BUS & PROF SPEAKING
BUS & PROF SPEAKING SPCH 230
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asa Stiedemann on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPCH 230 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by K. Mangum in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/229558/spch-230-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Speech at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
10152009 Eda frfrag F W Visual Aids Mfg f RSVP Rule for Visual Aids 03699 t s39imPe ons be OPTO ESS Ona f Ef e g w f Overheads Advantages 0 Relativelyinexpensive Easily available 0 Easy to use Disadvantages 0 Projector can fall 0 Cheap look Tips for Using 0 Avoid blocking screen 0 Talk to audience not to screen or projector 0 Learn how to use and determine where to place BEFORE the presentation wwwlmavromaticlcomimages o Inexpensive to create Disadvantages 0 Difficult to illustrate complex images in large enough size 0 Can look unprofessional and messy Tips for Using F Hff Advantages of Visual Aids OCIarity Olnterest ORetention OCredibility OPersuasiveness Effquot quotfff Kinds of Visual Aids 0 The Speaker 0 Objects 0 Posters 0 VideotapeDVD 0 Handouts 0 ChartsGraphs 0 Objects 0 Multimedia Pres Ef e heaftlpff Posters g Adquota ta es This si wrlof o 0 Ensure ALL parts are large enough for whole audience to see 0 Make lettering and figures neat and plain 0 Avoid putting too much on a single poster qeraon with dvelexio mihgf ee wrlem reding This eenfnoe 10152009 73 7 73 7 H d t EJ t a n O U S Jec S Advantages A Advantages Often the best o tion for Command anemicquot complex detailed information Enhance dam I Inex ens39ve 39 NOIZependent on technology W U Disadvama es I Can be oveer complex 7 quot I Audience can too eas39lv focus I May be 00 a to be seen on handout instead of speaker 39 MHV be 00 39arge 0 manage Tipsfor Using WWW Tipsfor Using Have enough available I Use objectsthat can be seen by everyone Determine best time to distribute Use during speci c preplanned times 39 Aid during SPEECH betme I Practice dimlaving AND using Aid rar retention or action arter a VideotapeDVD Advantages Can provide vivid examples Can liven up presentation tent39 Graphs amp Charts quire ort to ensure audience can see and or hear them I Involve technologies that can fail Tips for Using one Check sound volume and quality in all ar appropriate poin rize yourself with equipment before presentation mm danmmdngi 935 of room I Cue to I Familia Line Graph A graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics overtime or spa we 2 Pie Graph A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns w 10152009 73 w 73 r Bar Graph Chart A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show A visual aid that comparisons amongtwo or more items summarizes a large block of information usually in m 5mm 1 Q 7 73 Computer Generated Presentations Presenting Visual Aids o Use only when necesEry assupporr for your content levrl Easyto genera te Allow connection to Internet tooksprofess39onal Disadvantages o Make large enough for the entire audience to see lRSVPl o Position yourself so entire audience has clearview lRSVPl Can become gimmicky Equipment failurespossible o Display at relevant point In speech and then remove levrl Lima MWWWW 1 o Explain and interpret it for audience ll es should help you achieve purpose not show off what IS d technologically possible Be prepared with backrup Follow rulesfor colors fontsand formatting 0 39 39 use Eme word 0 Talk to the audience not to the vimall r Some tlps for usmg Vlsual alds 0 Don t use quotpassraroundsquot 0 Display only when discussing it 0 Create a sense ofunity 0 Chalkboard is your last resort PowerPoint powwow 7 7 Common Mlsuses 0 PPT becomes the sta r39l 0 PPT is a crutch for a poor presentation 0 PPT replaces the speech 9 Content 0 Text 0 Photographs 0 ClipArt 0 Graphs 0 Sounds 0 Video 73 Using Color 0 Best backgroundtext combo 0 Be consistent 10152009 39 Three Areas to Explore 0 Content 0 LayoutDesign 0 Use in presentation DeSIgn 0 Color 0 Fonts 0 Space 0 Animation Using Fonts OSans Serif vs Serif 0 Sizes oTitIes 3644pt 0 Subheads 2432pt 0 Copyright Credits lOpt 10152009 V w V i 0W 4esar Chavez 1 Usmg Space 0 Strive for balance 0 Grape Boycott 0 Don t make slides too crowded d k c 0 Be consistent Unite Farm Wor ers 0 Medal of Freedom w 7 7 7 Csar Chavez Using Animation V 0 Grape Boycott 0 Less is more 0 19271993 0 Use audio only when it enhances content 0 Be consistent 0 United Farm Workers 0 Medal of Freedom Use in Presentation 0 Recheck your slides 0 Know slide show commands 0 Practice your speech with PPT 0 Display slides only while discussing them 0 Check the room and equipment 0 Develop a backup plan Documenting Sources within an Oral Presentation Outline Parenthetical Citations vs Oral Attributions In a speech outline