DevelopmentWest Civilization HIST 242
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sigrid Braun on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 242 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Allison Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/229816/hist-242-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
September 1 2009 History 242 Lecture 1 Purpose of lectures roadmap of Europe in this time period quotold regime Europe 1 Biological regime subsistence economy easy to tip to death with bad crop 2 Socialpolitical regime 4 major social groups 1 2 3 4 Royaltynobility University Education Professions dr theology legal ArtisansMerchants Peasants largest group Questions on Mid term will deal with these levels need to be able to use the terminology Life as a peasant Housing 1 room homes where ppl slept together in the winter with animals Go to bed with the sun woke up with it as well 0 Sleep schedule different from modern western society 0 Wake up for one hour during the night 15 sleep 1 lively hour 2nd sleep High carb diet of energy think of what you get from a garden plot and foraging 0 Lots of alcoholic drinks of beerwine depending on the area due to bad water 0 Housewives made the beer at home 0 Beer was only 2nd to bread in calories 0 3 L of beer per person per day 0 Some people in central Europe and Germany ate beer soup for breakfast I Beer heated butter cold beer to cool down I Mix 2 eggs in put with beer whisk add pieces of wheat bread white breadtoo fancy 0 Then came coffee and ppl missed beer soup for breakfast Sense of timeorganization of work and time 0 Not many clocks 0 Time was done by task orientating I Eg it takes as long as to boil an egg 0 Working patterns were irregular I Worked a lot then really relaxed bingepurge Working All people worked in the fields mom dad kids E AST WEST Farm Diversity Womenkids supplemental income like lace making Worse for peasants 3 kinds of landlords nobility crown church Motto no land without a lord PolandRussia serfs sold like personal belongings Prussia peasants needed permission to marryleave and had to give up what they produced 0 1 Taxes to state 2 Dues to overlord 3 Tithes to church Lucky if you could retain 30 of what you produced Minorial courts held by the nobility No serfdom 20 of land owned by the ppl Obligations 1 Nobility 2 Crown 3 Church France Farmers 50 given to their people 123 from above Nobles gave them food in times of famine Nobles let them continue to work the land Hostile to outsiders suspicious Strong sense of community with each other Allowed to make decisions in town like negotiating land dog catchers watchmen etc Concentrated village Ring of fields around village Divvy up plots of land to people 0 Some sunshine some water Commons meadows to garage animals and woods Esp Western Europe Ppl who lost land and sell themselves 1 Clear trend where selling land is possible towards the creation of large estates 2 Clear trend that peasant taxes to crown continue to rise The RoyaltyNobility of Europe Peasant went to build big buildings like Versailles Nobility hereditary group Top of group kings dukes independent rulers Hereditary right 12 to politics legality etc 2 Ways to Gain Noble Status 1 Nobles of the sword a Long lineages from the middle ages b Military service taking c Won status eg by the sword 2 Nobles of the robe a Make yourself useful to the crown b Commoners state service negotiable nobility c Could buy these offices too What did Nobles Get Land ownership most important form of wealthstatus Rights of landservices from peasants Politicalmilitary offices No taxes to kings Their own institutions and noble assemblies requestsdecisions for the king Poor Nobles Don t live differently from peasants Wear a sword People acknowledge them Front pew of the church Changes Struggles between kinds and nobility lssue increasecentralizing power with kings themselves instead of what was done by the nobility absolutism o The nobles previously made laws now only the king could Violates rules of older system where nobles were left alone to rule Kings sometimes forced their nobles to do it Why Centralize A need for cash to fund what they wanted to do kings Get more territory for power 30 years war for half of 17th century then intermittent wars to expand History 242 Lecture 8 92409 The Values of the Middle Classes l9Lh century Europe bourgeoisie middle class come from educated professions doctors lawyers ministers also higher merchants artisans lower bakers tailors shoe makers traditional shopkeepers artisans big winners in industrialization and bene t from larger governments Distinctive conception of the family is different from the old regime 0 old regime family is the economic unit that does all of the work revolution in what a familymarriage is supposed to be 0 no more economics bad form to only talk about it 0 family spiritualemotional institution economic basis for this upper levels ofjobs are no longerjobs that can be run out of the home factory owners go to the factory for work for example formalized by labeling public sphere of worldpolitics and private sphere of familyhome Public Sphere masculine and for commerce competition Private Sphere feminine domestic refuge spiritual emotional These two spheres are supposed to balance each other Great Britain emergence of middle class family ideals late 18Lh cent evangelical movement within the Anglican church 0 focused on religion of the heart family was understood as an anchor for spiritual life of its members 0 individuals ought to have greater freedom in their marriages what out to determine marriages is love not money emotional ties 0 men now have a palticular calling for a particular job this is also a middle class critique of the upper class who married for money 0 elite aristocratsgtsexual promiscuity is okay middle classes criticized this as dangerous to the public good 0 men must be sober and good 0 women create a moral haven for men to protect them from the world sexual and ethical o ungentle for women to participate in economics