SURVEY MASS COMMUNICATNS
SURVEY MASS COMMUNICATNS JOUR 201
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Cassandre Sauer DDS
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Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandre Sauer DDS on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 201 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by E. Wiggins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/229681/jour-201-university-of-south-carolina-columbia in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Ch 11 l P 5quot NS 5 l l l l U1 0 1 3 4 National advertising was designed with an Trade advertising also referred to as Advertising Advertising is any form of communication about an organization service or any idea by an identified sponsor was the first successful colonial newspaper that solicited advertising in occurred in the nineteenth century which led to the mass production of consumer goods which in turn led to the mass production of promoting these goods Modernization is the process by which quotIn modern societies people believe they can satisfy their needs by using and buying mass who said this Less sewing was done produced goodsquot The 1920s yielded more In an there are as many or more goods available as people who want to or have the means to buy them A is a word or phrase attached to prepackaged or consumer goods so that they can be promoted to the general public through advertising The development of transcontinental railroads and made for better distribution At this time Brand names became popular at the end of the and were found in many patent medicines century was among the first packaged cereals and was manufactured in One of the earliest national brands was Pears soap and was started by Consumer advertising started out local with attempts to induce people to go to a local store or business Ads were designed to get customers to purchase a product or llHurry down prices won t lastquot It does this by building the image of demand for a product It is designed to build demand for a nationally available product or service but does not send them to a particular store is intended to promote a particular point of view rather than a topic such as a public service announcement was an ad created by the ad council in 1942 with the subtitle llWe can do itquot ads promote products directly to other businesses rather than the consumer market are the five types of advertising N 00 W l The With products that are similar The media uses five main mediums for delivering their ads Some ads push The advertising business is made up of quot is the goal of every advertising campaign an advertising concept that will grab people s attention and make them take notice remember and take action This is a concept made up by legendary advertising executive is important This gives a brand and the associated product a personality When a newspaper targets news coverage or advertisements to a specific region of a city or market this is called magazines radio and television Clutter is referred to as the large number of commercials advertising and other and interruptions that compete for consumer attention on radio and television are messages that are allegedly embedded so deeply in an ad that they cannot be perceived consciously is a market researcher who claimed to subliminally expose movie audiences to the words Drink CocaCola and Eat Popcorn and claimed popcorns sales increased by an average of 575 Advertising agencies 4 misconceptions advertising makes you buy things you don t want advertising makes things cost more as opposed to products Five types of advertising advertising sells to the entire company llFord has a better ideaquot advertising establishes the value of a product or service in the minds of consumers llAmerica s best carquot advertising encourages trade at a particular store llBen Satcher Ford advertising directly from the manufacturer advertising messages to wholesalers and dealers urging them to stock items on their shelves hierarchy of needs is used frequently when advertisers consider how to put together the perfect advertisement The hierarchy is as follows needs needs needs needs and needs Critics of advertisers say the following things You cause us to buy things we don t need or can t afford you appeal to and not you re obtrusive and repetitious you re deceptive and you re wasteful 38 Advertisers reply with the following The consumer s reigns much of buying is emotional and that is not bad the number of potential consuming is large and ever changing and we must reach them ads are outright false and the cost of advertising is borne by the consumer but that supports 39 The overall communication strategy for reaching key audiences using advertising public relations sales promotion and interactive media is called 40 is the paid integration of a product or service into the central theme of media content This is most common in television programming or moves but can also be found in books magazine articles web pages or even songs Media Ethics Chapter 14 1 Media ethics is defined as 2 are defined as rules regarding what is right and wrong in behavior and conduct 3 are the study of general nature of morals and of the specific moral decision to be made by individuals in relation to others 4 Media ethics are the study of choices made by members of the media in relation to their peers to their sources and to the general public 5 George Gerbner is responsible for the term syndrome This is when an individual believes the entire world is a mean place 6 Five codes of ethics 7 code features the llgolden mean which is finding just the right balance between the right and the wrong 8 code tells us to act in the way everyone in a similar situation absolutism 9 In code we protect the weaker party This same code uses llthe veil of quot where behind this veil everyone is equal 10 Kindness and respect to all 11 Ethical issues include conflicts of interest and authenticity and appropriateness of photographs 12 The commission chaired by Robert M Hutchins concluded that the first amendment by itself might not be enough to protect the free speech rights of the public The report reached two major conclusions a The has the responsibility to give voice to the and to society b The free press was not living up that that responsibility to the public because of its need to serve its 13 The Hutchins commissions 39 quot 39 Ifive 39 fora quot 39 press H U39I H 0 N 9 N 53 N H N N N W N 0 N l c In 2003 young journalist Being and Conflicts of interest are recognized when reporters The llwater cooler principa a The media should provide a comprehensive