DevelopmentWest Civilization HIST 241
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1116 Histo 241 The quot of an Ordered Societv llm E Centuries I The Breakdown of the Carolingian Empire and the New Invaders II The Search for Stability a The Manor b The feudal system c Local control of the Church III Recovery expansion and social change IV Centralization in Kingdoms England France and the Empire V The Reform of the Church VI The Clash of Church and State The Investiture Con ict I Charlemagne s Son Louis the Pious he had 3 sons Partible inheritance property had to be divided equally among all surviving sons This can pose a problem because one mighty kingdom becomes 3 or 4 average kingdoms Ambition envy and greed will come in to play pg 200 in Chambers tXt book Louis the Pious divided Carolingian Empire into 3 pieces torn apart by civil war between these 3 sons All wanted power and access to Italian Peninsula Treaty of Verden 843 CE 850 1000 CE Western Europe suffers civil war and new invaders taking advantage of Frankish weakness Three New Invader Groups 1 Muslims sailors from the South Sea power of Mediterranean a 827 Invade Sicily b 838878 Raids a long southern Italian Peninsula threatening Rome itself 2 Magyars from the East modern day China a Outstanding horsemen battle tactics unfamiliar in the West b Uses compound bows on horseback c Would turn and run away on horses if being defeated 3 Vikings most feared Germanic Peoples Came from Denmaer Sweden Norway a Vik to go on a raid How they got their name b Masters ofthe sea c Annual habit of attacking Western Europe d Viking Ships 39 Technologically marvelous craft Clinker Built Model Planks overlap strong yet exible in open water sailing ii39 Carried 50100 soldiers max iv When land was reached w water on other side used trees as rollers to roll boats across land e Grabbed territory in British Isles Northern coast of France Normandy i39 11 Search for Stability l The Manor an estate protected by a Warrior where slaves could labor Similar to Coloni a Serfs weren t considered slaves Normative status of these agricultural workers About 90 of the population 39 Tied to the land Were not slaves but could not leave Lives devoted to farm work and production of goods ca1penters blacksmiths butchers etc In unstable dangerous times trade decline dramatically Who wants to travel with goods when everyone is trying to raid you iv Manorial system is Quid Pro Quo Something for Something v Churches built on Manors 2 The feudal system Unconventional power in Government Each brother trying to recruit best Frankish soldiers offer land money etc Variation on Patron client relationship Lord Vassal relationship 39 Bound warriors together ii Land was temporary If soldier was disobedient or didn t show for i39 ii39 9quot O lquot battle iii Lord received military aid advice from vassals and loyalty of soldiers iv Tquot quot quot this 39 quot 39 391 was an A to the Lord 1 In practice these informal emergency relationships became terribly confusing and complex 2 Within 2 generations Vassals would do everything they could to keep their f1ef Land and pass it on to their children v Multiple Vassalage Warrior might pledge his loyalty to 2 or 3 Lords Obtaining 3 fiefs vi Subinfeudation some vassals thought it would be neat to have someone they could call up and call them Lord Vassal pledges 44 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST be at the disposal of the bishop Any who keep them back are cut off from the communion of holy church 6 That no cleric or priest shall receive a church from laymen in any fashion whether freely or at a price 7 That no one shall receive the habit o promise of becoming an abbot 8 Nor shall any priest hold two churches at the same time 9 That no one shall be ordained or promoted to any ecclesiastical of ce by simoniacal heresy f a monk in the hope or with the The Norman Alliance 24 Oath of Robert Guiscard to Pope Nicholas II Au 1059 ed P Fabre and L Ducliesne Le Libcf Censuu de l39 gli39se romaine Paris 1910 p 422 u 1 Robert by the grace of God and St P er duke of Apulia and Calabria and with the help of both future du e of Sicily will from this hour forward be faithful to the holy Roman urch and the apostolic see and to you my lord Pope Nicholas 1 wi not give any counsel or commit any act whereby you would lose 1 or limb or fall into vile captivity I will not knowingly disclose so 3 to injure you any informa tion that you impart to me and 0 bid to disclose So far as lies within my power I will support the ho R0 an church in holding and acquir ing the temporalities and pos sio of St Peter everywhere and against all men and I will help yo a old the Roman papacy securely and honorably I will not invade to acquire or presume to dispoil the lands and principality o 5 9 w nless you or your successors who have entered upon the n t Peter give explicit permission and that in addition to the t i 393 ich you are now conceding to me and which e I will faithfully ensure that the holy Roman your successors will co church shall have 6 ar such payment as has been laid down from the lands of St P er which I hold or shall hold Also I will put all churches in my rdship and their possessions under your power and I will defend th u as one faithful to the Roman church and I will not swear fealty 0 anyone without reserving the fealty owed to the Roman cover if you or your successors shall depart this life before me I wi assist in the election and consecration of a pope to the honor of St Pter according to the advice 0f the leading cardinals and of the clergy and people All these things 1 will observe with due delity to e Roman church and to you and I will observe this delity to your s cessors consecrated to the honor of St Peter who con rm to me the nvestitui e you have conceded So help me God 2 The Program of Gregory VII Hildebrand was the youngest of the ref 39 39 ghpngfh p ifhl iiad girthered together at Rome By the eggmdgghgarghxii fis original gm aplrd h 8106173 he was almost the only survivorpof the can A me his oiiiiiiiii fiu iiiimmmm 53quot i hquot Rmquot 1 arose amon phagiitgrpligzly g ngipded that Hildebrand become theirggggefggleacgig The cardinals wereoufntti dragged him to the place of apostolic rule quot du1y Elected t k 0 e same mind as the people and Hildebrand w rst quot ec mca irre 39 5105iEggsi zei grtlgeirlpreference before the meetinggltiiatrliizyctatistinlzil Pmition or is enemies to question the legitimacy of his Gregory39s reign was lled with con ict abo 39 ve all With 39 p ntireglmgfny yvl pnhgd grown to manhood and begun to afsxiihgiereenrgnIa l immEdiate cause gf 01 in the years Just before the pope39s election The decree a aim o t eclash was Gregory s reenactment of the earli in Practgce Buiydilnvestiture and his determination to enforce the deerr nm Obscur h f edapparently technical nature of the dispute should3 could nor iwe unh amentaI importance of the issues involved Hen in hope 0 wadp t e right of appomting bishops without abandonii39ly at ac hie 39 wilrlig permany into a united monarchy Grego c ulg he p0q es t 111 tI e imperial claims which included a claim total Jl tire refpmn mo se ves Without JeOpardizing the continuance of tlig ellt Gus zeal f0 thvernent for IIenry showed none of his father s s nta his biSho rf e task of revmiying the church When Henry rigged tum a p21 2r support in resisting the pope s decree and Gre o to from hppk e to the German princes to assist him in de osin g1 m is ingship it became clear that the whole lead h p g el39uy soap gas at stake in the dispute en 1p 0f Chmuan locuments printed below illustrate how the h gri lZW i program including his speci cally polit imltlatiigs iilf gie 0 5 two years of his ponti cate before the open breach will 45 P 3913 496 a 46 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST Henry IV There is no question here of an extreme policy