family business Early l9Lh Century Britain enormous cultural ow 1820 George IV took the throne aristocrat 0 lots of mistresses as crowned prince 0 his wife also slept around 0 stayed around long enough to have a daughter George IV became king and wanted to get rid of his German wife 0 Tries to divorce her 0 British publichorror and indignation comes to the case of poor Caroline 0 People thought his promiscuity was showing him as un t to rule and they wanted him to be a family man Queen Victoria of the l9Lh century ts the bill of a good family mom admired for her role of mother and wife to Prince Albert Material Changes in how people build houses need for privacy and personal space public drawing rooms private sitting rooms separate rooms for children family garden not just vegetables but also owers Differences of the Aristocracy and the Middle Class Aristocrats promiscuity and spends lots of money Middle Class family and good with money Contradictions the middle class loved popular magazines 0 main text restraint in spending 0 couple of pages over fashion pages ads for porcelain Lifestyle that takes a lot of class gt middle class Other Values Important to the Middle Classes committed to selfimprovement cultivation of the mind science and art faith in the power of science science gets credit for technology most popular science natural history 0 Natural History study of plants minerals and animals 0 Governments and individuals put a lot of money into it SelfImproving pursuit art amateur musicians and artists buy a great deal of art Romanticism great movement Before l9Lh century good art has transhistorical rules formulated in antiquity Romantics art be of its time like popular music September 3rd 2009 History 242 Lecture 2 2 Middle classes educated professions universities forms of productiontrade artisansmerchants Early Modern chronological term 15001800 Modern starts at 1800 University Life continental Europe Middle ages started small urban schools 1 teacher and a couple of students Renaissance grows but still relatively small few hundred students No campuses in modern sense Profs taught in homes with little auditoriums andor labs 1718 h century small age of nobles go to Univs o Univs seem as useful background for the state legal Three Things to Study at Univ 1 Theology 2 Law a Work for the state or as a lawyer 3 Medicine 12 years at philosophy faculty before studies above History natural science gen ed Studying not readingwriting intensive Standard model for teaching the class 0 Teacher wrote a book and read it to all 0 No papers or exams examination at the end of studies to prove what you ve learned eloquence in speakingmost important 0 Capstone of career at univ dissertation prof wrote student defended before counsel 0 Everything was in Latin I 1687 law prof lectured in German massive scandal I Latin enormous symbolic importance I Marked you as a learned man I Ppl s early language of studyLatin o Eg spoke in French readwrote in Latin Nonacademic subjects Popularfashionableones Noble students learned dancing writing and fencing Univsfairly independent basically selfgoverning little states within a state Only faculty had the legal right to discipline their students 0 Town governments could not discipline students 0 Universities kept their own jails Students were famous for their rowdy behavior Ppl wrote tracts about how univs were corrupting the young ppl and needed to be stopped Student songs partying drinking chasing women Alliances of male university students with young women in towns 0 Getting married if you want to be a prof then marry a prof s daughter 0 Find a woman of a lower class set up a student marriage pay roomboard and such for a woman who slept with you during your studies Before late 17 h cent theology was the most prestigious major After that it was law because nobles went to go study for it Ministry degreegreat living with lots of social connection and become prestigious but also tough without social connections lowly paid Least prestigious medicine Toughest job prospects Bestcourt doctor rich noble s doctor Post as an official position in large town Tough to get a living Tons of competition from other healers in villages and such Artisans and Merchants 2 kinds of people in manufacturing Artisans organized in guilds Guild economic monopoly this city only guild members can make tannery Regulated quality of goodstools Limits on size of workshops Protective of getting new members Strong social function brotherhood 0 Public religious stuff 0 Helped each other out when they fell on hard times untimely death take care of the family Statusprestige if in guild Political role in town governments Belonging to a guild was necessary to be a citizen very small age of city Religious functions fund chapels etc Production by Artisans Made one demand exchanges with customers were face to face 3 central values of artisans 1 Skills techniques mastered by guild 2 Property status 3 Notion of honor grounded in family a individual artisan needed to be married because a family was needed to run a workshop b Honest with neighbors obsessive about sexual morality keeping the trade in the family Large workshops master with large workshop who hires people to help with different stages of the project 0 This stuff was made in advance not by order Wealthy artisans at the top their own nobility of artisans 0 Did not associate with little independent workshops Merchants Centralized in big towns Lifestyle like the nobility values of music and art Very much conscious of themselves as different from nobility 1 Needed to hold onto good middle class values like fugality and managing money 2 Could buy into nobility and shed off 1 Propertyless urban workers Household servants in towns for a short time Beggars prostitutes worked from day to day Large cities unhealthy places to live Needed a lot of people coming from towns because people kept dying Mortality rateshigh no sanitation and close proximity disease 0 1665 plague in London kill 28 of population
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