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by: Georgette Koepp


Georgette Koepp

GPA 3.85

A. King

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A. King
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Georgette Koepp on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 101 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by A. King in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/229628/anth-101-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
ANTHROPOLOGY REVIEW TEST 1 Linnaeus first to make a comprehensive taxonomy of plants and animals grouped them together by similarities and differences in their physical characteristics believed in fixity and the Great Chain of Being Catastrophism fossil evidence indicates multiple extinctions from multiple catastrophes Generally associated with Cuvier stratigraphic levels are the product of repeated cataclysmic occurrences and repeated new creations Uniformitarianism Iames Hutton The earth is very old and the processes occurring in the present are the same processes that operated in the past and the same that will be operating in the future quotthe present is the key to the past based on the slow natural processes that Hutton observed Lamark vs Darwin Lamark believed that if an organism changes during life in order to adapt to its environment then those changes are passed to the offspring He also believed that body parts not being used would disappear Ex giraffes necks used to be short but some had to reach high branches so they re necks became longer Darwin theorized that organisms even those of the same species are all different and that those with variations that help them survive in their environment survive and have more offspring The offspring are born with the parent s helpful traits and as they reproduce they make up more of the population Darwin s 3 Postulates 1 the ability ofa population to expand is infinite while the resources available to sustain said population are finite This dynamic causes a struggle for existence among individuals as they compete for resources 2 Organisms vary in their physical qualities these variations allow some members to reproduce more successfully than others 3 These variations are inherited by offspring from their parents Darwin s in uence on modern thought in 20th and 2 15t centuries 1 many people embraced social Darwinism which states that the strongest or fittest should survive and ourish in society 2 free market capitalism or laissezfaire 3 Eugenics In its most extreme forms Social Darwinism has been used to justify eugenics programs aimed at weeding quotundesirablequot genes from the population such programs were sometimes accompanied by sterilization laws directed against quotunfitquot individuals The American eugenics movement was relatively popular between about 19101930 during which 24 states passed sterilization laws and Congress passed a law restricting immigration from certain areas deemed to be unfit Social Darwinist ideas though in different forms were also applied by the Nazi party in Germany to justify their eugenics programs 4 Communism Processes that change allele frequency 1 Mutations huntingtons sickle cell down syndrome a A random change in a gene or chromosome creating a new trait that may be advantageous deleterious or neutral in its effects on the organism b Chemical radiation or mechanical alteration ofa gene that produces a new allele c If all mutations were important for evolution including the ones occurring now in your bodies that would be LAMARCKISM d The ones important for evolution are the mutations in gametes or the cells that produce gametes 2 Gene Flow blood types a AdmiXture or the exchange of alleles between two populations b The diffusion or spread ofnew genetic material from one population to another of the same species genes from one gene pool are transferred to another gene pool 3 Genetic Drift hemophilia porphyria achromatopsia a the random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next with greater effect in small populations b over time it increases the genetic difference between two genetically related but no interbreeding populations c CHANGES IN ALLELE FREQUENCIES DUE TO RANDOM FLUCTUATIONS d Founder effect the accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers e Fission the splitting of one breeding population into two 4 Natural Selection a Favoring individuals with characteristics that enhance survival and reproduction b Sicklecell anemia industrial melanism thalessemia lactase deficiency SickleCell Anemia the sickle cell allele is present in very high frequencies in parts of Africa Saudi Arabia India and Malaysia It is lethal if you are homozygous you will likely die at an early age before you can reproduce to pass it on Causes severe anemia Share distribution with malaria malaria is a debilitating disease caused by a single celled parasite transmitted by mosquito bite People who are heterozygous for sickle cell have red blood cells with abnormal hemoglobin these cells are not as efficient at transmitting oxygen but they are also no efficient at transmitting the malaria parasite So in a malarial environment heterozygotes have an advantage over normal hemoglobin possessors When Europeans brought slaves over the heterozygote advantage didn t apply Population a group of individuals that can and do interbreed Evolution a change in allele frequency from one generation to the next Mendel s work suggested two important facts 1 the units or particles occurred in pairs laws of segregation and recombination 2 traits that quotdisappearedquot were still there principle of dominant and recessive characteristics 3 sources of Variation 1 Genetic Variation 2 Environmental variation 3 Cultural variation Primates Clarkidentified 3 prominent tendencies of primates 1 arboreal adaptation a clavicle keeps upper limbs to side ofbody b grasping hand c opposable big toes halluX d enhanced sense of touch ends of fingers and toes highly sensitive e enhanced sense ofvision eyes forward color vision 2 dietary plasticity a Old World monkey dental formula 2123 New World 2133 b Tooth comb lemurs lorises 3 parental investment Dian Fossey study of mountain gorillas work to preserve habitat for gorillas Jane Goodall the world39s foremost authority on chimpanzees having closely observed their behavior for the past quarter century in the jungles of the Gombe Game Reserve in Africa living in the chimps39 environment and gaining their confidence Birute Galdikas Well known in the field of modern primatology Galdikas is recognized as a leading authority on orangutans


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