Organismal Notes 3/22-3/26
Organismal Notes 3/22-3/26 BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
• Kingdom Fungi= Zygotic Meiosis ◦ Heterosomes ◦ exoenzymes ◦ absorptive ◦ almost no movement ◦ cell walls with chitin ◦ nonseptate/septate hyphae ◦ mycelium and single celled yeast ◦ a great variety of spores ‣ primary for dispersal ‣ while dispersing they are dormant and very adaptive against human conditions ◦ Phylum Chytridiomycota ‣ aquatic fungi with ﬂagellated zoospores, including parasites of amphibian skin ‣ only fungi with ﬂagellated cells- zoospores • ﬂagella is an ancient characteristic ◦ Phylum Zygomycota ‣ bread molds, sugar molds, and pin fungi ‣ thick walled, dormant zygospores ◦ Phylum Ascomycota ‣ True sac fungi (ascus) ‣ asexual spores (conidia) ‣ sexual spores (ascospores) ◦ Phylum Giomeromycota ‣ arbuscular mycorrhizae ‣ arbuscular- microscopic tree, arms are inside of cell of higher plant ‣ grow in association with plant ◦ Phylum Basidiomycota ‣ mushrooms-edible and toadstools- poisonous ‣ no asexual spores, no gametangia ‣ sexual spores= basidiospore ‣ zygotic meiosis- plasmogamy ﬁrst- grow the karyotype ◦ Lichens ‣ composite organisms ‣ photobiont= alga cyanobacteria, photosynthesis ‣ mycobiont= fungi, lichen ‣ cructoise, foliose, fructose- branches ◦ Imperfect Fungi ‣ no sexual spores stages known ‣ penicillin- on oranges ‣ black mold, athletes foot • Kingdom Animalia ◦ no cell walls, multicellular ◦ oviparous= egg laying or ovoviviparous=lay eggs after hatching or viviparous= live birth ◦ heterotrophic- process of eating food starts with ingestion and is followed by digestion, which is then follow by eegstion (getting rid of extra) ◦ all animals have risen from a single common ancestor= monophyletic ◦ sexual/asexual reproduction= all GAMETIC MEIOSIS ◦ movement use locomotory structures (appendages: arms, legs, ﬂippers, wings) ◦ sessile animals= no movement; maybe some movement in earlier stages of life ◦ diverse= 40 diﬀerent phyla ◦ 99% are invertebrate ◦ evolutionary trends ‣ level of organization= all multicellular animals • earliest stages= cellular level of organization; specialized cells don't function as a unit • tissue= cells function at a unit; see division of labor • organ system= tissues are combined ‣ symmetry • in the begining animals lacked symmetry • as animals became more locomotory they became more symmetrical • asymmetrical= no symmetry • radial= can choose any plane to bisect the animal and have equal halves ◦ suited for sessile or weak powers of locomotion • bilateral= high levels of locomotory, one plane that we can bisect the animal and get equal halves ◦ cephalization= the development of a head ◦ Secondary radial symmetry= second time to be radial in a species evolutionary history ‣ radial--->bilateral--->radial again ‣ Body Cavity • acoelomate= lack a body cavity all together • cavity that surrounds the gut or any other internal organs • psuedocoelomate= not solid tissue but ﬂuid ﬁlling the space between the body wall and the gut ◦ seen in very small animals because they don't have room for a body cavity anymore ◦ polyphyletic= multiple ancestors • exocoelomate= space is lined with a membrane and allows for greater complexity ◦ membrane that lines body cavity is called= peritoneum ‣ embryological development • separate phyla • starts as zygote • simple gut- only mouth no anus • complete gut- 2 openings • protostome= ﬁrst mouth • duderosome= second mouth, mouth comes from anus • triploblastic= 3 germ layers • diploblastic= 2 germ layers ‣ Segmentation= metamerism • body segments are fused to produce a body region ( head, thorax, abdomen) • Tagmosis= body regions ‣ Other • feeding structures ◦ lophophore= one developed once in evolutionary history • larval stages ◦ trochophore ◦ Family Tree: ‣ Metazoa (as opposed to protozoa) • Parazoa-sponges • Eumetazoa-animals with true tissues ◦ Radiata ◦ Bilateria ‣ Protosomia • Lophotrochozoa • Ecdysozoa ‣ Deuterostomia- including phylum chordata ◦ Basal Metazoa- a current controversy between phylum Porifera and phylum Ctenophora ‣ Ctenophora sister vs. Porifera- sister hypothesis ‣ sponges are basal vs. ctenophores are basal • evidence shows that ctenophores are the most basal metazoans ‣ Phylum Porifera- sponges • only animals to have cellular level of organization • lack of symmetry • sessile adults • matrix- mesophyll- middle, found between cells and skeletons (with cells and skeleton imbedded) • Mesophyll Cell types: ◦ choanocytes=most important cell type, unique to sponges ‣ often called collar cells- color is not a solid membrane but a folded membrane with microvilli ‣ ﬂagellum that moves water towards the inside of the sponge ‣ ﬁlter feeding happens by choanocytes ‣ water ﬂow helps eliminate waste, distribution of gametes, respiratory gases are exchanged (oxygen supply from water come in and carbon dixode with water going out) ◦ archaeocytes ‣ are ameboid in their overall shape ‣ have pseudopods ‣ capable of moving around inside the body of a sponge ‣ picks up food from a choanocyte and takes it to the sponge ‣ secreting the skeleton ◦ porocytes ‣ unique to sponges ‣ holes in the sponge that are individual cells with a shape of a tube ‣ water passes from outside of the sponge to the inside of the sponge ◦ pinacocytes ‣ ﬂat cells that cover surfaces inside and outside of sponges • Mesophyll Skeleton: ◦ Organis ﬁbers ‣ collagen ‣ spongin ◦ Inorganic spicules ‣ calcareous= calcium based ‣ silicious= silicious based, glass like ‣ remain as separate pieces providing support ‣ some fuse together • 3 body types: ◦ Aquiferous systems: trace water ﬂow through structures ◦ Ascon ‣ asconoid ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line spongocoel ‣ simple body type ‣ porocytes form ostia ‣ thin body wall ‣ limit of body size: limited number of choanocytes ‣ the simplest aquiferous systems ‣ water ﬂow: water enters sponge through ostia and is now in the spongocoel and then travels back out again through the osculum ◦ Sycon ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line ﬂagellated chambers ‣ ostia leads to incurrent canals ‣ prosopytes ◦ Leucon ‣ multiple oscula ‣ no spongocoel ‣ incurrent and excurrent canals ‣ prosopytes and apopoytes • 3 classes of sponges ◦ Class: Calcarea ‣ ascon,sycon, leucon ‣ calcareous spicules ‣ all are marine and small ◦ Class: Hexactinellida ‣ hexactines- 6-rayed spicules are made os silicon dioxide ‣ siliceous spicules ‣ deep marine sponges ‣ most of there part become fused as they are formed ‣ have connected cells in glass form ‣ fused layer= syncytium ◦ Class: Demospongiae ‣ 80 % of all sponges are included in this class ‣ all have luecon body types ‣ marine and fresh H2O systems • only fresh water sponges ‣ silicious spicules and/or spongin ﬁbers ‣ lots of variety of shapes in this class • bath sponges: spongin only • boring sponge- Cliona ciliata, archeanocytes each have calcareous shells ◦ bioerosion • Fresh H2O sponges ◦ gemmales- dormancy and dispersal ◦ totipotent= can specialize into other types of cells ◦ only contain archaocytes but through the use of totipotent these cells can specialize into other cell types ◦ Sclerosponges- hard sponges ‣ hard, calcareous, basal skeleton ‣ sclerospongiae (usually combined with Demospongiae) • Organism of the day: ◦ Omyctolagus caniculus- European Rabbit ‣ a vigilant herbivore ‣ how to draw a bunny face • pinna (ae)- better to hear • virbrissae- very sensory, can tell if a holes too small to ﬁt in • philtrum- slit in lip, allows the bunny to move her upper lips like two ﬁngers •