one must provide two di erent kinds of documentation A Parenthetical Citations Purpose To allow a reader of the speech outline to trace every piece of information in the speech directly to a specific source on the list of works cited Audience Those actually reading the speech outline not those merely listening to the oral presentation Format Parenthetical citations appear inside a pair of parenthesis They begin with the rst word in the citation of that particular source as it appears on the list of works cited Usually this is the last name of the author of the article After the author s name comes the specific page number on which that information appearsM There is no comma between the author s name and the page numbers More than one article by the same author If the list of works cited contains more than one article by the same author then the parenthetical citation needs to include additional information so the reader can tell from which one of the author s articles that particular information was taken This information should be as brief as possibleijust enough to help the reader differentiate one source from another by the same author Citing online sources Often online sources do not have page numbers In such cases the writer of the speech outline should omit page numbers B Oral Attributions Purpose To lend credibility to the speaker and her oral presentation of the speech Audience Those actually listening to the speech Format These appear in the actual sentences that the speaker plans to speak during her oral presentation Content Since listeners do not have a copy of the speech s list of works cited in front of them and since they are unlikely to go in search of those sources it is not necessary for them to be keyed to the list of works cited Instead they should provide information that listeners can relate to Often an oral attribution will name a particular person and describe his or her credentials If the source of information was found in a prominent publication the speaker might name that source because she knows that the audience will respect that source This MLA parenthetical citation tells the reader that the information in part 1 section A number 1 comes from the article by Jane Smith which is listed alphabetically in the list of works cited The author s last name is followed by the page number on which this particular information a ears Notice that the oral attribution will be to the name of the journal which lends credibility to the speech rather than to the name of the scientist parenthetical citation must be linked to the first word of the entry as it appears in the list of works cited l This citation tells the reader that the information in part 1 section A John Doe that is listed alphabetically in the list of works cited It is followed by the page number on which that particular information appears Notice that there is no comma between Doe39s name and the page numb er gt Exceptional Student Advanced Public Spaking echnical Presentation November 12 2004 Outline Speci c Purpose I want the audience to understand pancreatitis and its effects on the human body Main Idea Statement Thesis I am going to explain how the pancreas functions how pancreatitis changes the function of the pancreas and how the diswse affects the human body Introduction slide of body placement of organs woat labels How many of you know the location or function of your pancreas How many of you know what the diswse pancreatitis is and what effects it has on your body Pancreatitis is a hereditary diswse that runs in my family Both my grandmother and my father died from this dadly disease and I have also inherited the carrier traits for the diswse Ihave interviewed internal 4 4 4 r in 4 4 reswrchaboutthis diswse in order to further understand how it affects the human body I want to tell you a little bit about the pancreas functions how pancreatitis changes the function of the pancreas and how the diswse affects the human body Body I In order to understand how pancreatitis affects the human body you have to know how a normal pancreas functions A First Iam going to describe the pancreas is and tell you where it is located 1 According to an article in Science Journal International the pancreas is a glandrlike gt organ that is 7 inches long and 2 inches wide Smith 30 slide ofplacement The pancreas is located behind the stomach and is connected to the small intestines Doe 134 B In a recent interview Dr Zorte a specialist in internal medicine explained how a normal pancreas functions Zorte 1 The pancreas produces digestive enzymes that help to break down fats proteins and carbohydrates in food in order to take the nutrients out of your food to nourish your body information in part 1 section 174b7com speech This parenthetical citation suggests that all Biincluding numbers 2 T39 w with Zorte in