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by: Violet Purdy

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# GENERAL PHYSICS II PHYS 202

Violet Purdy

GPA 3.72

T. Crawford

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COURSE
PROF.
T. Crawford
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
22
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Physics 2

This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Violet Purdy on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 202 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by T. Crawford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/229642/phys-202-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Physics 2 at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
Review for Exam 3 JonesChilders 22 23 and 24 Chp 22 Reflection and Refraction Law of Reflection The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection 6 1 9 The index of refraction n n g 39 Me U xIJOEO Chp 22 Refraction Snell s Law Incldent ray l y l Medlum 1 39 I Medium 2 ll I I slowmovinglt I quoti relraclad Reiracted ray wave lmnls Once all the rays are in the medium llhe plane of constant phase travels at a different angle n1 sin61 7128727162 Chp 22 Apparent depth The rays coming from water to air are bent away from the normal Therefore for the same position a corresponding to the object on the bottom the rays appear to be coming from a shallower depth because they are refracted when they enter the air Chp 22 Total internal reflection Once G2 90 degrees the refracted light is no longer transmitted into the lower index medium This phenomenon is called total internal reflection M So is known as the critical angle Chp 22 Ray tracing To find an image formed by a lens you draw 3 rays image Chp 22 Geometric Optics Rearranging we find the thin lens equation 11 1 f 67 Magnification is defined as m Chp 22 Geometric Optics 1 f is for converging diverging lenses 2 o is of object is same opposite side as incident light 3 i is if image is opposite same side as incident light means virtual 4 object and image heights are positive above the optical axis and negative below it Chp 22 Geometric Optics Basic conclusions of optical imaging Converging lens 1 If 0 is outside of f image is real and inverted 2 If 0 is inside of f image is virtual and upright Diverging lens 1 image is always virtual and upright Chp 22 Geometric Optics 1 f is if f is on the same side of the mirror as the light ie concave convex 2 o and i are if on the same side as the light ie convex concave Convex mirror Always virtual image inside mirror upright and reduced in size ie objects in mirror are larger than they appear Concave mirror 1 Real inverted image if 0 is outsidef 2 Virtual upright image if 0 is insidef Chp 23 Optical Instruments Optometrists express the strength of lenses needed to correct vision in a unit called the diopter which is the inverse of the focal length in meters A lens with a focal length of 025 m has a strength of 4 diopters The magnifying glass Obgecl Concept of subtended angle h i 6 radians Angular Size N 25 Angular magnification M 97 in Put i at near point 0 13 525 9 hf25 0 E1 Obiem I r M 275 1 image at near point 7 M 275 image at in nity because 0 is equal to f Compound microscopes A compound microscope uses two or more lenses to magnify a small object The objective lens forms a real first image which is just close to the focal point of the objective 1 L Eyepiece 0 7 f 7 f ObJ6Ct1V L Q 0 F2 F1 to linear mag F1 x 2 L Parallel m0 N 7 1 rays To distant Virtual image 3b l 12b l s l few 25 Me E total mag M moMe angular mag L 16 cm for most microscopes The telescope The astronomical telescope uses two lenses to produce a virtual image of the distant object Again objective lens forms a real first image which is just close to the focal point of the objective The eyepiece has its focal point just beyondquotquotthe real image from the objective Thus the final image is virtual and appears near infinity 6 N L e Huygen s principle Examples Huygen s approximated every point on a ray as a source of sphericallyexpanding wavelets A a 393 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Young s double slit interference experiment But what s Ar Referring to the lower graph if the screen is much further away than the slit separation then we assume the two paths are parallel mA dame for a bright spotand a a m A dsin6 for a dark spot at y Note for a screen a great distance away theta is small dsinQ N dtanQ N d Phase change on reflection The reflection from the airn2 boundary is 180 degrees out of phase this is added to the phase acquired by transiting twice through the film layer to emerge as r2 Condition for maxima Air m A 277275 2 r72 Condition for minima Sgt mA 2 271275 i In these cases m is an integer m0123 Air ROUNA Single slit diffraction Similar to interference ie interference of light originating from different parts of a single slit Condition for minimum at P1 a A 532719 mg or asm mA WEIVC B Incident D Totally destructive interference Central axis Viewing screen nPI Diffraction gratings For many slits the transmission peaks become sharper at particular angles away from the centerline diffraction grating equa on m dsinQ m 0123 h i mumnun m SOUIH GROUNA ResolutionRayleigh Criterion Two objects diffracted lead to overlapping diffraction patterns for a circular aperture of diameter D 6mm 122 l A X THU B lt f Radius of A6 quot1 quot Airy disk 6m i radians 2007 Pearson Chp 24 Wave Optics Polarization Light intensity as a function of polarizer angle known as Malus law I Im00329 We can find Brewster s angle from Snell s law using the fact that the transmitted and reflected angles differ by 90 degrees at this magic angle nt tandB ntcosdi F Scattering Rayleigh Scattering This strong dependence on frequency means the high frequencies blue light are scattered out of the light leaving only the low frequencies ie red left in suanht E Eincident39vmolecule scattered X 7 distance from scatterer volume molecule Kocligelsoc 00ltf4 Rayleigh scattering is why the sky is blue and why sunsets and sunrises are red

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