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HistoryUnited States

by: Sigrid Braun

HistoryUnited States HIST 222

Sigrid Braun
GPA 3.91

Lynn Sacco

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Lynn Sacco
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sigrid Braun on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Lynn Sacco in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/229817/hist-222-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
US History Exam 3 2242009 95200 AM Jazz Age 1920 s o Wanted to become modern and free from the idealized vision on the past of Jane Addams or Teddy Roosevelt o What should America be 0 Disillusionment of WWI o Billed by the government to be the war that ends all wars o The Us had only 2 million troops small country and only around 1 million troops saw action and of those 200000 casualties 0 Europe lost 22 million Germans lost 19 million Russians lost 15 French 1 million THIS IS THE LOST GENERATION o No one could identify a purpose to life 1 The unprecedented prosperity of the 1920 s o In the 1920 s mass production became a new and inventive way for employment The benefits were it brought the cost of goods way down The cost of an automobile declined through the 20 s By 1926 the cost of a model T ford was 290 To help people afford the car Ford came up with Installment plans By 1925 75 of cars were financed o In 19 years 15 million fords were sold By the mid 1920 s there was a survey done in a moderate sized town they agreed that a car was no longer a luxury but a necessity o In turn the need for cars created other industries rubber steal gas stations roadside restaurants motel radio or boost to recording industry new forms of entertainment and nightclubs o Model T Ford created entire new industries which led to more standardized means of production There was some benefit from WWI technology economically Those advances the tank were applied to the public c We become a nation of consumers 2 Changes in the status of women vote ms America o The right to vote was largely symbolic Women were anxious about this because they were increasingly more visible They were marrying a little later Women were now thinking We have the legal right to vote we need to be respected socially Who could misbehave to most There was little Hilary Clinton type of political work Women wanted to prove that they could be as hard as men They would go out dancing all night Wanted to be modern and risqu Their clothes could not have been more revealing They got the bob haircut which was scandalous It was not all a wonderful party there was regret Some women were working hard but really women thought that they could be what a man is socially So women are not thinking politics they are having a good time 3 Spectacular and visible changes in technology EX Amelia Earheart A women flew for the first time Lundberg was sort of a celebrity at that time Dancing became huge Household appliances became normal rather than luxury Women became America s premier consumers at this time because of the new appliance Film picked up at this time Film was getting a narrative The techniques became more sophisticated and editing becomes a standard In the 1920 s America was the leading film maker Why Because we had a massproduction line for making films It also encouraged a unified vision of America AND a middle class People had more leisure time and was becoming more affordable They had superheroes of Baseball 4 The lost generation creates a new definition as to what is means to be modern A representation of the internal self of young people that felt that all their illusions had been stripped away They poked fun at middle class values and behavior Disillusioned generation to find all gods dead all 5 Prohibition amendment constricting alcohol What seemed llike a good idea at the time turned out to be one of the biggest nightmares of all time You can t keep people from drinking They did this because they viewed drunkeness as an interference with manly volition Manly Volition Wise decisions made responsibly was in direct contradiction with drinking or inebriation Prohibition ignited a spree of organized crime This is where the mafia became a huge underground economy which collected no taxes We were losing money and paying money to keep crime in check Speak easies Looked like icecream shop but was reall a bar The reported income was 100 billion dollars a year Government realizes we need the tax on alcohol 6 Black migration In 19101920 s 300000 1 million African Americans moved from the south to the north At the same time many blacks moved north of Manhattan to Harlem It was spacious and highly diverse intellectual and the poor southerners New Negro started to say black is beautiful explore and document and WWI had raised their expectations They wanted to be included in what America was going through 0 I am a negro and beautiful Wanted to investigate black culture They also felt modern Painters adopted African and biblical myths to express their culture Whites became curious of the new negro Film makers were attracted to Harlem O O O ALL THIS IS GOING ON WHAT ABOUT THE HARD WORKING AMERICANS THEY ARE SHOCKED THEY WANTED EVERYONE TO GO BACK TO A SMALL TOWN LIFE THEY