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by: Kate Steiner

3212316.pdf HY 104

Kate Steiner
GPA 3.3

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Notes from 3/21/16 and 3/23/16 lectures
HY 104
Kari Frederickson
Class Notes
history, 104
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Steiner on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see HY 104 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
3/21/16 Herbert Hoover, the Great Depression and the Election of 1932 I. The presidency of Herbert Hoover (republican)—last string of the three  republicans in the 30s  a. He cut taxes  b. Came from a very humble background c. Worked his way through Stanford  d. He was an engineer  e. Spent a lot of time in China f. Spent some time with Woodrow Wilson where it was his job to make sure  that there was enough materials for U.S. (and our allies) to consume g. He had some “gumption” (like the phrase used in Growing Up) h. He became the scapegoat when the stock markets crashed before the  depression II. Causes of the great depression a. Agricultural overproduction—farmers are simply too productive; the first  sect of the European economy that is up and running after the war b. Maldistribution of wealth—most significant cause. Another alias: income  inequality. A very tiny percentage of people hold wealth in the country.  c. Income/productivity gap d. Overextension of credit—credit doesn’t last forever. For a while it was a  good thing, it allowed you to buy more expensive things that you couldn’t  pay for in cash. Eventually though you run out. i. Crash of Stock Market e. Psychology of depression— ***in 1929 there were 1.5 million people were without income. By 1932 1 in 4 people  had no income.  In Alabama it was 1 in 3. In Birmingham 50% of people had no income.  Banks began to fail. Andrew Melon (treasurer) refused to help people out financially  because “it would ruin their ambition” but really there was almost no work to be had…  people were looking for work all the time but there weren’t any jobs available. People  could turn to their church for charity III. Hoover’s response—he had faith in the markets that they could correct  themselves. He doesn’t believe that it was the government’s job to send aid to  the impoverished people. He believed that was charities’ job. He did give a lot of money to the Red Cross and Salvation Army and a lot of other charities,  though. He believes that welfare will make people very dependent on the  government. He felt that welfare would put the government into a lot of debt. a. Reconstruction Finance Corporation—(Agency established in 1932 to  provide emergency relief to large businesses, insurance companies, and  banks.) Hoover established this, but he was not going to give money to  individually families. Hoover didn’t do nothing, but he didn’t do enough.  He was “a victim of his own philosophy” –Professor Kari Frederickson.  He wasn’t an intellectually flexible person.  b. Bonus Expeditionary Force, 1932(an election year) (*veterans who went  to Washington demanding promised payment *moved into a Hooverville  in Washington *Hoover cleared them out => two veterans were shot =>  diminished view of Hoover). These veterans were making about $1 a day.  They believed that they were owed some “catch up pay” that would have  compensated for the money they would have made while they were at war. A bill was passed that would give the veterans some money in 1945. A  congressman from Texas introduces a bill to pay the veterans. Congress  DOES pass it, but other politicians were not into it.  Hoover could have  helped himself by meeting the veterans, but he did not because he was  afraid. Congress wanted to spend $100,000 to get rid of the vets (pay for  gas/train tickets). Eventually, the vets need to go and the police have to  evict the vets. They brought in tear gas, tanks to clear them out. i. Douglas MacArthur ii. George S. Patton iii. Dwight D. Eisenhower IV. Election of 1932—Hoover is the most hated man in the states, but there was  no other republican that wanted to run. Anyone could’ve beaten him in1932. a. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democrat)—Hoover’s opposite in  terms of political views and upbringing. Roosevelt was from new money,  Theodore Roosevelt’s cousin. He was taught by exclusive tutors and went  to a prestigious prep school, and then to Harvard. He was average student  but had great strategies. He married his 5  cousin, Eleanor. Becomes state  legislature, becomes governor of New York. He was moderately  progressive. Despite being from old money he is very sympathetic to the  impoverished, probably because he had polio. He often was photographed  standing (because of very heavy duty knee braces) most people didn’t  know that he had polio though. _______________________________________________________________________ 3/23/16 Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal I. Election of 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Background—although he is from  old money, because he is physically disabled (polio) he is able to understand  and sympathize with the nation’s pain.  He presents himself well on radio, he  is able to talk on the radio and make it seem like he is having a one on one  conversation with the listeners.  He called his radio sessions “Fireside Chats,”  which were held weekly.  He told the public to write to him and his wife as a  friend about the level of destitution they experienced. One woman wrote to  Eleanor asking her if she could have some of her old clothes, Eleanor sent her  wedding rings to her.  People asked for Xmas presents and simple things like  oranges. II. First New Deal, 1933­34—happened very quickly, but it was a failure.  a. Relief i. Welfare—Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA): direct payments to families in need. Federal Government and the State has to give  some money. ii. Jobs programs—Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)—men ages of 18­25 could apply. You had to be able to prove that your family  had no source of income. You had to agree to send home ½ of your paycheck to your family.  Camps were built for them to live in near their work sites, such as creating parks, reseeding hills etc. Very  prominent in Alabama.  A lot of the workers were from cities, were malnourished and sickly; the CCC provided fresh air and food and  medical assistance; Dr. visits, glasses, etc.  There were camps for  black and white men, they were segregated… iii. Gender bias of New Deal Programs—… but there was nothing for  women.  Women were not seen as fit to be bread winners. A lot of  women (like teachers) were fired from their pre­existing jobs to  make new jobs for men. b. Recovery i. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)— crops were being  overproduced, farmers were being too efficient but European  markets have collapsed so no one is buying their products.   Ultimately it doesn’t work and is deemed constitutional.  ii. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)—Ended the same way as AAA, but there is a minimum wage, maximum hours, end to child  labor, and organized unions.  There is no punishment for  employers to who try to prevent their employees from organizing  unions.  There is a labor board that allows complaints to be filed by employees, but 4,000 were sent in and only one was fixed. 1. Gates for workers 2. Shortcomings III. End of the First New Deal I. Challenges to Roosevelt—a lot of his projects from first new deal failed.   Huey P. Long—Most cherished and reviled politician in Louisiana history; he  did a lot of things for poor people but it was always at a high cost, he was an  egomaniac (he appointed himself to create plays for LSU football, wrote  LSU’s song).  He originally was a supporter of Roosevelt, but eventually  criticizes him saying that he didn’t help the people at the very bottom enough;  his criticisms were accurate.  Huey created a program called “Share Our  Wealth:” limited the amount of money that wealthy people could have, every  family would be guaranteed $5,000, every family would get a free radio,  students would have free education, old people would be given a pension, and  all independent workers would be given $2,500.  People loved Long, but he  doesn’t live long enough to challenge Roosevelt, he was assassinated in 1935  II. Second New Deal, 1935­38: Remembering the “Forgotten Man” a. Works Progress Administration (WPA) b. Social Security Act, 1935 c. Wagner Act, 1935 d. Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938


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