developing only under the pressure of uncontrollable events In 1074 Gregory held a council at Rome which promulgated afresh the usual reforming de crees against simony and clerical marriage This legislation is described in the pope39s letter to Bishop Otto of Constance No 25 In February of 1075 came the crucial decree prohibiting lay investiture In March of 1075 there was inserted in the pope s of cial Register the peculiar docu ment knOWn as the Dictatus Papas No 26 which contained the rst explicit claim that a pope could depose an emperor The unusual form of the document has been much discussed and the most convincing ex planation of it is that the Dictatus presents chapter headings for a proposed collection of canons which would have supported each proposi tion with a selection of relevant authorities In any case there seems to be no doubt that the Dictatus presents the considered opinions of Greg ory VII at the outset of his reign Document No 27 illustrates the pope39s determination to preserve every shred of temporal power over secular kings that the Roman see had obtained through feudal transactions in preceding generations This program of Gregory VII has provoked a variety of conflicting judgments from historians Some condemn the pope as a worldlyminded prelate obsessed by a sel sh ambition to dominate Europe Others praise him as a sel ess servant of the church whose whole life was dedicated to the ideals of religious liberty and ecclesiastical reform This dispute goes back to the days of Gregory himself for he was accused of undue ambi tion by his own contemporaries Peter Damian once called him My holy Satanquot and Satan39s sin was the sin of pride The pope himself was deeply sensitive to this accusation time and again he found it neces sary to deny that he sought worldly power for its own sake in the very act of deposing King Henry IV he declared addressing St Peter Rather would I have chosen to end my life as a pilgrim than to seize upon thy place for earthly gloryquot Both views of the pope s character may con tain an element of truth Gregory at any rate was not a dispassionate in tellectual or much given to selfanalysis but rather a man of action lled with tumultuous energy prone to make impetuous decisions It is not dif cult to see such a man driven by an ineluctable will to power and at the same time utterly convinced in his own heart that all his energies are being poured out in the service of a cause greater than himself A related controversy has grown up concerning the central Objectives of Gregory39s program Augustin Fliche emphasizes the pope s concern with moral reform and sees the con ict with Henry IV arising out of the young king39s obdurate resistance to the reform program in Germany Even in the matter of lay investiture Fliche suggests quotwith a prince other than Henry IV things could have been arrangedquot In a quite dif ferent spirit Walter Ul mann maintains that the whole point of Gregory39s THE PROGRAM or GREGORY VII 47 program was to translate abstract theocratic rinci les int emmental actions1 Here the two positions sgem rdirtuallyoeizllgftl agam both express important truths Gregory VII was dee 1 re occupied with moral reform and sometimes seems to have set lhyis liab yiectlve above all others For example he strove to enforce rigorously the grates on Iclerical celibacy which were especially unpopular among breacplwv df leggy of Germany tn the months immediately before his indicat d h inry IV when elementary political prudence would have the G e t at e was likely to need every possible sourCe of support in erman church No 25 But 139 is misleading to suggest that Gregory was stm ply a peacelovmg pontiff reluctantly driven into a conflict be cause Henry IV resisted his refortn policy The prohibition of la in vestiture was of the essence of Gregory39s program and it was a demand thathno king of that time could have accepted No king did accept it d 15 raises a further question that has also been a matter of much 1ppufe Was Gregory essentially a conservative or a revolutionary in the Si zpzzpswge panties Both Fliche and Ullmann would argue in their ys a e was reall a traditionalist 39 39 papal pobcy that dated back to he early centuriescgfnlhzu llisirzhllgicclf Caspar on thequot other hand called Gregory quotthe great innovator who stood all alone and Norman Cantor has recently described the eleventh cgntury reform movement as one of the four great quotworldrevolutions o Western lustory Here again it seems possible to take a middle posi tion Gregory certainly thought that he was being a traditionalist All the reformers can be called conservatives in that they consciously aimed at revrvmg ancient laws of the church which had fallen out of use in shelchaos of preceding centuries For that reason they devoted a great dea of tune and energy to searching through old records in order to pro funchepmpilattons of canons that would provide authoritative support ordt FIT own programs Ina sense the policies they pursued really were tra iuonal ones It is certainly true that canonical election and clerical celibacy belonged to the early tradition of the Western church and that lay investtture was a fairly recent innovation unsupported by canonical authority but it ts no very uncommon paradox in Western history that the literal application by wouldbe reformers of halfunderstood old texts from a different historical epoch can have revolutionary implica tions for their own times The use of medieval precedents by the English parliamentarians of the seventeenth century is a case in point So too in the r 1th century the ancient rules that the reformers wanted to enforce acquired a radically changed signi cance when they were applied in a A niche La r forme art enne ris Papgzgzemmm Londongrlg P lags 1946 p 131 W Ullmann Growth 0 par quotGregor VII in seinen Briefenquot Historischs Zeits h i t C pp 150 N Cantor Church Ki h 39 0 TI xxx 19 1958 69 ugs ip and Lay Investtture in England Princeton h 48 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST historical context quite dilferent from the one which had originally given a rise to them However conservative the eleventhcentury reformers in tended to be the inevitable result of their activities was not to reestablish 7 an old order of things but to bring a new order into existence Moral Reform 25 Letter of Gregory to Otto bishop of Constance December 1074 trans E Emerton The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII New York 1932 pp 5253 Gregory to Otto bishop of Constance greeting A report has come to us with regard to Your Fraternity which I have heard with grief and regret a report which if it had been made to us of the lowest member of the Christian community would undoubtedly have called for a severe disciplinary sentence While we were zealously striving to wipe out the heresy of Simony and to enforce the chastity of the clergy inspired by apostolic authority and the authentic opinions of holy fathers we enjoined upon our colleague the venerable archbishop of Mainz whose su ragans are numerous and widely scattered that he should diligently impress this decree upon his whole clergy in person and through his assistants and should see that it was carried out without exception To you also who preside over the numerous clergy and the widespread population of the church of Constance it has for the same reason seemed good to us to send a special letter under our own seal With this as your authority you can more safely and more boldly carry out our orders and expel from the Lord s holy place the heresy of Simony and the foul plague of carnal contagion The apostolic authority of St 39Paul is here of especial force where counting in fornicators and adulterers with other vicious persons he gives this plain decision quotWith such a one no rnot to eatquot Furthermore the whole body of the Catholic Church consists of