WANTED LESS GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE AND WHILE SOME OF THESE CONCERNS ARE VALID THE RISKS SOME TOOK TO MAKE THE CHANGES ARE HORRIFIC The KKK Hate blacks catholics and jews promote motherhood old fashioned morality It became a contest between rural and urban We have an old culture interested in production and hard work to a new culture that wants fun and new things The old looked at character The new looked at are you fun The old looked at religion for answers New looked at science for answers The old looks to the future and is frightened The new wants to go to the show and buy a lot of shit President Coolidge Very popular when he was elected young didn t vote He wanted the old way of life He pledges to maintain the status quo He went along with the immigration act which most agree is the ugliest form of legislation ever Andrew Melon wealthy banker made tax cuts for the rich Coolidge unknowingly contributed to the economic disaster at the end of the decade Keep cool with Coolidge g DAY OF LECTURE Unregulated Business leads to prosperity Idea of America In 1920s the multiple businesses that spun off of larger business ford produced more spending The creation of all these new means of financing also helped the consuming This created an identifiable middle class in the united states who saw themselves reflected in the department stores The middle class for the first time has a sense of economic and domestic safe home non tenements security and confidence in the future as well Mothers if you want to save your family from illness and death you need to keep the cleanest bathroom possible Here is how Housewives took on new job within the home with all of these new tools cleaner toilets and other household products By 1929 it all fell apart The worst economic period was born 4 years after period of complete prosperity the depression came out of nowhere It was actually the social and economic collapse of America Why o I ve been conservative all my life but any economic system that has the power to push my family and I to the streets at our age is enough for me to only see red Everyone felt cheated Herbert Hoover wanted to continue the business program of Calvin Coolidge Hoover s opponent was Al Smith catholic which was seen as a being a puppet of the pope in Rome Hoover benefitted from his opponent being Catholic Religion matters in the main office When he was inaugurated He are nearer to the final triumph of poverty than ever before the history of our land The poor house is vanishing among us This is how very prosperous and naive America was on the eve of their collapse 8 months later the economics fell America had become the world s leading economy but our practices did not become more sophisticated If we made 10000 this year then we won the lottery but didn t want an accountant o Why were we the biggest economy 0 1 At the end of WWI The US provided no economic assistance to the European country AND demanded them to repay war loans 2 The US had a lot of Tariffs tax on incoming goods 3 While america was producing goods we had no overseas markets to sell these goods The American market was starting to get saturated BY 1925 everyone had a car No one could buy The market was saturated We tried to get foreign sales going by encouraging loans We counted for 40 of World production and had the most gold for what we were exporting O O O O STILL our domestic situation was very shaky Farmers were taking a beating this whole time LISTEN TO AUDIO Auto sales were cutting back on production which meant laying off more workers 19211928 5000 banks failed in this decade of prosperity still things were going so well in many ways that people were ignoring the warning signs The balance of wealth by the end of the decade made problems Personal indebtedness personal debt was at an all time high The only thing that kept people spending was the availability of consumer loans The stock market crash was NOT the cause of the great depression o Wallstreet continued forward get right quick of buying stocks on margin finance or buying something on credit o By 1929 the SEC called by hoover was urged to tighten requirements Reps from banks and investment firm and Coolidge went to hoover and said everything is fine chill out Hoover then told the country everything is fine and went on to sell his personal stock 0 The market paused for a minute some investors began to sell for fear of paying off the stock on margin 0 By October of 1929 people started to panic and loose confidence in the stock market On black Tuesday everyone was trying to sell all of their stock JP Morgan put much money in the stocks in hopes that it would bolster the market but one day later the market suffered the worst fall in history Americans lost 10 of their personal wealth and they feared risking what was left KIND OF LIKE NOW In essence then revert to spiral our society is empty of air 0 Hoover asks for a voluntary plan from business leaders to restore the economy He believed in rugged individualism To succeed is up to you to fail is your fault Success depended on the quality of the individual alone By 1932 Unemployment was 25 1 in 4 Americans could not find anyjob whatsoever 12 MILLION PEOPLE today it is 8 Hoover gave