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by: Trace Mante MD


Trace Mante MD

GPA 3.61

C. Huang

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C. Huang
Class Notes
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trace Mante MD on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSCE 210 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by C. Huang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/229583/csce-210-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Computer Science and Engineering at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
CSCE 210 iComputer Hardware Foundations ChinTser Huang huanclctcsescedu University of South Carolina iChapter 10 Computer Peripherals Peripherals Devices that are separate from the basic computer Not the CPU memory or power supply Classified as input output and storage Connect via Ports Interface to systems bus 10292009 Storage Devices Primary memory Secondary storage Data and programs must be copied to primary memory for CPU access Permanence of data nonvolatile Direct access storage devices DASDs Online storage Offline storage loaded when needed Network file storage File servers web servers database servers 10292009 i Speed Measured by access time and data transfer rate Access time average time it takes a computer to locate data and read it millisecond onethousandth of a second Data transfer rate amount of data that moves per second 10292009 Storage Hierarchy Device Typical access times CPU registers 025 nsec Cache memory SRAM 110 nsec Increasing Conventional memory DRAM 1050 nsec storage H h 120 capacity as memory nsec Magnetic disk drive 1050 msec Optical disk drive 100500 msec Magnetic tape 05 and up sec 10292009 Increasing access times Secondary Storage Devices Solid state memory Magnetic disks Optical disk storage Magnetic tape Network storage Characteristics Rotation vs Linear Direct access vs Sequential access 10292009 Flash Memory 10292009 Nonvolatile electronic integrated circuit memory Similar to other readonly memory but uses a different technology Permits reading and writing individual bytes or small blocks of data Small size makes it useful in portable devices such as USB thumb drives digital cameras cell phones music players Relatively immune to physical shocks Generates little heat or noise Magnetic Disks Consists of one or more flat circular platters made of glass metal or plastic and coated with magnetic substance Track circle Cylinder same track on all platters Block small arc of a track Sector pieshaped part of a platter Head reads data off the disk as disk rotates at high speed 420014000 RPM Head crash Disk damaged if head touches disk surface Parked heads 10292009 9 A Hard Disk Layout Platter Sector Block Track Head motor Cyl I nder gt Headon moving arm Track 39 l 10292009 A 10 Techniques for Accessing a Disk CAV Constant Angular Velocity Number of bits on each track is the same Denser towards the center Spins the same speed for every track CLV Constant Linear Velocity All tracks have the same physical length and number of bits Constant speed reading data off a track Drive has to speed up when accessing close to the center of the drive and slow down when accessing towards the edge of the drive 10292009 11 A Newer Technique Multiple Zone Multiple zone recording Also known as zone bit recording ZBR or zone CAV recording ZCAV Compromise between CAV and CLV Disk divided into zones Cylinders in different zones have a different number of sectors Number of sectors in a particular zone is constant Data is buffered so the data rate to the IO interface is constant 10292009 12 g MultipleZone Disk Configuration g Locating a Block of Data Average seek time time required to move from one track to another desired block Latency time required for disk to rotate to beginning of correct sector Transfer time time required to transfer a block of data to the disk controller buffer 10292009 14 Disk Access Times Average Seek time average time to move from one track to another Average Latency time average time to rotate to the beginning of the sector Average Latency time 12 1rotational speed Transfer time 1 of sectors rotational speed Total Time to access a disk block Avg seek time avg latency time avg transfer time 10292009 15 Disk Data Format Data Block Format Interblock gap Header