virgins or married persons or those holding themselves in restraint Whoever i i l 1 therefore is outside those three classes is not to be counted among the 3 quotsons of the Church or within the bounds of the Christian religion Wherefore we also if we should know for certain that even the lowest layman was involved in concubinage would cut him off completely from the body and blood of the Lord until he should perform due penance How then shall one be the distributor or server of the holy sacraments who cannot in any wise be partaker of them Further we are urged to this by the authority of the blessed Pope Leo I who deprived sub deacons of the right to marry a decree to which his successors in the THE PROGRAM 0 GREGORY VII 49 Holy Roman Church es 39 I pecrally that famous doctor G zng pli ce of law that henceforth the marriage bond has rliaegcg rliyalligilugta lm n to t e three orders of priests levites and subdeacons e y But when we in our pastoral forethought sent word to you that these ggftrzvelr oto b carried out you not setting your mind on the thin Rim of lust vehut on the things that are upon the earth loosed the Who had t kwrt in the aforesaid orders so that as we have heard thos net yet dozeen cincubmes persisted in their crime while those who had Oh What 30 ad no fear your prohibitions Oh what insolencel Apastouc see sshorty that a bishop should despise the decrees of the on so i 135 322213quot E 3 hi mmquotaquot quotm b s o co 39 hwEEngls things contrary and repugnant o the C zrtligrfnfaliotlf upon Proad n ore 1 command you to present yourself before us at the a canon lag saysnwellnfgilgfdiroelfeliipf Lem to give am raccording 5 See as for all the other olfenses chaigg deaaggilnscnpt Off the Aposmlic Papal Power 9 March 1 75 trans s z Ehler and J B Morrall Church and State Thro 39 1954 PP 4344 ugh the Centuries London I That the Roman Church was fou 39 nded b God al a glut the Roman Pontilf alone is rightlyyto be calf univers l 2 Th Ilire plane can depose or reinstate bishops a is egate even if of lower grade takes receden 39 39 3511211 tliishops and may render a sentence of gepositioxciehlglzlsiiisctofl1 a g Thai a 1 Pope nlilay expose the absent em ong ot er n w 39 7 l glmegvitlilgrlose excommgti nicieacisgyohli fin mt to a m the same at or 39 alone it is lawful to enact la 39 ws needs of the time to assemble together new congrez azfiifr tin 313 an abbey of a canon and bishoPric and unite thrzpoor 3121 the 0mm hand39 to made a rid 8 That he alone may use the imperial insignia 9 That the P 39 princes 0e 15 the only one whose feet are to be kissed by all to That his name alone is to be recit d 39 ii That his title is unique in the world m hurdles l2 That he may depose Emperors 13 That he may transfer bishops if necessary from one See to another 5o 14 1 5 16 7 19 20 2 90 24 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST That he has power to ordain a cleric of any church he may wish That he who has been ordained by him may rule over another church but not be under the command of others and that such a one may not receive a higher grade from any bishop That no synod may be called a general one without his order That no chapter or book may be regarded as canonical without his authority That no sentence of his may be retracted by any one and that he alone of all can retract it That he himself may be judged by no one That no one shall dare to condemn a person who appeals to the Apostolic See That to this See the more important cases of every church should be submitted That the Roman Church has never erred nor ever by the witness of Scripture shall err to all eternity That the Roman Pontifi if canonically ordained is undoubtedly sancti ed by the merits of St Peter of this St Ennodius Bishop of Pavia is witness many Holy Fathers are agreeable and it is con tained in the decrees of Pope Symmachus the Saint That by his order and with his permission subordinate persons may bring accusations 2 5 That without convening a synod he can depose and reinstate bishops 26 That he should not be considered as Catholic who is not in con formity with the Roman Church 27 That the Pope may absolve subjects of unjust men from their fealty Feudal Lordship 7 Letter to Solomon king of Hunga ctober 1074 trans E Emerton Correspondence pp 9 Gregory to Solom king of Hungary greeting Your letter to us arrived late 0 g to delay on the part of your mes re graciously received at our hands had as the full property of the Holy Roman Church under jurisdiction and control Furthermore the emperor Henry pious memory after his conquest of that kingdom in honor of eter sent to his shrine a spear and a crown and in celebration of THE PROGRAM 0quot GREGORY V11 his triumph delivered the 39 5 knew the headship Of that gawglEe ngnsggf gmy to the Place Where he This being so you nevertheless p who in other res ct 39 gp lagctleph rpprhthe aharacter and quality of a kingplfav ea lassovlvrlt1 viie ddly ing a kingdogn t a Chthit gang of lgeter as far as you could by accept a om the kin f 111 is true you yourself know how much favor Ergo 531 igjfgramoo will from curse you can expect You cannot receive these or ope to 3 apostolic and not of the royal majesty For neither fe hernia ef Of Wilyh of persons shall so far as in us lies preven or nor 0 s help every possible honor due to him w If you are prepared to correct th ese wron an t d 53053053 t1ElfinI 0lieyptnd a doubt you Elia mfgrirfrfii uhrigfu o and also our own friendship ilrlilglh cftimh as a doved son Of a mower Lay I nvestiture Gregory s rst prohibiti of lay investiture was issued in Febru g gpu The text of e decree has not survived but its sub Pyvoa Nthe later enactments given below which manly ga I ovember 1078 and March 1080 respec 88 Decrees agai t lay investitur e trans menu London 1892 pp 56566 E F Henderson Dom Inasmuch as we have earned th I at contra to th 39 231231 falthers the 1 estiture with churchleys is inerffatfityhsifcfsms 0 y ay perso and that from this cause many disturlfances39 1 at the church by w 39ch the Christian religion is trodden under foot We of the clergy shall receive the 39 39 39 353131 or abb or church from the hand of an eggig ud kv39mh a man leaylpezs male or female hut if he shall presume to dons ii y ow that such investiture is bereft of apostolic authoritye and that he imself shall lie faction sha have been rendergider mommumcauon mil ning tis i 0 if s O Follo ng the statutes of the hol fath winch y the mercy of God we haze helilm wa orde g of eccleszastical dignities 39 1n the former councils al decreed concerning the so so now we decree and con rm 539 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST shall receive a bishopric or abbey from the that if any one henceforth means be commend as among erson he shall by no ted 2323 gilt bishops or abbots nor shall any hearing be gran 39 he favour of 39 quot reover we further deny to him t hlmPast 215ng 3233 1i fothe church until coming to gaining Eliauedzsert the place that he lips laltenth py trh 531er arpn Iltike manner f d39 obedience w 1c is I slszywitegreelzonceming the inferior ecclesiastical digging any one at Likewise if any emperor king duke margrave cop erfom the in all of the secular powers or persons shall presurpt11 dip it he Shall titure with bishoprics or with any ecclestasttc dgn yum And lies w that he is bound by the bonds of the samecon e31 mural he nigeover unless he come to his sepses gintflllilflgu l lel ticiivme displeasure 39h hallfeelinttsp I gaeligigftrlzgmae tso his body as to his other belongings in order that at the coming of the Lord his soul may be saved The Role 0 the 141in One of Gregory39s most radical measures comrIZandedllzrygpsll to 39 39 his re orm te quott riests who tailed to conform to 39 I 25 Litter of Gregory to Otto bishop of Gonstauce guyc1111 mL ed 1 Flirtquot liihliollu rn Rrrnm itrtmmu39m39mn ll err m 39 1865 p 525 Those who