some relief to factory owners thinking that that might help some of them start back up By 1930 everyone realized that the prosperity of the 205 was gone They would see wheat going rotten in the fields the same time kids were going to bed hungry o The government did not know what to do Businessmen and consumers alike needed help o After Hoover left office 19291933 9000 banks closed o In 1929 our national income was 88 Billion o In 1933 out national income was 40 Billion o People were dying of hunger in the city rural poverty was worse The south especially was in very poor health o The US had the most limited welfare in the world In NYC greatest number of welfare cases had 239 Women lost teaching jobs divorce went down too expensive family violence alcoholism crime and desertion were increased Hoover dresses in his tuxedos every night and waves to people standing on the outside o The problem anymore was not an isolated area of immigrants it affects EVERYONE o On June 315 a guy driving a hummer was a victim of having rocks thrown at his windshield by a group of guys They guy gets out and asks why and they said rich guys deserve to be strung The guy says well who are you They reply We re the fellas that will be doin the stringin Equilibrium Confidence Optimism and Hope Do you wait 510 years for the economy to correct itself If you do that will the citizens hang out for that amount of time Politically that is where the issue is WWII 1943 FDR is reelected Moussillini thug bully jerk MOB rule Here we have in italy a group of people that are ruled by the mob Mousellini had no ideology to his government he used violence to enforce certain rules and laws DDAY Saving Private Ryan It was a monumental effort on the part of the allies to begin the invasion of Europe to retake Europe from the Nazis Occurred in June 1944 by that time Germany only had 300 planes left in its air force and suffering attacks on both fronts The military officer in charge was Dwight D Eisenhower Ike He was known as the supreme commander of the allied forces in charge of English free French and Americans This attack had been in planning for two years you have to calculate a moving field They plan to land in Normandy France In the first 1520 minutes all of these pontoons land on the beach The front opens they have to run out while everyone is getting machined down All kinds of people lose their lives trying to get out of the boat It is a frightening long battle It takes a week to push back Normandy Even though the germans were weak at this point the fighting was still intense The only reason we won is because we had guts valor and extreme bravery We ventured into Germany and both sides collapsed Germans financed the war through the baggage of the Jews They also used that money to transport the Jews to their own death If they took the Jew to Athens the long train ride would have had to have been financed So they made their death site close and kept the money As we end the war there are not a lot of people left in their homes with jewelry Germans can t steal to finance the war Republican saw the UN as a more reasonable way of dealing with issues It was our fear that we would become an isolationist country again Germany surrendered one week after Hitler shot himself It is important to note that Germany s Bonhoffer was a prime minister who could not leave his flock during war if he wanted to lead his flock during peace He stood up to the government planned to have him killed and was hung slightly before the allies entered Normandy JAPAN In early 1943 Americans finally stopped Japan from conquering islands so we went offensive We tried to take back territory Easy The 1St island they took back was Guadal Canal 0 It took 6 months of battle until they got the canal back The invasion of the Japanese in the phillipenes almost finished their regime which is why we were able to capture Iwa Jima The Japanese are about to lose they are about to run out of ammo weapons everything So their pilots left without bombs and crashed their plans into our military They died by the thousands They hoped these attacks would be sufficient but Americans knew that they were on their last leg so Americans kept fighting We invaded Japan Japan s air fleet is basically gone So by June 1945 the Japanese were essentially defenseless 0 We dropped our ABomb which we acquired the knowledge from the Germans We had at our disposal a number of German rocket scientists who left their own country Germany surrendered before we could use the bomb so we didn t know whether we should drop in on Japan or not Japanese government was already negotiating for a peace treaty Truman the ordinary guy doesn t know that the Manhattan project is going on He also finds out that everyone wants to use the bomb Truman was still negotiating with the soviets and he was worried that they would attack the Japanese and then occupy the Japanese lands 3 reason whys Truman decided to drop the bomb on Japan 0 1 He was convinced it would save more American lives than use a military defensive There was a population of more than 50 million that the Americans believed would still fight to the death This was a popular theory 0 2 They wanted to test the bomb on people and see its effects 0 3 