Physiology 215 Week 11 Notes
Physiology 215 Week 11 Notes phys 215
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
• Respiratory Part II • Lung Volumes • Tidal Volume (TV) – of air in/out with each normal breath (normally about 500 ml) • Vital Capacity (VC) – Total volume of air that can be moved in/out during a single breath (up to about 3100 ml) – Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – Volume of air which can be forcibly inhaled at the end of a normal inhalation • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – Amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled at the end of a normal expiration • Residual Volume – Amount of air which always remains in alveoli • Review • Muscles involved in breathing? • Lung volumes: – TV? – VC? – IRV? – ERV? – RV? – FEV-1? • Ventilation • Anatomic dead space- air within conductive airways that is not available for gas exchange. • Alveolar ventilation=(TV-Dead space volume)*respiratory rate • Pulmonary ventilation=(TV*respiratory rate) • Respiratory Problems 1. Chronic bronchitis- Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes. When the bronchi are inflamed and/or infected, less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and a heavy mucus or phlegm is coughed up. This is bronchitis. Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of chronic bronchitis 2. Asthma- airway obstruction due to a. Thickening of the airway walls b. Plugging of the airways by excessive secretion of mucus c. Hyperresponsiveness of the airways leading to constriction of the smaller airways caused by spasm of the smooth muscle in the airway walls • 3. Emphysema- Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli, or air sacs, may be: destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched or over-inflated • Over-inflation of the air-sacs is a result of a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli, and causes a decrease in respiratory function and breathlessness. Damage to the air sacs is irreversible and results in permanent "holes" in the tissues of the lower lungs • Asthma attack • allergen binds to IgE antibodies. Binding triggers the release of histamine and leukotrienes from mast cells • These substances 1. cause the smooth muscle cells of the bronchi to contract narrowing the bronchi. This is the early phase. 2. attract an accumulation of inflammatory cells — especially eosinophils — and the production of mucus. This is the late phase. With repeated attacks, the lining of the bronchi becomes damaged. • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) • Estimated to affect 32 million persons in the United States and is the fourth leading cause of death in this country. • Patients typically have symptoms of both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, but the classic triad also includes asthma. • Most of the time COPD is secondary to tobacco abuse, although cystic fibrosis and some other disorders may be causes as well. • Hypoxia- oxygen deficiency in the body • Anemic hypoxia- a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. It is caused by a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood or a reduced number of red blood cells. • Circulatory hypoxia (stagnant hypoxia)- oxygen deficiency due to poor circulation of the blood or poor blood flow. Examples of this condition are high "G" forces, prolonged sitting in one position or hanging in a harness, cold temperatures, and positive pressure breathing. • Histotoxic hypoxia- the inability of the tissues to use oxygen. Examples are carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning. • Hypoxic hypoxia- a reduction in the amount of oxygen passing into the blood. It is caused by a reduction in oxygen pressure in the lungs, by a reduced gas exchange area, exposure to high altitude, or by lung disease. • Changes in breathing • eupnea - normal breathing • dyspnea - abnormal or labored breathing • hyperpnea - increase in ventilation that matches oxygen needs • apnea - cessation of breathing • hypoventilation - decrease in ventilation that leads to elevated blood carbon dioxide (occurs if blood carbon dioxide levels fall) • hyperventilation - increase in ventilation that exceeds the oxygen needs (occurs if blood carbon dioxide levels go to high) • Blood CO 2 • Hypocapnia- below normal blood CO 2 • Hypercapnia- excessive CO in the2blood