obtain churclieshby the gilt of monltizyt 61311 I39 lit them completely and no one hencefortlrshall be pemtion may I 1 cor sell them Also those who lall into the crime of fornlicale further my 39elcbrate masses or serve at the altar in minor orders We 13 the how nott 1 if the disobey our statutes or rather those39o I I get ttlieupeople hall in no way accept their munstrptrogi 2 1231 those who are not corrected by the love of IGodeogftltlpe 12 and he olhce may be brought to their senses by the s mm rebuke ol39 the people 3 The Struggle with Henry IV Even before Gregory became pope two causes of friction be tween the papacy and the royal government in Germany had arisen In a disputed election to the great see of Milan Pope Alexander II had sup ported one candidate the king another Also Alexander had had occa sion to rebuke the young king for tolerating simoniacal practices at his court Later on Henry would prove an intransigent opponent but at the time of Gregory s election in 1073 his royal power was threatened by a great rebellion in Saxony and he was in no position to make new enemies He therefore wrote to Gregory most submissively acknowledging Gregory as pope even though he had taken no part in Gregory39s election and promising to accept papal correction in the affair of Milan During the course of 1074 Gregory began to complain to the German bishops that his reform decrees were not being enforced effectively Na 25 In February of 1075 came the papal decree forbidding all lay investiture Henry never had the slightest intention of complying with this decree and he was able to defy it openly after he won a great victory over the Saxons in june It then required only a test case to bring pope and king into open con ict and the test case was already at hand in the dispute over the episcopal election at Milan After a riot in the city Henry renewed his support for a royal candidate against the papally approved bishop In December of 1075 Gregory wrote to him about this matter reproachfully and for the rst time threateningly reminding Henry that the pope possessed all the powers of St Peter and that the king like all other Christians was bound by the papal decrees Na 29 Henry responded by summoning a council of German bishops that denounced Gregory as a usurper of the papacy and accused him of perjury immorality and gross abuses of papal authority in the dioceses of Germany In February of 1076 Gregory replied with a decree in which he declared Henry excom municated and deprived of his royal authority No 31 At about this time Henry wrote two defenses of his position One addressed to the pope was an outright assertion of divineright kingship Its whole tone and substance are epitomized in the salutation quotHenry King not by usurpation but by the pious ordination of God to Hildebrand now 53 s 54 THE mvesrrrunz comesquot not Pope but false monkquot No 30 The second sent to the German bishops repeated that Henry had been called to the kingship by God and accused Gregory of seeking to pervert the divine ordering of human aEairs by uniting priesthood and kingship in his own person No 32 The next few months showed that Henry had greatly overestimated the strength of his position The turbulent princes of medieval Germany were never willing to submit to the rule of a powerful centralized monarchy and Henry after his triumph over the Saxons was far too strong for their liking The announcement of the king39s excommunica tion and deposition was therefore very welcome to many of the nobles Moreover the moral effect of the pope s condemnation with its solemn invocation of the authority of St Peter seems to have been very great indeed Even the bishops who had joined Henry in condemning the pope soon deserted him to seek Gregory39s pardon Henry found himself faced by an overwhelming Coalition of nobles and bishops and was com pelled to accept humiliating terms of surrender He agreed that a diet should be held at Augsburg in February of 1077 The pope was to preside in person at this diet which would consider Henry39s behavior and de cide whether to permit him to continue reigning as king It was a most satisfying prospect for Pope Gregory In January 1077 the pope traveling northward to the diet paused at the castle of Canossa on the Italian side of the Alps Then came the most dramatic episode of the whole struggle Henry slipped away from Ger many crossed the Alps with an escort of only a few personal attendants and presented himself as a humble penitent barefoot in the depths of winter at the gates of the pope s castle Gregory was faced with a dif cult choice As a spiritual pastor faced with a penitent sinner seeking forgiveness his obvious duty was to give absolution But as a political leader playing for high stakes his obvious course was to send Henry packing back to Germany with a reminder that his case was to be con sidered at the diet of princes in February and not before Gregory per mitted himself the luxury of keeping the king waiting for three days but he did in the end give the desired absolution and released Henry from his sentence of excommunication without however restoring him to the of ce of kingship He then wrote to the German princes giving them an account of his actions No 33 Thepope behaved with complete propriety on this occasion but the political effects of his decision were disastrous Many of Henry39s former supporters rallied to his cause again when they heard that he had made his peace with the pope The princes who continued to oppose Henry thought that Gregory had betrayed them and without consulting him elected a king of their own Rudolph of Swabia Gregory had not fare seen this tum of events and announced that he could not decide which of the two candidates to recognize without carefully considering their merits He took three years to reach a decision while a most savage and THE STRUGGLE WITH HENRY IV 55 kingship No 35 This second 39 39 excommumcatron 39 pgrtlglei rtnht raile fct Offtitl rst Gregory Was widelyaglgggtd ih 121322 isas ers o e civil war and in an case his de 39 39 too late Henry had already gained the upper hand in the 21 citizens of me 39 e 3232 restartin withdrew without ivin or 39 e imperial mm grist31 titll ybl fy agi Explei 3135 gistaflfighmg sgcgggb ganflfia fig 331113 ppxtlgatg plop wthlttllifi Egznalrgghgv is last words it is said were a bitter arod ofPl U sic inyexile a 3 44 1 have loved Justice and hated lnquIty and so I It Would seem clear from the ve 39 39 39 ry exphcrt wordm of the d 13 3 tacit rig21 55 asst lhe dgd at least claim tie right defxiirictiie l I even is as een questioned The 39 39 rs that in several letters written after 1076 Gregory contintll eagntodh si lliz zziyutlgrgibg ptioning hisuopponent referring to him still as King no one w1 ever succeed in constru ti 39 coherent system of thought out c s an entirely of all of Gregory s scattered h was not an original thinker still less 39 39 P mses39 He a tidyminded s stem 39 stract theories and there is no c 39 39 y aunt Of ab onsisten of usa e in th f Henry that occur in hi cy g C re memes to 5 letters Sometimes he rememb quot ered to refer to his adversary as a 39 socalled king or quottyrantquot sometimes not A recent 9 56 ma mvasrrrunn courasr study has pointed out that Gregory 39did not consider either of his two decrees against Henry as nal and irrevocable1 He never lost sight of the possibility that Henry might mend his ways come to an agreement with the pope and be reinstated in his kingship by general consent This fact seems suf cient to account for Gregory39s inconsistencies of terminol ogy The at assertion of the Dictatus Papae that the pope had the power to depose emperors taken together with the two deposition decrees themselves seems to establish beyond all doubt that Gregory did claim the right to dethrone secular rulers As for the basis of that claim we are fortunate in having the