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by: Sigrid Braun

HistoryChina HIST 390

Sigrid Braun
GPA 3.91

Mark Pitner

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Mark Pitner
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sigrid Braun on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 390 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Mark Pitner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/229818/hist-390-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
History 390 Midterm Study Guide 1 Tian Ming mandate of heaven the mandate given by the Gods to the ruling family or group that allows them to rule The mandate can change though this feature allows for the passing of power from one dynasty to another Ming Qing 2 Nurhaci Manchu leader who united the Manchurian tribes to take on the Ming dynasty He published his reasons for ghting as his Seven Grievances Sometimes considered to be the first emperor of the Qing dynasty but he was dead before they got really started 3 banner system a civilmilitary system that had its units organized on ethnic and hereditary lines ultimately became unsuccessful 4 Huang ZongXi Gu Yanwu Wang F uzhi all three were Ming officials who wanted to understand how and why the dynasty had fallen to outsiders Wang Fuzhi for example came to the conclusion that the Confucianism of the Ming dynasty was wrong and that they all needed to return to the ancestral previous concept of Confucianism 5 Qianlong 41h emperor of the Qing dynasty was a patron of the arts colophons the Four treasuries and was in power during Macartney s visit near the end of his reign the officials became corrupt Heshen 6 Multilateral Imperialism 7 Tradecolonialismmilitarism 8 Tea and opium 9 Lord George Macartney leader of a British envoy that was sent to china in the hopes of rebalancing trade with china by making them interested in British manufactured goods and he also hoped to get a permanent ambassador in the Beijing both ideas were struck down 910 Journal Entries of Lord Macartney during his journey to China 7 11 The Opium Wars war beginning in 1839 that was fought over the ability to import opium into china Spark was Lin Zexu s destruction of containers of british opium Chinese military was easily defeated and they were left with the unequal treaty of Nanjing 1842 and a large indemnity lack of technology and skill 12 Lin Zexu Qing official was in charge of antiopium efforts Was eventually exiled for his failures Zexu tried to make overtures not only to the European s in china but also the British monarchy in A Letter from Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria 9 l3 Edict from Imperial Commissioner Li Zexu to the Foreigners 7 his edict to foreign merchants to seem merciful but actually seeking to destroy opium 14 A Letter from Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria Zexu s effort to communicate with the Queen directly about opium Never actually read by Queen 15 British East India Company company with the monopoly on all british trade from east asia 16 SelfStrengthening Feng Guifen Zeng Guofan Li Hongzhang reform stemming from the need to change after constant rebellions initially just military reforms but grew to incorporate western thought in education industry and diplomacy Zeng Guofan military Feng Guifen and Li Hongzhang western methods in a Chinese context in social institutions 17 Taiping Rebellion massive rebellion lead by Hon Xiuquan who thought he was the younger brother of Jesus that lasted 30 years and cost millions of lives 9 18 Hong Xiuquan 7 Hakka large Han group based sect on his vision visionary 19 Boxer Rebellion Antiforeign movement with a spiritual component that sought to remove all foreigners was backed by Cixi but failed Ended with the Boxer Protocols which eventually crippled the Qing economy 20 Social Darwinism ethnocentric belief that the Chinese in this case lost to the Europeans because they were racially inferior and that their demise was the course of evolution Founded by Herbert Spencer 21 Kang Youwei A reformer who wanted to cause modernization and reform in a Confucian framework 22 Liang Qichao 7 student of Kang reformer who wanted to cause modernization and reform in a Confucian framework 23 24 Unequal Treaties 7 1870 Japan 9 China Japan greater because of modernization civilization means of advancing Japanese imperialism into Taiwan as well 25 SinoJapanese War 7 China steamship sank by Japan after both rush to Korea after insurrection breaks out War declared China concedes Southern lands and allow Japan to open factories in China Acquiring Liaodong kept China in foreign debt and made reform difficult 26 Examination system Tongsheng shengyuan juren 7 Shengyuan pass test to enter county or prefecture school 