the list of works cited No page number appears in this parenthetical reference because the interview is not 3 that the oral attribution will provide the listeners with the doctor39s credentials to lend credibility to the 4 secreted from r L the small intestines and then into the stomach When the enzymes get into the stomach they become active and begin to break down fats proteins and carbohydrates to provide your body with nutrition The pancreas also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon which work together to control the body39s sugar levels a The insulin lowers the blood sugar level b The glucagon slowly increases the blood sugar level if it falls too low This parenthetical citation tells us that the information in part 2 s including everything in 2 comes from the article published by the United States Notice that we had to add Library to distinguish this source from the other source published by the me authoriin government bodyithe United States The oral attribution mentions the institute by name lending credibility to the source But the parenthetical citation must be keyed to the first words of the entry as it appears in the list of works cited Transition Now that you know how a normal pancreas functions I can explain how a diswsed pancreas functions 11 Pancreatitis is a rare diswse that has harsh effects on the pancreas along with the human body A According to the National Library of Medicine pancreatitis is the in ammation and gt digestion of the pancreas United States Library slide of diseased pancreas 1 When a pancreas is infected with pancreatitis the digestive enzymes that the 4 L A l l r of laving the pancreas The enzymes then begin to digest the pancreas show slide N The digestive enzymes also spread to other organs in the body slowly digesting the organs until the body shuts down This citation lets the reader know that the information in part 2 section B of published by the United States which is listed alphabetically in the list of works cited Notice that in addition to saying United States we must also say Institute to distinguish which of the two articles by the United States we are using here since there are two in the list of works cited The assumption here is that everything in section B comes from this source If parts 1 2 and 3 in sectionB had come from different sources parenthetical citations would have followed ach numbered piece of information The spaker lends credibility to the information by mentioning the National Institute but the parenthetical citation must be keyed to the first words of the entry as it appears in the list of works cited B According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Disases pancreatitis has 3 important side effects United States Institute gt 1 The pancreas does not produce insulin or glucagon so the blood levels cannot be controlled a situation that eventually lads to diabetes 2 The pancreas can no longer properly digest food in order to get the nutrition the body needs to survive so the body can shut down because of lack of nutrition 339 Th A l l the body39s organs starting with the pancreas and the body slowly starts to shut down because the organs cannot do their jobs Conclusion Ihope that now you know how a pancreas functions how a pancreas infected with pancreatitis functions and how it can harshly affect the human body Pancreatitis is hard to detect in the wrly stages and does not yet have a cure Now if someone you know acquires this dadly diswse you can help him or her understand its ill effects PAGE BREAK HERLThe list of Works cited should appear on a separate page Note For additional information about handling parenthetical citations and formatting the list of works cited please see Joseph Gibaldi s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 63911 Edition sections 51 through 55 pp 142146 and the sample first page and works cited page of a research paper on pp 320321 Three hyphens followed by a period tells the reader that the author of this source is the same as the author for the source immediately preceding itiin this case the United States Exceptional Student November 12 2004 Works Cited Doe John Human Anatomy and the Development of Cures for Diseases Prevalent in the Twentieth Century Chicago U of Illinois P 2000 Smith Jane Pancreatitis and Its Effects on the Human Body Science Journal International 232 1999 United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases Pancreatitis and Other Digestive Disases June 2003 5 Nov 2004 lthttpdigestiveniddkgovindexhtmgt National Libaray ofMedicine Pancreas By Albert Einstein Oct 2003 3 Nov 2004 lthttpn1mruhgovhtmgt Zorte Dr Carol Personal interview 24 Oct 2003 MLA Documentation Style For a complete guide to the MLA style of documenting sources please see Joseph Gibaldi s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 6th