Data 512 bytes Formatting disk Establishes the track positions blocks and headers needed before use of the disk 10292009 16 Disk Block Formats Single Data Block byte lbyte1 gap Header for Windows disk header data b 390 Q Q c b Q 07 br Q0 2 63 10292009 17 Disk Arrays Grouping of multiple disks together Two main purposes Reduce overall data access time Increase system reliability RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Mirrored array Striped array RAID 0 to RAID 5 10292009 18 RAID Mirrored Pair of disks contain the exact same stores of data Reading data alternate blocks of data are read from hard drives and combined Access time is reduced by approximately a factor equal to the number of disk drives in array Read failure block is marked and then read from the mirrored drive When using three or more mirrored drives majority logic is used in the event of a failure Faulttolerant computers use this technique 10292009 19 i RAID Striped A file segment is stored divided into blocks on different disks Minimum of three drives needed because one disk drive is reserved for error checking Writes block of parity words from each block of data is created and put on the reserved error checking disk Reads parity data is used to check original data 10292009 20 RAID Levels RAID 0 not true RAID no error checking or redundancy but data is placed across all drives for increased speed RAID 1 mirrored array RAID 2 3 4 arrays that are striped in different ways RAID 5 error checking blocks are spread across all drives 10292009 21 Optical Storage Reflected light off a mirrored or pitted surface CDROM 650 MB of data approximately 550 MB after formatting and error checking Spiral 3 miles long containing 15 billion bits CLV all blocks are same physical length Block 2352 bytes 2K of data 2048 bytes 16 bytes for header 12 start 4 id 288 bytes for advanced error control DVD similar technology to CDROM but data packing is tighter 10292009 22 Store Data on CDROM Data is stored in the form of pits and lands These are burned into the surface of the master disk with highpower laser then stamped onto the CDROM Top of Master Disc Master Disc or making CD discs i Pit Pil Pit and m Land Bottom of Master Disc Bottom of CDRDM Disc Pit Re ective Land Land Land surface 7 39 IDROM Disc op 01 CDROM Disc 10292009 23 Read Data from CDROM Laser strikes land light is reflected into detector Laser strikes a pit light is scattered 10292009 24 Layout CDROM vs CDROM sec 20 sector 09 block sec 38 sector 66 block 10292009 Standard Disk Hard Disk sector block standard disk track 25 Types of Optical Storage WORM Disks Writeoncereadmany times Medium can be altered by using a mediumpowered laser to blister the surface Mediumpowered laser blister technology also used for CDR DVDR DVDR DVDR CDRW DVDRW DVDRW DVDRAM DVDRAMBD RE File compatibility issues between the different CD DVD and WORM formats 10292009 26 Magnetic Tape Displays Pixel picture element Screen Size diagonal length of screen Aspect ratio X pixels to Y pixels 43 older displays 169 widescreen displays Pixel color is determined by intensity of 3 colors Red Green and Blue RGB True Color 8 bits for each color 256 levels of intensity for each color 256 256 256 167 million colors 10292009 r Standard 184 16 High definition lt oo gt lt m gt 28 Resolution and Picture Size Resolution Measured as either number of pixels per inch or size of an individual pixel Screen resolution examples 768 x 1024 1440 x 900 1920 x 1080 Picture size calculation Resolution bits required to represent number of colors in picture Example resolution is 100 pixels by 50 pixels 4 bits required for a 16 color image 100 50 4 bits 20000 bits Video memory requirements are significant 10292009 29 5 Color Transformation Table Pixel value R G B 122 32 34 165 gt Value of pixel to be displayed l l 65to Oto 177to red green blue display display display w Blueviolet displayed 10292009 30 g Interlaced vs Progressive Scan Pass 6 Interlaced scan Progressive scan Horizontal Vertical retrace retrace 10292009 31 Diagram of Raster Screen Generation Process CPU program loads memory with image to be displayed pixel 00 line 0 pixel 01 line 1 R plX 0 N l palette G Video table B display Memory Video 39 scanner gt memory rLquot Time Consecutive pixel M10 addresses are produced pier M l Nl line M l