscope to see something so small Labial Metric Converge Table For1mm Humang maninmhunit 1 Unit Win each mater 1000111 300111 10111 I m 1011 100 cm 1000mm 10 5 pm 10911111 1011131 11cm 1 hm ldam 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1111 Table 2 Metric Cmrsion Table For Man Win each unit whit ISLWinneb Gram 10001 1003 103 13 lOdg 100 cg 10001113 10603 10 11 10 113 1113 ldag lg lg lg lg lg lg lg Tablnf Metric Contain Table ForVolune min each unit lUnit will each liter 1000 L 100 L 10 L IL 10 IL 100 cl 1000 mL 10 uL 1091i 10 sz lkL IhL ldL 1L 1L 1L IL 1L 1L 1 L Tgle ii Meiric Vuhlme Conversion 39139ch for ilm 10004211113 I 1113 Min 1 mg Idm Volume 11113 1L 1000101 lmL 10001303 CHM1050L Molly Kitchen 448 L 224 L 448 L 2H2 02 2 H20 H20 10079g x 2159994g x 1 18 gmol x 2 36g 2gtmol L36 mL 2 mols 1 mol Mass of hydrogen 10079 gmol Periodic Table 1 mol 1922 g lr atoms6022 x1023 atoms bec 36mL 0036 L 36 x 10392 L 672 L of gas into 36 x 10392 L of iquiddecreased by a factor of 10000 in volume Gases completely ll the space they are in liquids ll a container solids never change H2 2gmol Xe 131gmol C6H6 6 x 12 6 x 1 The volume of the atom compared to that of the space in between them is insigni cant benzene CEHE H I H I I H CCI4 carbon tetrachloride the density compared to water is really high Mid180039s 5060 elements beginning of the periodic table Read about the cathode ray tube experiments for Monday Molly Kitchen CHM1050 NOTES 08312015 Berzelius 182039s 0 Discovered four elements Si Se Ce Th 0 Precise atomic masses 000 for 50 elements 0 Selective precipitation ppt mix 2 solutions together to produce a solid if crystallized solid usually a pure substance Mendeleev101Md arranged modern periodic table 0 SnC2 SnC4 PbCIz PbCI4 o 1 Reactivity Mes Cathode Ray Tube Discharge Tube Cathode Aquot at a An ode low presau re 39 f Cathode rays l lllllll To Vacuum Pump l High Voltage Generator 0 Full of one gas that would glow a certain coor under high pressure 0 ZnO covers part of the tube so you can see the glowing gas 0 Cations go to cathodes H o Anions go to anode Atomic Age 0 Came about because the atom could actually be broken down 0 JJ Thompson came up with the Plum Pudding model of the atom Spherical cloud 39 of positive charge Electron Thomson39s Plum pool ing moclel o Rutherford discovered 104Rf Molly Kitchen C H M 1 O 5 O I l V 7 O W D I 77 7 r r I V Rutherford 5 Gold FOII Experiment tomemm lnterprelahon Most 1 particles travel The ral39omv i5 mmquot 39 7 through the foil empty Space uncleflecled Gold Fo39m Some 1 particles care Thrall ucme39els quot5 7 DeTECl39OF 39 quot deflected by small POS39T39VE IY Charge i angles as is the I particle Belem of 1 particles Occasionally an a The nucleus curries particle travels lbock mosquot or he GT DmIS i r from tlhe toll quot1055 Radioactive Source 39 quot Ra 0 Three properties that metals poses conductivity conduct electric charge malleability can hammer it at ductility can be made into a wire Rutherford used gold foil sheets as thin as possible 0 This experiment disproved JJ Thompson39s Plum Pudding Model 0 The positive charge must be contained within some very small positively charged part of the atom not just random squishy mass of charges Chadwick discovered neutron Roentgen discovered Xrays Becquerel coined quot uorescencequot because of the glow of Uranium green UOZSO4 uramyl sulfate old camera model lead pinhole camera to carry and saw the outline where it sat Xray M Curie discovered Po Ra which earned her a Nobel in chemistry also discovered radioactivity which earned her a Nobel in physics CH3 OQN N02 TNT chemical Structure Nobel Prize origins