Truman dropped the bomb as a warning to the soviet union There was an immediate death of 78000 people Many more died afterward Radiation is still affects the Japanese In St Petersburg one million Russians were killed 0 o 3 days after Hiroshima the Japanese were negotiating franticly because they were beat but also couldn t accept a government without an emperor 4 days later we dropped another bomb on Nagasaki o 35 million people were dead at the end of the war It was split evenly between civilians and soldiers The American military suffered 400000 deaths The USSR lost 20 million civilian and militia Out of all this people were thinking war is not the answer The Best Years of Our Lives small town men leave to go to WWII It starts when they come back but they are not the same Charles Lindhburg First to fly solo across the Atlantic He thought Hitler was a great guy Committing atrocities is not a thing confined to any nation or people it is not the Germans or Japanese but the men of these nations who have bought shame and degradation END OF WORLD WAR II Okubo READ After our victory the cold war commenced in which everyone enlisted The threat of death was high 55 million African Americans moved into industrial cities in order to take advantage ofjob opportunities We had 18 major unions machinists ship builders Japanese Americans were not permitted to live in other areas besides the ghetto AA unemployment drops 80 during the war By the end of the war the average black income had risen to half the white American income The integration of blacks into labor did not go unnoticed There were riots and more Jim Crow activity o AAs wanted to go defend their country as the whites did but they were not allowed to fight in mixed races The red cross kept segregated blood supplies on the battlefield NAZI prisoners were free to eat where black Americans were not Gays were restricted from the military for the first time Government asked psychologists who would be the best to fight in the war they responded well gays are cowards because they re sissies So they started to screen out homosexuals o This was done to avoid cowardice but how can you identify homosexuals during enlistment MAD Mutually Assured Destruction The government began to give money to uiversities for research us and oakridge The number of women in college fell In 1950 women received only 25 of degrees largely because their roles were known as WIFE and MOTHER Red Baiting Red meant communist It was an attempt to discredit individuals by claiming they have communist ties There was a lot of official retaliations and at the end of WWII there was a other red scare The word McCarthyism is also synonymous with redbaiting Over 2000 employers lost their jobs and other thousands resigned because of these accusing communist laws Roy Cohn was an active homosexual also McCarthy s lawyer McCarthy claims that he knows general marshall is one of the known communists If these accused confessed they are guilty If the accused are silent they count that as confession and lost their jobs as well as public ostricism People became afraid to get together and talk about political views PLUS this violated freedom of speech o How were they caught up in communism when these bombs were the heavy threat RELIGION o The idea that floated around at this time was the idea that communists were godless which meant that they cannot be trusted 1960 s Why did these people have this effect at this time How did we get from traditional family life 50 s to the riots and uprisings of peace and racial issues of the 60 s cost guard shooting college students o John F Kennedy is young 40 when he was elected He represents to young people their voice in the future JFK literally took the breath away from high school and college students at that time There was a wave of patriotism in the country at this time At the end of the decade people are out on the streets saying the whole world is watching while cops are beating and shooting them The president after JFK essentially resigned all the work he was trying to do domestically was put on hold The US was putting all of its money in the war while ignoring its citizens How The optimism of the early 60 s are crushed everyday another bad thing was happening People were either locked in fear or waiting for the revolution that had to happen at any moment Traditional Politics Dwight Eisenhower said that politicians are so influenced by the militia that our budget and the idea of America has narrowed to become a war machine Kennedy represents the past and embraces Americans by challenging them to serve a country Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country Since Roosevelt no president has asked Americans to step up There was a standoff between the soviets and us We almost had a nuclear war at that point Normal war is one thing but having nuclear bombs around the world waiting to be set off war is hesitant o November 1963 JFK is assassinated Optimism and idealism is abruptly severed There is shock throughout the country Everyone was sobbing Even people who didn t like Kennedy were upset o His VP Lindon Johnson succeeds him He was a poor guy from the poorest part of texas He worked his way up who eventually ruled the congress He