ed Chicago MLA 2003 which is available in the ready reference section of Edens Library Although less comprehensive the Harbrace Handbook 14th ed Fort Worth Harcourt 2001 also provides a section on MLA documentation style Some of the examples below are from Gibaldi or are modified versions of his examples Book MLA 56119 Journal Article MLA 5 7 14 Personal Interview Newspaper Article MLA 575 Print Sources For information about print sources not listed here please see MLA sections 56 through 58 pp 147207 Doe John Human Anatomy and the Development of Cures for Diseases Prevalent in the Twentieth Cent Chicago U of Illinois P 2000 Last name of au nor first name Title of book City of publication Publisher year of publication Smith Jane Pancreatitis and Its Effects on the Human Body Science Journal International 232 1999 23 38 Last name of author first name Tile of Article Title of Journal volume number issue number year inclusive pages of the article Zorte Dr Carol Personal interview 24 Oct 2003 Last name of interviewee first name Personal interview Date of interview day month year J eromack Paul This Once a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor New York Times 13 July 2002 late ed B7 last name of author THE name Name of articlequot I i of new Date article appeared day month year edition page number the means it was continued on a subsequent page or pages Note MLA writes To cite an English language newspaper give the name as it appears on the masthead but omit any introductory articles New Y ark Times not The New York Times If the city of publication is not included in the name of a locally published newspaper add the city in square brackets not underlined after the name StarLedger Newark 185 Washington DC Chamber of Commerce Washington DC New York Author often an institution and not an individual Name of pamphlet or brochure City of publication publisher year of publication Note Treat a pamphlet or brochure as you would treat a book That is if you know the author s name that information would come first but when you do not know the author begin with the title Usually however an author is not listed for a pamphlet or brochure or the author is an institution rather than an For information about electronic sources not listed here please see MLA Britannica Online 2002 Encyclopedia Brittannica 15 May Internet Site MLA 5912 lt Work from a Library Subscription Service such as InfoTrac and EBSCO MLA 597a Pamphlet or Trip Builder 2000 Brochure MLA 5620 individual Electronic Sources sections 59 pp 207 235 Entire 2004 lthttpwwwBritannicacomgt The Cinderella Project Ed Michael N Salda Dec 1997 De Grummond Children s Lit Research Collection U of Southern Mississippi 15 May lthttpwwwrirnt an Prin 39 1 39 1 html Title of the site Name of the editor if givenYear of publication or most recent update Name of institution or organization sponsoring site usually appears at the bottom of the site s homepage Date of access the date YOU hit the page in day month year order The URL of the cite in angle brackets Note When a URL is too long to fit on one line break ONLY after slashes Never add a hyphen to indicate a break Youakim Sami Work Related Asthma American Family Physician 64 2001 1839 52 Health Reference Center lnfoTrac Columbia College Drake Edens Lib 12 J an 2004 lthttpwwwgalegroupcomgt Cooling Trend in Antarctica Futurist May 2002 15 Academic Search Premier EBSCO Columbia College Drake Edens Lib 22 May 2004 lthttpwwwepnetcomgt Author s last name first name Title of article Name of journal Publication volume date page numbers Name of the database used if known the name of the service Name of the library or library system with a city a state abbreviation or both if useful Date of access day month year RL Online Government Publications 1 593c 39 Note MLA writes For information that originally appeared in print begin with standard facts about me print publication omitting data not given by the online service If possible conclude with the URL of the specific document or if the URL is impractically long and complicated the URL of the site s search page The publication information two examples above differ because the first is a scholarly publication requiring a volume number While the second is a popular magazine requiring only the month and year of publication United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases Pancreatitis and Other Digestive Diseases June 2003 5 Nov 2004 lthttpdigestiveniddkgovindexhtmgt National Libaray of Medicine Pancreas By Albert Einstein Oct 2003 3 Nov 2004 lthttpnlmruhgovhtmgt Government body Name of governmenml agency Subdivision of agency if applicable Title of Online Publication By author s first name last name if supplied Date of publication Date the site was accessed day month year ltURLgt
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