Ento 2010 Week 10 Notes
Ento 2010 Week 10 Notes ENTO 2010
Popular in Insects & the Environment
Popular in Entomology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Ento 2010 Week 10 Notes March 21, 2016 o Order: Diptera Di=two Ptera=wings Common name: Flies & mosquitoes Species: 90,000 o Diptera Complete metamorphosis Mouthparts: piercing/sucking or sponging 1 pair of membranous wings no hind wings halteres=stabilizers (replace hind wings) primitive larvae=maggots many larvae are aquatic most harmful order: many members cause disease o Flies Flies are best insect fliers Hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second Halteres give stability o House Fly: Regurgitates on food Enzymes soften food Then, uses sponging mouthparts Transmits disease mechanically: Picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location Can “see” movement very well Uses leg hairs to taste Has SPONGING MOUTHPARTS Oily hairs on feet: walk on ceiling o Fly farms Maggots are used to eliminate animal farm waste o Medical treatment People with poor circulation Leg (or arm) wounds heal slowly Add fly maggots to wound Maggots eat dead flesh Prevents amputation o African Sleeping Sickness Vector: tsetse fly Disease: protozoans Genus: trypanosoma Drug treatment is effective 165,000 deaths per year o Sleeping sickness kills people and cows Wild animals=reservoir host Africans can’t raise cattle People of Africa need more protein Tsetse fly=”Guardian of Africa” Because native habitat has been saved o Tsetse Fly Female: Does not lay eggs Has 1 egg that hatches inside female fly Larva develops inside female fly Mature larva is born Burrows into soil and pupates Adult emerges from soil Produces only 8 larvae! March 23, 2016 o Mosquito life cycle Eggs laid in or near water Aquatic larvae Aquatic pupae Adults live 1-3 weeks Female mates in male swarm Male feeds on flowers Female needs “blood meal” o Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing o Mosquitos have piercing/sucking mouthparts! o Mosquitos: Female attracted to host carbon dioxide Sound of female wings attracts male o Mosquitos-piercing/sucking mouthparts have: Protective sheath Tube to suck blood Knife-like mouthparts Saliva injector (stops blood clotting) o 1/6 of humans have an insect-vectored disease malaria has killed more people than any other disease 1897: Ronald Ross showed that mosquitos vector malaria 1900: Walter Reed showed that mosquitos vector yellow fever o Yellow Fever Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes Disease: virus Reservoir host: monkeys Worst in South America & Africa No effective treatment o Dengue Fever Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes Disease: virus No effective treatment South America, Africa, & Caribbean o Zika Fever Vector: mosquito Genus: Aedes Disease: virus No effective treatment South America, Africa, & Caribbean Special concern: pregnant women Zika may cause microcephaly o Malaria Vector: mosquito Genus: Anopheles Disease: protozoan Genus: plasmodium Drug treatment is effective South America, Africa, & Asia o Malaria life cycle Mosquito feeds on infected host Plasmodium mates in mosquito’s stomach Moves to salivary glands Mosquito feeds on new host Plasmodium moves to host liver Attacks red blood cells o Red blood cells rupture Cycle repeats in host: 24, 48, 96 hours o Mated female mosquito: Eggs do not develop without a blood meal Head produces hormones needed for egg production o Natural Selection in Africa: A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin This change provided resistance to malaria People with 1 copy of the gene survive malaria People with 2 copies of the gene have Sickle Cell Anemia March 25, 2016 o No Class