was a legislater without equal Cultural Experimentation with everything among young people There is a C Change in music and sexual behavior The birth control pill is introduced and contraception is counted legal by the supreme court not till 1964 LBJ The Great Society Linden Bains Johnson Took office when Kenney was assassinated He was a selfmade man and started out poor but rose in congress o Ran for election in 64 reelected by 61 of the vote due to people being in shock and Johnson was a figure who had a lot of credibility in congress o Introduces Head Start which gave disadvantaged children a head start in school Vista like a peace corp and the 3 civil rights acts that ban discrimination in public places education and employment o In 1966 Johnson adds additional aid to education one million to 4 billion Also begins medicare program Medicaid for the poor If you were old with no pension you were out of luck you could get no healthcare In 1965 Johnson passed the voting rights act 0 Should we defeat every enemy or should we double our wealth and conquer the stars but if we would do all that without achieving racial equality we will have failed as a people and a nation 1968 housing discrimination is banned RESULT More white people than black people got out of poverty but 20 of the poorest Americans did not change they remained the poorest Appalachian development also aided our area In 1964 whites though blacks were pushing too hard toO fast In 1966 85 of whites thought blacks were pushing too fast The civil rights movement had the moral high ground that no one could dispute Johnson saw the work done for blacks so wanted to treat farmers with the same motivation for respect The Antiwar group began to raise their voices and expressed a cultural nationalism in which they challenged the dominating institutions and challenged the idea of America Is this the America you want The biggest blow to johnson s attempts for reform was not massive resistance but the Vietnam war for cost and created such animosity toward the federal government on behalf of so many people that Johnson lost complete support for himself in the role of president The war cost 2 billion a month In 1966 we were spending 2 billion in Vietnam The federal deficit went sky high and we entered into inflation The war becomes essentially about American prestige By 1965 we increased personel to more than 3 million We lost and left in total humiliation We have the massive cost from the cold war and our reputation is beaten the Americanization ROBERT S MACHNEMARA was the chairman of Ford was secretary of defense for Johnson In 1967 Machnemara concluded Americans can never under any circumstances win the war of Vietnam He left the government in 1968 he never spoke out against the war or revealed the government s data until 30 years later Knowingly sent countless Americans to fight in the war when he knew we could never win In 1971 as a result you could be drafted with a gun in your hand an amendment was passed that 18 year olds could vote so it could justify being drafted In WWII fighting was distributed among all classes and ages of Americans In Vietnam for every John Kerry privileged there were hundreds and hundreds of other poor men and men of color who signed up because they had nothing else economically or they didn t know how to get out of the draft The most privileged young men found it easy to avoid the draft who used the deferment of college and marriage If you look at the stats it is quite clear that privileged white men were not signing up for the war and when called they got a deferment In 1967 there was a new draft policy that ended the deferments which made 1718 year old men more interested in the war Churches had huge center opened who had classes for men who didn t think they could handle combat The main stream media was also against the war The new york times started criticizing the purpose of the war Walter Cronchite was against the war The most influential media outlets were against the war Draft cards were burned in public which is a crime It was a matter of pride to be arrested for that Many people during this time became radicalized The governemt was losing credibility The concensus of the 1950 s dreamland is now broken Our idea of America is shattered A huge amount of civil disobedience The goal becomes We need to get out of here and get out of Vietnam Johnson wants to stop the war but he doesn t know how to do it HEY HEY LBJ HOW MANY KIDS HAVE YOU KILLED TODAY So Johnson complies 7000 on curious citizens Without the president s authorization the FBI couldn t infiltrate the peace crop LBJ went on TV to talk about the failing war and lying government He said he would reduce the bombs being dropped and arrange peace talks THEN he said I will not seek a second term Animosity towards LBJ was incredibly intense He didn t know how he could lead America anymore so he chose to resign SCHOOL STOPPED In august of 1968 the democratic convention took place Everyone went to the park for organized politics but most went to protest Vietnam display hatred of establishment and basically create chaos There was a street battle for 3 days in Chicago and they concluded there had been a police riot That convention went on