1730 Juren pass provincial exams 2030 Jinshi pass capital and palace exams 3040 27 Lan Dingyuan on Female Education 7 work on female education does not openly go against Confucian teachings but acknowledges the need for female education if only to better serve her men 28 Wedding Bliss by Shen Fu 7 social and cultural work about the details of his arranged marriage to his cousin and how it is not always loveless and cold Tells about upper class men having multiple wivesmistresses 29 Qiu J in Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen 7 famous poet and revolutionary s work about westemization and democratic gov t executed for her social protest writing Women s liberation symbol 30 Sun Yatsen founder of the nationalist party was kicked out of china for several years following the rise of Yuan Shikai 31 Three People s Principles principles of quot quot party 1 quot quot D m J and Livelihood 32 Yuan Shikai Qing general who brokered an agreement between the revolutionaries and the dynasty and was able to get the emperor to abdicate He forced himself to be president and was corrupt and unlike by the elite In 1812 he instituted Confucianism as the state religion and in 1816 he tried to declare himself emperor luckily he died soon after 33 Zhonghua diguo 34 New Culture Movement movement that as opposed to the May Fourth Movement was orientated around thought and proposed social and cultural change 35 Chen DuXiu intellectual and founder of New Youth Was the dean of Beijing University and was also afounding member of the CCP 36 New Youth 7 Chen DuXiu s periodical founded in 1915 Challenged longstanding Confucian value of deference toward elders Youth worth celebrating 37 Hu Shi reformer who wanted to use vernacular 38 Lu Xun writer and reformer like Hu Shi supported the vernacular His most famous work was the Diary of a Madman which was a criticism of classical Chinese mode of Confucian thought and traditions put in the allegory of cannibalism 939 Diary of a Madman 40 May 43911 Movement student lead movement that demonstrated antiJapanese sentiments was sparked by the rumor that the Japanese would receive German lands in China from the Treaty of Versailles 41 Twentyone demands Japanese demands made to China over land money trade etc Yuan Shikai was forced into signing it thus marking Chinese National Humiliation Day 42 Travel Impressions from Europe 7 Liang Qichao clansmen over citizens problems of China 43 Yuan Mei painter scholar who preached many ideas not taught in traditional Confucianism such as the teaching of women and his book The Thing the Master Did Not Speak Of 44 Wangpoa Academy 7 Nationalist Party of China Army Of cer Academy train of cers for revolutionary army Founded by Sun Yatsen and carried on by successor assistance of Soviet Union and CCP 45 Nationalist Guomindang party founded by Sun Yatsen in 1912 and ruled China from 19261949 then they were forced by the CCP to Taiwan where they are in power today 46 Chiang Kaishek successor of Sun Yatsen was a military man who led the party during its rule in China known for his actions in the Northern Expedition which resulted in the uni cation of most of mainland China from the hands of the warlords 47 Comintem abbreviation for Communist International founded in Russia 48 United Front joining of the Nationalists and the CCP in the Northern expedition that lead to the eradication of the warlords most actually joined up with Chiang The front was ended after an incident in Shanghai where the nationalists opened re on striking workers 49 Northern Expedition 7 Sun Yatsen s plan to reunify the country through a Nationalist gov t attack The advanced guard was backed by communists and the left wing of the Nationalists with Russian advising 50 Li Dazhao head librarian at Beijing University cofounded the Communist party and was a huge in uence on Mao 51 Chinese Communist party founded in 1921 by a small group of intellectuals followed orders given to them by the Comintem from Soviet Russia 52 Mao Zedong CCP leader who guided the party through the war with Japan and the founder of Maoisim Believed in the power of not only the peasant agriculturalist as the proletariat not MARXIST IDEA but also the importance of violence political power is obtained from the barrel of the gun 9 basic political premise and ideal 53 Jiangxi Soviet CCPcontrolled area founded in 1931 by Mao but they were forced to leave by the GMD in what was known as the Long March which was a 6ooo migration that reduced the CCP s numbers to 10 of what they left with and moved them from Jiangxi to Shaanxi 56 Yan an the area in which the Long March ended defensively protected by the mountain ranges 57 Urban vs rural 7 urban GMD and rural CCP


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