pope39s own letter to Bishop Hermann of Metz in which he set out his views at length No 36 The letter consists in part of historical examples which Gregory thought provided precedents for his treatment of Henry IV and in part of theological argumentation explaining why the pope pos sessed a right to depose kings The historical examples are not very con vincing There was in fact no clear precedent for the outright deposition of a king by a pope It does not require the apparatus of modern scholar ship to discern the fact some of Gregory39s contemporary critics were able to attack him effectively on this point The theoretical sections of Gregory39s letter are more interesting They rely heavily on the doctrine proclaimed earlier by Cardinal Humbert that secular power was in trinsically inferior to spiritual St Ambrose the pope declared had held that the priestly of ce was as superior to the royal as gold to lead a spurious text this though Gregory believed it to be genuine Pope Gelasius too had maintained that the priesthood was entrusted with a higher responsibility than the kingship Finally arguing from a kind of perverted Augustinism Gregory contrasted secular rulers quotwho raised themselves above their fellows by pride plunder treachery murderquot with ecclesiastical ones who were divinely ordained successors to the priesthood of Christ There is a aw in this whole line of argument that was evidently never apparent to Gregory himself The assertion that ministers of religion have a higher re5ponsibility than secular rulers does not necessarily imply that ecclesiastical of cials can depose temporal ones It is possible to maintain simply that the two structures of o ices are separate from one another Whatever Gelasius meant by his famous pronouncement he 1 certainly did not maintain that he as pope could depose the emperor Anastasius nor did it ever occur to St Ambrose that he could depose Theodosius nor we may well suppose did any such idea ever occur to St Peter himself in connection with the emperor Nero Ambrose and Gelasius both took for granted the existence of two separate orders of government each with its own de ned sphere of action But the pattern familiar to Gregory was that of a unitary churchstate When Gregory 3923 Iquot Morrison Canossa A Revisionquot Traditio XVI 1962 pp tax48 THE STRUGGLE WITH HENRY IV 57 read in his old texts of a su 39 39 39 39 n penonty inherent in the 39 39 conceiyed oi it as a supenonty within a single uni edpsyrslttgratl 5 person supreme spiritual and tem oral The same kinds of reservationspoccu power ralsomthekinsltt Innsted that his authonty came from God alone and maon 331133 pgm Eifhops that caused the whole dispute But Henry did not mai 10111 3 merge1 pilinuplef gm all spiritual and temporal authority b car 0 o Th 39 far short of claims to absolute theocfataiscsiargtgx Of bath mien thus fen The Beginning of the Dispute 9 Letter of Gregory to Henry corn 39 39 plammg of the Itquot 39 39 geatment of the church December 1075 trans E Ilirneifggns x71 omspandence of Pope Gregory VII New York 1952 pp 18739 Gregory bishop servant of God s s 39 611 t8 greeting and the apostolic benediction but with minimi Hillary e vt iil eys the Aposto liic See as becomes a Christian king mg at marve excee ingly that you have sent us so mar gggrsdeiffpiazgli tfrtghlbyhthi pokcin words of youz leeg agzid y 0 er ur andsub ectt 39 39 39 zivngular 1n affection a leader in devotion comni39endizgudrfelff 5111 cry Expression of gentleness and reverence and yet in action showin yourse most bitterly hostile to the canons and apostolic decrees in thosg 58 THE INVESTITURE uourasr m STRUGGLE mm H duties especially required by loyalty to the Church Not to mention other otfended you or assailed your hon h f 13th IV 59 cases the way you have observed your promises m the Mtlan affair made apostolic decrees But how littl 0r e are you proceeded to violate the through your mother and through bishops our colleagues whom we right was shown by your late 6 7011 cared for our warnings or for doing sent to you and whatyour intentions were in making them is evrdent However since the long rlg flttons I to all And now heaping wounds upon wounds you have handed over improvement we hope that puffs 9mm 0 005 quot1130 1011 t0 the sees of Fermo and Spoleto if indeed a church may be given over and mind may be turned to 01 Eaease of understanding your heart by any human power to persons entirely unknown to us whereas it is with a father39s love that on ac2y ti comnds 0 God We warn you not lawful to consecrate anyone except after probation and wrth due the Pm of preferring Yoll39lr owne ono gillelpf 151 thaxt you consider knowledge b our s r 1111 t you a not ham e1 It would have been becoming to you since you confess yourself to be htynzself g dtfebf i g e ig3at gmCh meh be dFigned 0 quotde a son of the Church to give more respectful attention to the master of as possible you will be 39n to l lgn t hat she may mcrease as greatly the Church that is to Peter prince of the Apostles To him if you are whom also your own 13 mam to mighty God and to St Peter by of the Lord39s flock you have been committed for your pasture since faithful devotion g ry y mem mac the quot1 VOW V3101 by Christ said to him quotPeter feed my sheepquot John 2117 and againzd To thee are given the keys of Heaven and whatsoever thou shalt bin on Le earth shall be bound in Heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose on aquluga grkm mw fusan m rams him 3 P0Pe earth shall be loosed in Heavenquot Matthew 1619 Now while we un Lim and Lam a the Else azd K 1739 M quot n39 Wm61 worthy sinner that we are stand in his place of power still whatever you PP 05 we C mu New York 196 send to us whether in writing or by word of mouth he himself receives 39 and while we read what is written or hear the voice of those who speak Hen K 1 he discerns with subtle insight from what spirit the message comes of God to Hildebgndng otggsfpg ofslbquot by the 1 10 l ordination l Wherefore Your Highness should beware lest any defect of will toward You have deserved such asalutatignhs thijlje monk I the Apostolic See be found in your words or in your messages and should have wrought for you left untouched no d lapse of the confusion you if pay due reverence not to us but to Almighty God in all matters touch could make a sharer of confusion insteagr frho the Church which you ing the welfare of the Christian faith and the status of the Church stead of benediction o onor39 Of maled cmn in And this we say although our Lord deigned to declare quotHe who For to discuss a few 0 39 heareth you heareth me and he who despiseth you despiseth mequot Luke you dared to touch the r333 glintghg 31 313115 mfg Natlonly have 10162 I v I bishops and the priests anointed of the Lord as th actquotCilblshops the I s This edict against lay tnvestrture which some who place the honor trodden them under foot like slaves who I ey e ln you have of men above that of God call an intolerable burden we using the right do In crushing them you have gained fol0W 012 the lord may 1 word call rather a truth and a light necessary for salvation and we have mouth of the rabble You have judged that aul glursck acclaim 39from the y given judgment that it is to be heartily accepted and obeyed not only you alone know everything In any case on ham 13 nothing while by you and your subjects but by all princes and peoples who confess and knowledge not for edi cation but for destryuctionve se u on used this i worship Christ though it is our especial wish and would be especially believe Saint Gregory whose name you have an 39 iodgreatly that We may a tting for you that you should excel others in devotion to Christ as you made this prophesy of you when he said any15 1 to WWW rightly z are their superior in fame in station and in valor subjects the mind of the prelate is often xahed t g abundance of