repetitively Scan generator 10292009 32 Display Example H maroon 3 Desired 4 k display quot a green CI 1 2 3 4 5 6 Address 0 o n n u n o vmue I 3quot l S 9 Il lllll ll l ddress l l UIIFI u1123l0 In lymug 5 mail 1a 15 15 l 13 19 20 Address 39 J D U 355 0 C39 3 contents value l 39339 l O 17 U D 123 0 Value 10292009 PixEl value red blue 3 Color palette tabla Star ul Slarl rat scan Frext scan l 3953 O W red d Cellar 537 r V sgnals O Wigwam 153 U U I blue 0 time alrum r uaar r uomem I H3Eq 33 LCD Liquid Crystal Display 5 Fluorescent light or LED panel 3 color cells per pixel Operation 1st filter polarizes light in a specific direction Electric charge rotates molecules in liquid crystal cells proportional to the strength of colors Color filters only let through red green and blue light Final filter lets through the brightness of light proportional to the polarization twist 10292009 34 10292009 35 Fluorescent light panel l I E Polarizing filter cells Liquid crystal Color Polarizing filters lter Glass plate quUI cl Crystal Di splay LCDs continued Active matrix One transistor per cell More expensive Brighter picture Passive matrix One transistor per row or column Each cell is lit in succession Display is dimmer since pixels are lit less frequently 10292009 36 CRT Display Technology CRTs similar to TVs 3 stripes of phosphors for each color 3 separate electron guns for each color Strength of beam 9 brightness of color Raster scan 30X per second Interlaced vs noninterlaced progressive scan 10292009 Deflection fwvwdw 7 coil Electron guns v 390 Electron Mi beams Shadow 777 mask NRAAX 37 OLED Display Technology No backlight Consists of red green and blue LEDs Each LED lights up individually Very thin displays with panels less than 3mm thick 10292009 38 Printers Dots vs pixels 3002400 dpi vs 70100 pixels per inch Dots are on or off pixels have intensities Types Typewriter Daisy wheels obsolete Impact printing dot matrix mostly obsolete Inkjet squirts heated droplets of ink Laser printer Thermal wax transfer Dye Sublimation 10292009 39 g Creating a Gray Scale black 10292009 40 Laser Printer Operation 1 2 3 Dots of laser light are beamed onto a drum Drum becomes electrically charged Drum passes through toner which then sticks to the electrically charged places Electrically charged paper is fed toward the drum Toner is transferred from the drum to the paper The fusing system heats and melts the toner onto the paper A corona wire resets the electrical charge on the drum 10292009 41 Laser Printer Operation 1 lleeer f39 we epinning phetueensitive drum Q 10292009 In ilrmr M Fl laser is fireel in terreseendenee ten the date that are tn be printed 1395 spinning mirrer CEIUSES the clete to he tanned vent ewes the ELFUFTI The dwrn reta tee in create the next line MillieillI ita rth er lit300th et an inch The drum is pheteeensitiue A5 a remit of the laser light the drum will heceme electrically charged wherever e det in be printed He the drum centimuee te rotate the charged part at the drum passes through a tent of hieeh newder celled tuner 39l39ener stizchs tn the drum wherever the elllarge i5 preeeht Thus it leeks like the image 42 Laser Printer Operation charge wire K 539 Paper l C53 hiusing system K cerena wire 10292009 3 Ft sheet at paper is fed tewarrt the drum A charge wire seats the earner with electrical charges titthee it mutants the drum it picks up the tener from the drum he the paper relils from the drum it passes ever a heat and pressure area hnewn as the fussing system The fusing system melts the tuner e the paper The printed page then exits the printer At the same tirrler the Surface of the drum passes over errether wire called a eerene wire This wire resets the charge en the drum be ready it fer the next page 43 Other Computer Peripherals Scanners Flatbed sheetfed handheld Light is reflected off the sheet of paper User Input Devices Keyboard mouse light pens graphics tablets Communication Devices Telephone modems Network devices 10292009 44 Network Communication Devices Network is just another IO device Network IO controller is the network interface card NIC Types of network connections Ethernet FDDI fiber tokenring Medium access control MAC protocols Define the specific rules of communication for the network 10292009 45


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