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by: Trace Mante MD


Trace Mante MD

GPA 3.61

C. Huang

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C. Huang
Class Notes
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trace Mante MD on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSCE 210 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by C. Huang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/229583/csce-210-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Computer Science and Engineering at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
CSCE 210 iComputer Hardware Foundations ChinTser Huang huanclctcsescedu University of South Carolina Chapter 1 Computers and Systems What is Your Dream Machine What are the components that you expect to be in your dream machine Everyone has Different needs Different budget Can be different as time goes by 8202009 Typical Computer Ad TECHNOLOGY CHOICES ljllr quot New Vostre 400 Mini Tower Only Drex delivers this combination of performance and expandibility in a system designed exclusively for Small Businesses the Vostre 400 39 Intex Core 2 Duo Processor Genuine Home Basic Operating System 268 DDR2 SDRAM 160GB SATA Hard Drive 16x DVDI RW Drive 256MB FCI Express Graphics Card 1Yr Limited Warranty Next Business Day On Site Service and Hardware Warranty Support 2039 Widescreen Flat Panel Display 0 NEW Lowervpriced upgrades Upgrade In 468 Memory 25068 Hard Drive and 22 Widescreen Flat Panel Display for only 90 Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs Is the computer costeffective Will it be obsolete in 6 months 8202009 8202009 HP Pavilion p6110y Desktop amp 20quot Widescreen LCD Monitor SKU 9999114 000050004 Features ntel Pentium processor E5300 6GB DDR2 SDRAM doublelayer DVDiRWCDRW drive with LightScribe 640GB hard drive Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 3100 15in1 media reader and Windows Vista Home Premium with SP1 20quot widescreen LCD HD monitor with BrightView technology ultrafast 5 ms response time 10001 contrast ratio and builtin speakers DVlD with HDCP and VGA inputs tilt and swivel keyboard storage space wallmountable kit not included P ce Sony VAIO Laptop with Intel Centrino Processor Technology Titanium Gray Model VGNAWBlOJH SKU 9379442 Features nte Centrino processor technology with interrelated nte CoreTM2 Duo mobile processor T6500 nte PM45 Express chipset nte WiFi Link 5100AGN network connection 80211abgn nte HD Boost 4GB PC26400 DDR2 memory Buray Discenabled DVDiRWCDRW drive 184quot LCD widescreen display 400GB Serial ATA hard drive 5400 rpm NVDA GeForce 9600M GT graphics Buitin 13megapixel MOTION EYE webcam with microphone iLNK IEEE 1394 interface and 3 USB 20 ports Memory Stick PROPRO Duo with MagicGate functionality and Secure Digital media slots Buitin 108aseT1008aseTX Fast Ethernet LAN Weighs 82 lbs and measuresjust 16quot thin Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium Edition 64bit operating system P ce 8202009 Why Study Computer System Architecture User Understand system capabilities and limitations Make informed decisions Improve communications with information technology professionals Programmer Create efficient application software for specific processing needs Systems Architect or Systems Analyst Specify computer systems and architecture to meet application requirements Make intelligent decisions about system strategy 8202009 Why Study Computer System Architecture System Administrator Manager Install configure maintain and upgrade computer systems Maximize system availability and efficiency Optimize system performance Ensure system security Web Services Designer Optimize customer accessibility to Web services Optimize web system configurations Select appropriate data formats page designs and scnp nglanguages Design efficient Web pages 8202009 Principles of Computer System Operation Example 1 Prepare a Word document What is needed to accomplish this task 8202009 Principles of Computer System Operation Example 2 Web browser application use Web Browser Web Server Page request message gt Page request message Communication gt Channel file file 8202009 10 InputProcessOutput Model IPO Storage MW Input Process Output Input keyboard mouse scanner punch cards Processing CPU executes the computer program Output monitor printer fax machine Storage hard drive optical media diskettes magnetic tape 8202009 11 Simplified IT Computer System Layout Intranet Database Appsi erver server server web 5 Sales El Order entry I Service E S rt Webdesngn E Uppc 2 53 Finance Printer Financial planning Accounts Accounts receivable IE E payable sales Printer Credit 1 E Accounting 3 a 8202009 Internet web server a Firewall TO Internet Fullillmenl E Purchasing E E Warehousing c Inventory E Printer El Shipping Marketing liii Research amp planning 2 2 El Advertising Printer 12 Components of Computer System Hardware Processes data by executing instructions Provides input and output Control input output and storage components Software Applications and system software Instructions tell hardware exactly what tasks to perform and in what order I Data Fundamental representation of facts and observations Communications Sharing data and processing among different systems 8202009 13 Hardware Component InputOutput devices Storage Devices CPU Central Processing Unit ALU arithmeticlogic unit CU control unit Interface unit Memory Shortterm storage for CPU calculations 8202009 14 Typical Personal Computer System Floppy disk CDRRW or DVD Communication interface Ni 5 w Hard disk I EEJ 4 7 DATA Egg cPu Memory P ime39 Keyboard O Interface Computer 0 Speaker Mouse Tape Monnor 8202009 15 CPU Central Processing Unit ALU arithmeticlogic unit Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations CU control unit Controls processing of instructions Controls movement of data within the CPU Interface unit Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components Bus bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components 8202009 16 Memory Also known as primary storage working storage working storage and RAM random access memory Consists of bits each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 8 bits 1 byte Holds both instructions and data of a computer program stored program concept 8202009 17 Software Component Applications Operating System API application program interface File management IO Kernel Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security Network Module 8202009 User Application program Application programming interface l l File management Kernel system O Network drivers module Hardware Network 18 Communications Component Hardware Communication channels Physical connections between computer systems Examples wire cable phone lines fiber optic cable infrared light radio waves Interface hardware Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card VIC Software Establish connections Control flow of data Directs data to the proper applications for use 8202009 19 Computer Systems All computer systems no matter how complex consists of the following At least one CPU Memory to hold programs and data IO devices Longterm storage 8202009 20 Camputer Systamg Examp es HP Laptop Computer IBM System 210 EC Mainframe 8202009 21 Connecting Computer Systems Distributed Computing allow each system to do part of the processing for higher overall efficiency Open Computing different types of computers can work together share files and communicate 8202009 22 Concept of Virtualization Virtual American Heritage Dictionary Existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact form or name Created simulated or carried on by means of a computer or computer network Computer systems examples Virtual memory Virtual networks Java Virtual Machine 8202009 23 i Protocols Common ground rules of communication between computers IO devices and many software programs Examples H39I39I39P between Web servers and Web browsers TCPIP between computers on the Internet and local area networks SATA between storage devices and computers XMLRSS SIP new protocols 8202009 24 Standards Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use Examples Computer languages Java SQL C JavaScript Display standards Postscript MPEG2 JPEG GIF Character set standards ASCII Unicode EBCDIC Multimedia standards MPEG2 MPEG4 DivX MP3 8202009 25 Textbook Overview Web site httpwwwwievcomcolledeendlander Part 1 Chapters 12 Overview of computer systems Part 2 Chapters 35 Number systems and data formats Part 3 Chapters 611 Computer architecture and hardware operation Part 4 Chapters 1214 Networks and data communications PaFt Ghaptes16 189 e ware eempenent epenating systems Part 6 Supplementary Chapters 8184 BigitaIIog39icsystems examples39rnshuct39ionaddressmgmoder programming tools 8202009 26 Early History 1642 Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine 1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punch cards I 1800 s Charles Babbage attempts to build an analytical engine mechanical computer Augusta Ada Byron develops many of the fundamental concepts of programming George Boole invents Boolean logic 8202009 27 Modern Computer Development MarkI is built Aiken Harvard University First electronic computer using relays 1939 ABC is built First fully electronic digital computer Used vacuum tubes 194346 ENIAC Mauchly Eckert University of Pennsylvania First general purpose digital computer 1945 Von Neumann architecture proposed Still the standard for present day computers 1947 Creation of transistor Bardeen Shockley Brattain Bell Labs 19512 EDVAC and IAS 8202009 28 Early Computers ENIAC Babbage s Analytical Engine 29 8202009 System Software History Early computers had no operating systems and were single user systems Programs were entered using switches for each bit or by plugging wires into a panel 195354 First operating system was built by General Motors Research Laboratories for their IBM 701 computer Other early systems FORTRAN Monitor System FMS IBSYS Share Operating System SOS 8202009 30 Operating System Development 1963 Master Control Program MCP by Burroughs Included many modern OS features 1964 05360 by IBM Included batch processing of programs 1962 MIT Project MAC created a timesharing OS called CT SS Shortly afterwards MIT Bell Labs and GE developed Multics Multiplexed Information and Computing Services 8202009 31 UNIX After Bell Labs withdrew from the Multics project Ken Thompson developed a personal operating system called UNIX using assembly language Dennis Ritchie developed the programming language C which was used to rewrite much of UNIX in a high level language UNIX introduced A hierarchical file system The shell concept Document production and formatting Tools for networked and distributed processing 8202009 32 Graphical User Interfaces 19605 Doug Englebart Stanford Research Institute Invented windows and a mouse interface 19705 Xerox PARC Creates a practical windowing system for the Dynabook project 19805 Steve Jobs Apple Developed the Apple Lisa and MacIntosh 8202009 33 IBM PC 1982 Standalone single user computer PC DOS MSDOS disk operating system Later versions of DOS added Hierarchical directory file storage File redirection Better memory management Windowing systems Windows 20 Windows 31 Windows 95 Windows NT Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 8202009 34 Communications 1960s and 19705 users communicated on multiterminal computer systems using talk and email facilities 1971 Ray Tomlinson creates the standard usernamehostname email standard Modems permitted users to login to office systems electronic bulletin board systems Compuserve AOL and Prodigy 1969 ARPANET begun 1985 First TCPIP wide area network 1991 Tim Berners Lee develops the concepts that become the World Wide Web 1993 Max Andreessen develops Mosaic the first graphical browser 8202009 35


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