Week one notes
Week one notes 408
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Popular in Wildlife and Fisheries Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dani on Saturday January 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 408 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Sheriff in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Mammalogy in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/15
Mammalogy 11215 Of ce 405 FRB mis72psuedu Mammalogy 5th edition Vaughan Ryan amp Czaplewski Exams built around lectures textbook is supplemental 32 counted in class quizzes 10 o In class activity 2 10 0 Species review paper groups of 5 5pgs 155pace 10 references 15 0 PA mammal rst come rst serve o Midterms noncumulative 30 0 Final Exam 35 Mammalogy Lab 0 What limits animals in their natural world 0 Physiology 0 Behavior 0 Ecology 11415 Mammals Where did we come from and how do we t in 0 Why study mammals o Histology tissues and diseases 0 Animals sciences production 0 Game management maximum yield for consumption 0 Evolutionary adaptations o Ecological theory 0 Amniota adapted to give birth on land 0 Synapsids and sauropsids Synapsids dominated early Triassic periods Survived extinction but dwindled o Evolved into therapsids o Cynodonts Mammalia arose from cynodont slightly after dinosaurs 0 Early mammals 0 Small body and quadrupedal movement Escape predation by being smaller Easier access to food resources 0 Distinguishing features jaw articulation Squamosal joined to dentary by jaw joint 0 Migration of angular articular and quadrate further into skull bone 0 Later become ear Other characteristics may be shared with cynodonts 0 Teeth o Robust cheek teeth 0 Could chew on one side of mouth at a time 0 Secondary palate o Lies under roof of mouth 0 Shunts air from front of snout to back of mouth BREATH WHILE YOU EAT o Hindlimb movements 0 Parasagittal plane instead of sprawling as reptiles legs underbody Radiation of Early mammals Monotremata o monotremes Eurtheria o Placental mammals Metatheria o Marsupials Sinoconodonts and Morganucodontids Earliest known mammals 2030 grams Premolars and molars 34 times larger brain than comparable therapsids Grasping ability Opposable hallux toe Nocturnal Mammary glands Eutriconodontids First predators 750 grams large ish Dentition was heterodont Multituberculata First mammalian herbivore Highly successful Could chew on both sides of their mouth Ptiodus showed arboreal specialization Others were semifossorial First mammal with diastema gap between teeth no canines 0 End of Mesozoic Earth begins to split to form independent land forms 0 Allows for barriers for mammals which allows for niches Independent adaptations and evolution 0 Classi cation binomial nomenclature 0 Species groups of actually of potentially interbreeding individuals which are reproductively isolated from other groupsgroups that share a same gene pool Kingdom phylum class order family genus species Parallelism occurs when two closely related animals share similar modes of life and thus evolve similar structural adaptations Homologous traits Convergence when two unrelated animals share similar modes of life and thus independently evolve similar traits Analogous traits o Phylogeny reconstruction O 0 Based on similarity among organisms Cladistics classi cation re ecting the actual evolutionary history of a group Cladogram hypothetical relationships Organisms are grouped on the number of shared derived characteristics Synapomorphies Symplesiomorphies are ancestral features ie hair in mammals Monophyletic groups of organisms that share a single node Sister groups most closely related 11615 Mammal Characteristics 0 Skin glands O Mammary glands Provide nourishment to young Estrogen and progesterone in late pregnancy stimulate growth of glands Prolactin and growth hormone stimulates milk production 0 Nursing stimulates more production Nursing associated with social bonding Monotremes lack nipples Water mammals have muscles which force milk into young s mouth Sweat glands Promote evaporative cooling Eliminates some waste products Sebaceous glands Moisturize Scentmusk glands Used for mating marking and communication No analogous feature Coat is called PELAGE Medulla cortex cuticle dead cell layers in hair Keratin Made of proteins Strengthens hair Mammals change coats MOLT Coat color usually matches background environment Most have countershading Back and sides are dark but underside venter is lighter Some have warning coloring Aposematic coloring ie skunk fur Fat adipose tissue 0 Not unique to mammals but essential to survival 0 Three major functions Energy storage Source of heat AND water Thermal insulation Circulatory System o 4chambered heart not unique to mammals Left atrium more muscular Sinoatrial node sends electrical pulse to atrioventricular node which sends electrical pulse to stimulate contractions Valves stop blood from owing backwards 0 Red blood cells RBCs are biconcave disks and do not have nuclei except Camels No nuclei and disk shape allows for more oxygen to be carried Unique to mammals Respiratory System 0 Trachea bronchus bronchi bronchioles alveoli o Lungs ll entire thoracic cavity Framed underneath by stomach diaphragm Surrounded by pleural uid 0 Level of C02 in blood stimulates breathing not lack of 02 Reproductive System 0 Females Both ovaries are functional Embryo fertilized in uterine tubes fallopian Embryo develops in uterus Nourished by maternal blood stream via placenta Three types of systems 0 Bipartite branched o Duplex branched o Simplex human system 0 Males Penis Contains erectile tissue surrounded by prepuce sheath of skin 0 In many species contains a bone Os Penis or Baculum Testes lay outside the body in the scrotum except cetaceans Body temperature too high Digestive System 0 No mammal has the ability to digest cellulose Herbivores have symbiotic relationship with microbes in their gut that breaks down cellulose Hindgut fermenters have caecum which can ferment digest cellulose Located behind the stomach Foregut fermenters ruminants have elaborate multichambered stomachs to accomplish The brain 0 Very large in comparison to any other organism of similar size 0 Neopallium Most characteristic brain aspect of higher mammals o A mantle of grey matter that overlays the surface of the more primitive vertebrate brain 0 Split in two halves connected communication by a large concentration of nerve fibers 0 Corpus callosum Sense organs 0 Smell Very acute in mammals 0 May be due to nocturnal origins Largest gene family in mammalian genome Jacobson s organ vomeronasal detects pheromones Puberty female estrous cycle mate choice territory defense kin recognition social resolution etc o Heanng Only vertebrate to have pinna o Directs sound into ears Auditory canal tympanic membrane activates middle ear malleus incus stapes inner ear semicircular canals cochlea o Malleus hammer lncus anvil Stapes stirrup 0 Vision I Tapetum lucidum re ective structure improves night vision Eye color due to melanin pigmentation in the iris Retina consists of rods and cones 0 Touch Vibrissae whiskers Tactile organs on face head and lower limbs 0 Controlled by a complex of muscles
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