and intelligent account of the day s events in a context that gives them b The media should serve as a for the exchange of comment and c The media should project a of the groups within the society d The media should present and clarify the and of the society e The media should provide to the day s news The Model for ethical decision making has three parts a b was caught fabricating or plagiarizing up to thirty six stories for the New York Times Bok implies there are two factors to lying Bok also argues that the major ethical problem related to truth telling is intentionally deceiving someone to David Martinson on the other hand believes the press needs to report was a twentyfive year old reporter who wrote stories for magazines like New Republic Rolling Stone George and Harper s that were amazing but completely fabricated He was finally caught in 1998 on a story about He got away with this because of two factors are the core journalistic values to a company in which they have an In that states llf people are talking about it at the office around the watercooler then it should be on the is a concept made up by newsquot is the coverage of events that are lurid and highly emotional is when respectable media report on what the tabloids are reporting as a way of covering sensationalistic stories on which they might not otherwise report The two reasons respectable media have moved toward tabloidization a b The ethical problems with sensationalism are WN OK 0 W N The front page is referred to as The headline mistake of The a The question of whether it lowers to the level of crude entertainment that is not to be taken seriously Tabloidstyle stories can displace 57 politics economics international affairs war genocide famine etc about which people need to be concerned quotHow many Africans have to die for the story to go on page 1quot who said this was the cruelest headline mistake to date The headline claimed that all of the coal miners trapped in had been found alive after having being trapped for two days underground when in actuality According to the Post at 1218 AM the rescue command center heard a report from a rescue worker that twelve miners were found alive Due to this was spread and people were ecstatic Read the following news article about the above referenced matter and tell the problems with the story llTwelve miners caught in an explosion in a coal mine were found alive Tuesday night more than 41 hours after the blast family members and GovernorJoe Manchin I said Bells at a church where relatives had been gathering rang out as family members ran out screaming in jubilations iquot Relatives yell llThey re alivequot Manchin said rescuers told him the miners were found lt llThey told us they have 12 alivequot Manchin said llWe have some people that are going to need some medical attentionquot A few minutes after word came the throng several hundred strong broke into a chorus of the hymn llHow Great Thou Artquot in a chilly night airquot b c When the governor made his statement he noted llThey told usquot Not a name just quottheyquot d Later on the story said llThe compant did not immediately confirm the newsquot e is a representative of a publication s readers who takes the point of view of those who purchase or consume the news also known as a reader s representative or audience advocate The term above is derived from the word for a person who The term above has three responsibilities a b c 36 The Society of Professional Journalists has an extended code of ethics with three main principals a b c 37 New York Times ethics columnist claims an ethics code must be central to the way the news outlet does daytoday business 38 The had a run in with the Chiquita banana company after basing his expos on 2000 voicemails accessed by stolen codes 39 The person referred to in question thirty seven claims ethics codes are often ineffective for two reasons a b 40 The Advertising council was formed during in response to charges of unethical behavior 41 The ad council worked on a communication campaign to and 42 CBS fired radio host for a derogatory comment about the 43 Fashion king is known for his controversial ads Ch 12 Public Relations 1 Public relations is defined as 2 Public relations is critical to 3 Public relations is all about 4 A pubic is 5 Although PR goes as far back as the with the penny press and the release of Thomas Paine s the PR profession is generally seen as having grown out of the 6 used PR to raise excitement about his book in the 1800s 7 Circus entertainer raised publicity to a fine art by building interest in his shows by writing letters to the editor under fake names and 8 A is an early form of public relations that involved sending material from the press agent to the media with little opportunity for interaction and feedback It often involved conduct that would be considered deceptive and unethical today H N l l 04 H U39I H 0 H l H 00 H RD N O N H NN WN N 00 Utility and He built his campaigns around the importance of He also put a He wrote the first books on the PR practice He taught the first course on PR at PR grew tremendously during the years According to President Bernays defined PR as were the first major users of public relations They bribed reporters and editors with payoffs or giving This was the accepted practice industries followed Electricity had a quot that was not open to competition was one of the two founders of PR He brought to the industry a strong 39 quot of u and and phrases He lacked on I He was also the first to deal with crisis management now referred to as as early as 1910 He manipulated public opinion in favor of his clients This man was the PR agent for founder of Standard Oil Company in He was the first to articulate that PR practitioners have After his client had a wreck he invited reporters to visit the scene of the accident at the company s expense quotTell the truth because sooner or later the public will find it out anyway And if the public doesn t like what you re doing change your policies and bring them into line with what the people wantquot who said this The other founder of PR was the first to apply research to the field As the nephew of psychologist this man promoted the use of psychology to manipulate the public s opinion He referred to this as u beca use of during this time governments figured out how important persuasive communication could be to mobilize popular support for a major war llIdeas and their dissemination became weapons and words became bulletsquot is a two step process of persuasion that uses respected and influential individuals to help deliver messages with the hope of