his 39 Nevertheless in order that these demands may not seem to you too has more knoWIedge than anyone else since it an he thinks that he burdensome or unfair we have sent you word by your own liegemen not pox than anyone elsequot 39 e e that he has more to be troubled b this reform Of an evil ractice but to send us prudent we indeedl bore wi and pious legatesy from your own people I11f these can show in any reason preserve the honor of the Aggstadllictggsee 311563 Since we were eager to able way how we can moderate the decision of the holy fathers at the 35 fear and so you were emboldened lo riseyu commiede mummy council saving the honor of the eternal king and without peril to our PPWCI itself granted to us by God You Idaredptevel 38mm the royal own soul we will condescend to hear their counsel It would in fact lungship away from us as though we had rec 39od diam to lake the 9 have been the fair thing for you even if you had not been so graciously YOU as thwgh kingship and empire were in o mv39eh 1e hugsmp fwm I admonished to make reasonable inquiry of us in what respect we had hand of God i y an and n t quot1 the 60 mi INVESTITURE conriisr l Our Lord Jesus Christ has called us to kingship but has not called riesthood For ou have risen by these steps namely by cun hizgfowtlhiclpi the monasticyprofession abhors to money by motley to favor by favor to the sword By the sword you have come to the one of peace and from the throne of peace you have destroyed the piace You have armed subjects against their prelates you who have not deial n called by God have taught that our bishops who have been calle y God are to be spurned you have usurped for laymen the bishops minis 39 with the result that these laymendepose and condemn at Pgeeflmwhom the laymen themselves received as teachers from the hand of God through the imposition of the hands of bishops b You have also touched me one who though unworthy ha een anointed to kingship among the anointed This wrong you have one go me although as the tradition of the holy Fathers has taught I am lto e judged by God alone and am not to be deposed for any crime undess may it never happen I should deviate from the Faith For the pru end of the holy bishops entrusted the judgment and the deposition even 0 Julian the Apostate not to themselves but to God alone The true pope Saint Peter also exclaims Fear God honor the king 1 Pelterf 217 You however since you do not fear God dishonor me ordaine oh im Wherefore when Saint Paul gave no quarter to an angel from heaven if the angel should preach heterodoxy he did not except yogfw o as now teaching heterodoxy throughout the earth For he says any39tclili either I or an angel from heaven preach any other gospel unto gm Li that which we have preached unto you lethim be accursedb t a arr i18 Descend therefore condemned by this anathema and yA e com mon judgment of all our bishops and of ourself Rehnquish the pfossto t See which you have arrogated Let another mount the throne oh ainII Peter another who will not clolak Violence With religion but w 0 W1 nine of Saint eter I mifhfifrfgflrfiggby the grace of God together with all our bishops say to you Descendl Descendl 39 31 Deposition of Henry by Gregory February 1076 trans E Emerton Correspondence pp 9091 39 39full incline 0 blessed Peter prince of the Apostles merCi y I thine ear we pray and hear me thy servant whom thou hast cherished from infancy and hast delivered until now from the hand of the Wicked who have hated and still hate me for my loyalty to thee Thou art my witness as are also my Lady the Mother of God and the blessed Paul thy brother among all the saints that thy Holy Roman Church forced 39 39 39 f ascending thy t Will to be its ruler I had no thought 0 t lliioiigeagsatilgbber nay rather would I have chosen to end my life as a pilgrim than to seize upon thy place for earthly glory and by devsces THE smucotis WITH HENRY iv 61 of this world Therefore by thy favor not by any works of mine I be lieve that it is and has been thy will that the Christian people especially committed to thee should render obedience to me thy especially consti tuted representative To me is given by thy grace the power of binding and loosing in Heaven and upon earth Wherefore relying upon this commission and for the honor and de fense of thy Church in the name of Almighty God Father Son and Holy Spirit through thy power and authority I deprive King Henry son of the emperor Henry who has rebelled against thy Church with un heardof audacity of the government over the whole kingdom of Ger many and I taly and I release all Christian men from the allegiance which they have sworn or may swear to him and I forbid anyone to serve him as king For it is tting that he who seeks to diminish the glory of thy Church should lose the glory which he seems to have And since he has refused to obey as a Christian should or to return to the God whom he has abandoned by taking part with excommunicated persons has spurned my warnings which I gave him for his soul s wel fare as thou knowest and has separated himself from thy Church and tried to send it asunder I bind him in the bonds of anathema in thy stead and I bind him thus as commissioned by thee that the nations may know and be convinced that thou art Peter and that upon thy rock the son of the living God has built his Church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it 32 Letter of Henry to the German bishops i076 trans T E Mommsen and K F Morrison op cit pp 15254 Let your good will stand by us therefore together with your power at this opportune time the good will for which not only our need is earnestly longing but also that of all your fellow bishops and brethren nay rather that of the whole oppressed Church Certainly you are not ignorant of this oppression Only see to it that you do not withdraw assistance from the oppressed Church but rather that you give your sympathy to the kingship and to the priesthood just as hitherto the Church was exalted by each of these of ces so now alas it is laid low bereft of each since one man has arrogated both for him self he has injured both and he who has neither wanted nor was able to be of bene t in either has been useless in each To keep you in suspense no longer as to the name of the man under discussion learn of whom we speak it is the monk Hildebrand a monk indeed in habit socalled pope who as you yourself know clearly presides in the Apostolic See not with the care of a pastor but with the violence of a usurper and from the throne of peace dissolves the bond of the one catholic peace To cite a few things among many without God s knowledge he has usurped for himself the kingship and the is me XNVESTITURE CONTEST 39 39 dinance of 39 In this deed he held m contempt the pious or agitlwhigh especially commanded these twgptaigeljguihkitrvivgghilpna g the priesthood should remain not as pn e gumdency of the two Passion the Savior Himself meant the gurau 5 said to him Lord swords to be understood in this way When It Evan is enoug quot Luke behold there are two swords here He answere l and the 39 39 39 39 39 duality that the spiritua 2238 signifying by this suf cient h ml that by them every hun carnal swards are to be used in the Churc a m t eve 39 39 He was teaching a ry ful thing is to be cut off That 15 to say b the king as the Rpm man is constrained by39the priestly sword to o ey i of 39 39 d both to repel enem es sentative of God but by the kmeg swor thin so in charity the Christ outside and to obey the pnesthood wr th th kin hi 39 39 the other as long as net er 39e gs p provmce of one extends into n h esthwd n depnved 39 39 39h or b the riesthood nor t e p f fgdh ieiydtheoiingship Ygu yourself have found out if yrfsu wanted to discover it how the ildelarandnie antitank an pulp est this ordinance of God for in 5 pi gmen He has also strive m unless he begs that honor from his arrogance h kin