international television The mayor was seen giving shoot to kill orders and basically becoming hysterical In 1970 Nixon republican candidate says that we had been in a secret war for a year 0 American bombing on Cambodia supported more attention on the chamar rouge Huge civil war broke out millions of deaths and savage government came into play In 1971 one year after the Cambodia incident the veterans joined the antiwar movement The senate is furious he overlooked their job to vote on war and college students went ballistic At kent state students burned down the ROTC building In May the national guard was called in to restore order in which they killed 4 and wounded 10 Later that same month the NG shot and killed 2 African American students Led the American people to lose faith in their government QuickTImeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture 0 o Civil Rights Movement MLK stepped up to African Americans and calls to personal sacrifice Encourages them to stand up for yourselves Ultimately you stand up for your lifequot o 1St phase of the CRM Not just about the rights of black people but addressing the institutional barriers that left certain classes in poverty o Muhammad All well known boxer also fought for civil rights o MLK stepped on the scene when the average black income was half of the white income Civil Rights Movement shock the government which made it easy for the soviets to call us hypocritical Eisenhower then got the federal government involved in desegregation Had not the soviet union waved out hypocrisy in our face that the federal government might not have gotten involved Why did they have to get involved Because the leaders of the south wanted segregation for now and always 0 A white population is completely crazed at the notion that blacks are taking over their place in the world MLK led a black call forjustice and Ghandi led others to change by love and respect The marches begin ugly in the south and a church is burned the church condeleeza rice attended 0 O O O O 0 Again church bombings shocks the nation Ugliness gets uglier Not just in the south in Chicago the Klan tried to kill MLK In 1963 Medger Evers is killed shot to death is front of his wife Malcolm X watches his father be dragged out of his home by the lynching squad and drag the body to the train tracks In 1964 MLK demands that the united states take the resources and abolish unfair treatment in job opportunities Also calls fro a freedom budget ofjob creation and urban development King realized it was difficult to do this without being radical I have a dream remains famous because no one can argue with it As kinf became more radicalized so did other African americans that were tired of waiting for justice From 1966 on the second CRM comes on called black power Malcolm X says I m not living the American dream I m living the American nightmare At this they lost white support DOES THIS SOUND LIKE AMERICA The second phase of CRM black power is less coherent There was not the same level of cross national appeal Malcolm X insisted on equal power not desegregation He WANTED segregation nothing to do with white people MALCOLM X spokes person for the nation of islam which was founded in the depression era in Detroit The nation of islam aspired to create an influential black class Criticized white as being responsible for the world s evil Malcolm X left islam in 64 and the group began to fracture He came back from his HAJ a changed man and did not want to be in battle anymore He met with activists but lost his vigor to challenge the government and white population Because he was a Muslim and went to Mecca X encouraged America to School desegregation issues o Rosa Parks story some people think it was a publicity stunt She had been a seamstress during the day and was working for NAACP at night o Jim Crow colored water fountains colored sections of hotels o In this we have Dr King an ordained minister who becomes central concerning racial freedom issues Antifeminism IDEA OF AMERICA o If women have more rights where did they get them from o What was is about 0 Giving women the opportunity to become fully human as men Not that women could not be homemakers anymore but they could have freedom Second wave feminism was about having all women stay at home if that is what they wanted or have a job It has also permitted men to show more emotion to their families to share in the huge responsibilities of providing for a family and have the freedom to be partners There was an increase in divorce after second wave feminism which may not be a bad thing Why stay in something when you are not happy POWELL DOCTRINE Got indoctrinated during the first gulf war It says that there must be a clear exit strategy and a clear goal Military use should be a last resort not a first resort there should be extreme support by the americans The force must be overwhelming O O Hippies replaced alcohol and tranquilizers of the 1950 s with pot Central to this cultural message is all too understandable music was critical to all of this The music conveys peace love and revolution 1968 THE SUMMER OF LOVE These participated in questioning the government s authority 2242009 952 00 AM


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