influencing members of a community rather than just relying on the mass media to deliver the message 39 quot 39 Ithe Committee on Public Information directed this and The committee enlisted number who would take the committee s messages to churches and civic groups with four minute speeches N RD 04 53 W W N W W 0 RD 4 O 4 4 N The goal of PR is The Intranets are Bernays described three major functions of PR a b c Bernays argued that society was moving too fast and becoming too complex for the average person to cope with and the only hope for a functioning society was to The definition has three basic segments a b c The public relations process has five steps hint ROPES 50529579 is the process by which we found out the public views the company or product its actions and its image is the analysis what is being written or said about the company in the media bring together members of a particular public to talk about how they perceive an organization a product or an issue is any group of people who share a common set of interests Media relations is The principals of mass communication a b c d e In September 1982 seven people in the Chicago area died after taking cyanidelaced The deaths set off what the New York Times called Ch 11 PPN wwwsnsn I I I I I H U39IbUJNI O39 N N Paid nonpersonal The Boston Newsletter 1704 Industrialized ideas Social people go from being born with an identity and role in life to being able to decide who they want to be Michael Schudson Readymade clothes Economy of abundance Brand name Steamships Alcohol opium Nineteenth Quaker Oats Cedar Rapids Iowa Thomas Barratt Engage in a behavior Indirect action message Advocacy Rosie the Riveter Businesstobusiness Local national indirect advocacy and trade Client agency media audience Big idea David Ogilvy Brand image Zoned coverage Newspapers outdoor advertising Nonprogramming messages Advertising helps bad products sell advertising is a waste of money Jim Vicary Subliminal messages Ideas Institutional national retail direct response business to business Institutional National Retail Direct response Business to business Maslow s psychological safety lovebelonging esteem and self actualization Emotions reason Free will few commerce Integrated marketing communication 40 Product integration Media Ethics Ch 14 EPWNP P PP E Jquot l l l l H wal O l l mm Ni l H OkDOOV NNNN Ple l W 0 Doing the right thing at the right time and making the right call Morals Ethics Moral Mean world Aristotle s code JudeoChristian Immanuel Kant s code John Rawl s code Hutchins Commission Aristotle s Kant s Rawl s JudeoChristian code Truthfulness sensationalism Hutchins press public commercial masters Truthful meaning forum criticism representative picture goals and values full access Bok consult your conscience seek alternatives hold an imaginary ethical dialogue with everyone involved Jayson Blair Whether the speaker is intending to transmit the truth or attempting to deceive people and whether the statement itself is true or false llto make them believe what we ourselves do not believe llthe truth about the factquot Stephen Glass teenage hackers The magazines didn t conduct fact checking as well as they should have Glass would submit articles late so they couldn t be checked Fair balanced Give favorable coverage an interest or to a person who is their friend Chris Matthews Sensationalism Tabloid laundering or tabloidization Internet competition Politics public events and public discourse significant news James Warren Prime real estate January 4 2006 West Virginia s Sago Mine all but one of thirteen had died Word of mouth No official sources There were no details on the miners condition or where they were found Ombudsman Mediated between citizens and the government in Sweden in the early 18005 I PP EPWNPPquot NNNNNNNNI I I I I I I I I H IOHU39lbUJNI OEDOOVOHU39IbUJNI I 0 Ivy Lee economics psychology Listen to the concerns of readers or audience members write a regular column or commentary and writing a regular memo for the news staff Seek truth and report it as fully as possible act immediately minimize harm Jeffery L Seglin Cincinnati Enquirer Pressure from parent companies for profits nonenforcement WWII Stop the hoarding of scarce resources promote the buying of war bonds and build morale Don Imus Rutgers women s basketball team Calvin Klein Ch 12 Public Relations The management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between and organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends Industry government and nonprofit organizations Relating to the public Any group of people who share a common set of interests and goals These people include internal publics made up of people within the organization and external publics consisting of people outside the organization The American revolution llcommon sense Industrial revolution Washington Irvin PT Barnum accusing himself of fraud Press agentry Railroads free travel Telephone natural monopoly Symbols rational arguments Human face Spin control John D Rockefeller Jr a public responsibility that goes beyond the service to the client Pennsylvania Railroad Ivy Lee Edward L Bernays socialscientific Freud engineering consent Crystallizing public opinion 1923 and Propaganda 1928 New York University 1923 19141918 WWI Bernays Opinion leadership Woodrow Wilson George Creel mobilized the public opinion behind the war effort 7500 fourminute men N 00 Research objectives r llAdvising clients on how to present a favorable image to the public to gain popular support and direct messages to public through pressquot Create maintain and restore goodwill between the client and the publics Informing persuading integrating Merge public and private interest through public relations Management function mutually beneficial relationships various publics 39 and quot39 u Public opinion research Content analysis Focus groups Public Computer networks designed to communicate with people within an organization They are used to improve twoway internal communication and contain tools that allow for direct feedback They are a tool for communicating with internal publics Twoway interactions between PR professionals and members of the press These can involve press conferences press releases video news releases or interviews Typically media relations involve the placement of unpaid messages within the standard programming or news content of the medium Be prepared be honest apologize and mean it move quickly communicate with the press and other constituencies Extra strength Tylenol capsules llthe biggest consumer product scare in history
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