hi 39 39 39 horn God has calledtot e gs p deprive me of the kmgshtp me w d 0e he saw that lied him to the pnesthoo sin 39 God however has not ca 0d d nm from hm and since 39 h d t hold 111 royal power from an h ifinisel had noty constituted me as long And furtliler hhithrlpz tiengg to deprive me of kingship and life neither of w 1 e stowed Canossa and the Aftermath 39 39 an account Letter of Gregory to the German princes givmg a the incident at Canossa January 1077 trans E Emerton Correspondence pp 1 1 11 Whereas for love of justice you have made pommon cans with us and taken the same risks in the warfare of Christitanfst39tlr itifins a 39 this accurate accoun 0 have taken 5 ecial care to send you I penitential Eumiliation his absolution and the course of the whole affair from his entrance into Italy to the present time t to us by According to the arrangement made wit tiref 16333 3231 at Whidl Lombardy about twenty ys e ore you we came to th 1 waited for their eet us at e pass an some of your leaders were to m h the me 39 to that region But w en arrival to enable us to cross over in 1 nt of the troub ous times ela sed and we were told that on accou I 1 cindetlsd we well believe no escort could be sent to us and havipgt no other way of coming to you we were in no little anxrety as to w a was our best course to take THE smuccna wrrn HENRY IV 63 Meanwhile we received certain information that the king was on the way to us Beforehe entered Italy he sent us word that he would make satisfaction to God and St Peter and offered to amend his way of life and to continue obedient to us provided only that he should obtain from us absolution and the apostolic blessing For a long time we de layed our reply and held long consultations reproaching him bitterly through messengers back and forth for his outrageous conduct until nally of his own accord and without any show of hostility or defiance he came with a few followers to the fortress of Canossa where we were staying There on three successive days standing before the castle gate laying aside all royal insignia barefooted and in coarse attire he ceased not with many tears to beseech the apostolic help and comfort until all who were present or who had heard the story were so moved by pity and compassion that they pleaded his cause with prayers and tears All marveled at our unwanted severity and some even cried out that we were showing not the seriousness of apostolic authority but rather the cruelty of a savage tyrant At last overcome by his persistent show of penitence and the urgency of all present we released him from the bonds of anathema and re ceived him into the grace of Holy Mother Church accepting from him the guarantees described below And now that these matters have been arranged we desire to come over into your country at the rst opportunity that with God s help we may more fully establish all mat ters pertaining to the peace of the Church and the good order of the land For we wish you clearly to understand that as you may see in the written guarantees the whole negotiation is held in suspense so that our coming and your unanimous consent are in the highest degree necessary Strive therefore all of you as you love justice to hold in good faith the obligations into which you have entered Remember that we have not bound ourselves to the king in any way except by frank statement as our custom is that he may expect our aid for his safety and his honor whether through justice or through mercy and without peril to his soul or to our own 54 Henry39s oath at Canossa January 1077 trans E Emerton Correspondence pp I 1213 I Henry king within the term which our lord Pope Gregory shall x will either give satisfaction according to his decision in regard to the discontent and discord for which the archbishops bishops dukes counts and other princes of the kingdom of Germany are accusing me or I will make an agreement according to his advice unless some positive hindrance shall prevent him or myself and when this is done I will be prepared to carry it out Item ft the same lord Pope Gregory shall desire to go beyond the 64 THE INVESTITURE CONTES39I mountains or elsewhere he shall be safe so far as I and all whom I can constrain are concerned from all injury to life or limb and from capture both he himself and all who are in his company or who are sent out by him or who may come to him from any place whatsoever in coming remaining or returning Nor shall he with my consent suffer any hindrance contrary to his honor and if anyone shall offer such hindrance I will come to his assistance with all my power 55 The second deposition of Henry March 1080 trans E Emer ton Correspondence pp 14952 0 blessed Peter chief of the Apostles and thou Paul teacher of the Gentiles deign I pray to incline your ears to me and mercifully to hear my prayer Ye who are disciples and lovers of the truth aid me to tell the truth to you freed from all falsehood to hate ful to you that my brethren may be more united with me and may know and understand that through faith in you next to God and his mother Mary ever virgin I resist the wicked and give aid to those who are loyal to you For you know that I entered holy orders not of my own pleasure and that I accompanied the lord Pope Gregory VI un willingly beyond the mountains but still more unwillingly returned with my master Pope Leo IX to your special church where I have served you as best I could and then most unwillingly and unworthy as I was to my great grief and with groans and lamentations I was set upon your throne I say this because it is not I that have chosen you but you that have chosen me and laid upon me the heavy burden of your Church And because you have commanded me to go up into a high mountain and denounce their crimes to the people of God and their sins to the sons of the Church those limbs of the Devil have begun to rise up against me and have dared to lay hands upon me even unto blood The kings of the earth and the princes both secular and clerical have risen up courtiers and commons have taken counsel together against the Lord and against you his anointed saying Let us burst their chains and throw off their yokequot and they have striven utterly to over whelm me with death or banishment Among these especially Henry whom they call king son of the M emperor Henry has raised his heel against your Church in conspiracy with many bishops as well ultramontanes as Italians striving to bring it under his control by overturning me Your authority withstood his in solence and your power defeated it In confusion and humiliation he came to me in Lombardy begging for release from his excommunication And when I had witnessed his humiliation and after he had given many promises to reform his way of life I restored him to communion only THE STRUGGLE wrm HENRY iv 65 but did not reinstate him in the r I oyal power from which I h him in a Roman synod Nor did I order that the allegiance 2 gillng released them all at that same s I ynod should b 39 EbJEICt in reserve in order that I might do justigersfhtfgeeh and haailt zgg ttaggab shops and pginges who in obedience to your Chuarnch im an t at I mi ht establ h them as Hen himself h 39 g 55 peace among I mg of two EyShops ad promised me to do on his oath and by the e abovementioned ultramontane bi 39 shops and rmces h 39 gagging 21203 ripe and 13s it were inPdespair 235133 ir mg wit outm a roval a 39 39 Witness Then King Rudolf immediately senty aginvoy 113 this the more acceptable from that t39 me on he re eatedl 2321 sd iziaragt prgi sadding that he would con rm his proxjhisseembynferalE zm genl own son and the son of his liegeman Bertaldus of Meanwhile Henry was beginning to beg for my help against Rudolf envoys of Rudolf made the same re 39 39 39 quest Final b d1 39 39 as I believe I decreed at the same synod that Z cohfer elrihee Timing municated and placed under the bonds of anath 