Week of Notes - Medieval Art History
Week of Notes - Medieval Art History 483
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 483 at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Medieval Art History Spring 2016 Test 2 Notes Chapter 4: Early Medieval Art in the West Groups of migratory people altered the history of the Roman and Byzantine Empires o These people had an ancient cultural heritage and a highly developed artistic tradition o They were hunters, shepherds, and farmers with clan-inspired social and political organization o The also possessed a rich oral history and complex ritual activities Among the most important of the many different groups were the Celts in western Europe and the Germanic peoples living near the Baltic Sea o Between the 8 and 6 centuries BCE, the widespread adoption of iron for weapons and tools advanced agricultural productivity This development led to a higher sense of security and standard of living o As their population increased, these people moved towards the Mediterranean and the Black Seas in search of more land o Through migration and trade, a group known as the La Téne Celts came into contact with Mediterranean art and culture The La Téne craftsmen invented a new artistic style that combined Mediterranean palmette and vine elements with their native geometric decoration Holcombe Mirror, first half of 1 century, engraved in bronze o th Scythian Birdman, 4 century, gold o o This motif invoked an intimidating factor – this was used as a cover for a sheathe th th Harness mount with animal ornament, 6 or 7 century, gilt bronze o th Fibulae, 5 century, gold lead over silver core with almandine, mother-of-pearl, and enamel o o Goths are enriching their weapons with jewels and decoration o Polychrome or gem style = multicolored stones mounted within strips of gold – employed by the Goths to decorate jewelry, weapons, and functional objects o Fibulae = large safety pins – typically made in pairs – used to fasten cloaks and garments at the shoulder The appeal of the Roman Empire o Relative security o Cultivated land o The stability that it offered its inhabitants The Roman Empire was expansive and eventually extended across Celtic lands to the Rhine and Danube Rivers o Foederatii = indigenous allies – as the Roman empire was expanding, the people living in those areas become allies to the Romans – they were challenged with the tasks of defending the border At the peak of the roman Empire, which dates form the early 1 to the early 2 ndcenturies, Christianity as not yet a unifying force o The Goths abandoned their pagan gods for Arian Christianity (a heresy in the eyes of Rome) th The 5 century was marked by increasing violence – these were causes of violence, threatened the Roman Empire (Multiple Choice Question) o Huns – Attila is their leader – raided western Europe o Ostrogoth’s - Eastern Goths o Visigoths – Western Goths o Vandals The Art of the Goths and Langobards o Theodoric the Great’s architects sought to mimic and adapt Christianized classical forms o At the same time, the Visigoths continued their pagan heritage in jewelry and decorative weaponry o By the 6 century, everyone pretty much accepted Christianity as a religion and saw the pope as a powerful figure Eagle-Shaped Fibulae, 6 century, gilt, bronze, crystals, garnets, and other gems o Recceswinth Crown, 653-672, gold, sapphires, pearls, and other gems o - This is a royal offering as a sign of their piety–not intended to be worn The art of the Goths and Langobards o In contrast to the relatively peaceful existence of the Visigoths, the Langobards living in Italy faced turmoil, violence, and differing religious views The majority of the Langobards were Arian Christians, but some had remained pagan th th o Cover of the Gospels of Theodelinda, 6 -7 century, gold, gems, and pearls on a wooden base Langobards were good metal workers o The Langobards reaches the height of their power under King Luitprand (712-744) King Luitprand was a great patron of art and architecture The term “Lombard” was adopted in the middle ages to describe the building techniques ised throughout northern Italy The work of the Lombard masters eventually came to influence the formation of the Romanesque style o Oratory of Santa Maria-in-Valle (or Tempietto Langobardo), 8 century, Cividale, Italy - Statues here are in high relief – 4 of the statues are said to be grand-daughters of Theodora, they carry crosses and crowns as votive offerings – the other 2 are thought to be nuns – they are wearing hobbits and empty handed o High relief = over half of the body of subject is coming out of the canvas o The Merovingian dynasty of the Franks lasted from the 5 through the 8 centuries Existed in present day France and part of Germany o The Franks converted to Christianity ca. 496 during the reign of Clovis I, and partly through the efforts of Queen Clotilda Clovis, like Constantine the Great, adopted Christianity in order to ensure military victory This conversion immediately allied the Frankthwith the Roman Church o Medallion with Bust of Christ, second half of the 8 century, cloisonné enamel on copper Flanked by alpha and omega – he is the beginning and the end Cloisonné = a metal working technique that uses small metal filaments and colorful glass enamel to create a luminous surface Instead of precious stones and gold, they use glass and small bits of gold to create a luminous surface
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