39 ema all 01 a lung or a duke or a bishop or of any vassal who shiedlsdntsrywlimtr rice to prevent the holding of a conference But the aforesaid lie y plgpctllliei lth his suppgrtlers not fearing the perils of disobedience I crime 0 1 o any incurred excommunicati b ing a conference and bound himself in th b ds on y Prevent caused a great multitude of Christians to b if liltm Of anathema and to be scattered abroad e e yered to death churches to be desalated and almost the whole kingdom of the Germans 65 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST 39 39 39 39 land of his most trustin in the mum and mercy of Go W rfnother ary eve virgin and relying uppn yournatgihogy I place the aforesaid Henry whom they call kingn iandha Chaism pg porters under excommunicationhand bard 12101leng arty Gad and anathema And again forbidding im in e na 391 u m a1 39 d Italy I take from iim a y of yourselves to govern in Germanyan b him as kinquot and forbid all Christians to o ey i P Power and State I h 11 ake oath to him as lung from release all who have made or s a in d his w so 39 39 39 39 porters never the obligation of their oath May l Ienry an in an p f arms y encounter o long as they may live be able to win Victory h kin m have chosen for t eir g But that Rudolf whom the Germans G mans the kingdom of the e loyalty to you may rule and protect mama I 39 And relying upon your a I grant and allow in your name f 11 their um and 39 faithful adherents absolution o a grant also to all his F r as Henry n plqu 39 39 life and the life to come 0 I your blessmg m this 39 39 39 lence his disobedience and fr m the to al dignity for his inso hitgei e iltl s Rudolf yfor his humilityhis pliediertiliial J and his truthful 39 t d the ower and the ignity 0 mgs grizzly emost iioly fathers and princas Idpragnygiih itin3 31 1 rs I action that the whole world may know an ealso on earth to gram able to bind and loose in Heaven you are a e 3 km ding to his deserts empire g and to take away from everyone accor m er 39 39 39 39 tes earldoms and e prop ty doms prinupahties dukedoms marquis1h rimades armbhhoprics of all men You have often taken patriar ates p d h tamed 39 39 39 d unworthy men an ave g and bishoprics away from Wicked an O l hm 39 udgment in spiritua gs them to pious holders And if you can give ovet secular things or if what may we not believe as to your powe es What can you ls who guide all haughty princ you can Indge the ange 39 d all n39nces of the earth 39 Now let kings an p mu do to thelr39smams d l t them fear to neglect the com learn how great is your power an e d forth the aforesaid Henry sen mands of your Church And against h t he falls and is 39 39ftly that all men may know t a your Judgment so 5 ower and would that it 1 d not b chance but by your p aiizwtlherentance hat his soul be saved in the day of the Lord Gregory s Defense of His Policy 36 Letter of Gregory to Bishop Hermann of Metz March ioBi trans E Emerton Correspondence pp i6675 39 39 dness of those You ask us to fortify you against the ma 39 i 39 hority of the Holy bble With accursed tongues about the ant ngstgiic See not being able to excommunicate King Henry as one THE smooch wmi HENRY iv 67 who despises the law of Christ a destroyer of churches and of the em pire a promoter and partner of heresies nor to release anyone from his oath of delity to him but it has not seemed necessary to reply to this request seeing that so many and such convincing proofs are to be found in Holy Scripture Nor do we believe that those who abuse and contradict the truth to their utter damnation do this as much from ignorance as from wretched and desperate folly And no wonder It is ever the way of the wicked to protect their own iniquities by calling upon others like themselves for they think it of no account to incur the penalty of falsehood To cite but a few out of the multitude of proofs Who does not remember the words of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ quotThou art Peter and on this rock I will build my Church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven Matthew 1619 Are kings excepted here Or are they not of the sheep which the Son of God committed to St Peter Who I ask thinks himself excluded from this universal grant of the power of binding and loosing to St Peter unless perchance that unhappy man who being unwilling to bear the yoke of the Lord subjects himself to the burden of the Devil and refuses to be numbered in the ock of Christ His wretched liberty shall pro t him nothing for if he shakes off from his proud neck the power divinely granted to Peter so much the heavier shall it be for him in the day of judgment Thus Pope Gelasius writing to the emperor Anastasius gave him these instructions as to the right theory of the principate of the Holy and Apostolic See based upon divine authority Although it is tting that all the faithful should submit themselves to all priests who perform their sacred functions properly how much the more should they accept the judgment of that prelate who has been appointed by the supreme divine ruler to be superior to all priests and whom the loyalty of the whole later Church has recognized as such Your Wisdom sees plainly that no human capacity whatsoever can equal that of him whom the word of Christ raised above all others and whom the reverend Church has always confessed and still devotedly holds as its Head So also Pope Julius writing to the eastern bishops in regard to the powers of the same Holy and Apostolic See says quotYou ought my brethren to have spoken carefully and not ironically of the Holy Ro man and Apostolic Church seeing that our Lord Jesus Christ addressed her respectfully saying Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven For it has the power granted by a unique privilege of opening and shutting the gates of the celestial kingdom to whom it willquot To whom then the power of open 68 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST ing and closing Heaven is given shall he not be able to judge the earth God forbid Do you remember what the most blessed Apostle Paul says quotKnow ye not that we shall judge angels How much more things that pertain to this lifequot 1 Corinthians 63 So Pope Gregory declared that kings who dared to disobey the orders of the Apostolic See should forfeit their of ce He wrote to a certain senator and abbot in these words quotIf any king priest judge or secular person shall disregard this decree of ours and act contrary to it he shall be deprived of his power and his of ce and shall learn that he stands condemned at the bar of God for the wrong that he has done And unless he shall restore what he has wrongfully taken and shall have done tting penance for his unlawful acts he shall be excluded from the sacred body and blood of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and at the last judgment shall receive condign punishmentquot Now then if the blessed Gregory most gentle of doctors decreed that kings who should disobey his orders about a hospital for strangers should be not only deposed but excommunicated and condemned in the last judg ment how can anyone blame us for deposing and excommunicating Henry who not only disregards apostolic judgments but so far as in him lies tramples upon his mother the Church basely plunders the whole kingdom and destroys its churches unless indeed it were one who is a man of his own kind As we know also through the teaching of St Peter in his letter touch ing the ordination of Clement where he says quotIf any one were friend to those with whom he Clement is not on speaking terms that man is among those who would like to destroy the Church of God and while he seems to be with us in the body he is against us in mind and heart and he is a far worse enemy than those who are without and are openly hostile For he under the forms of friendship acts as an enemy and scatters and lays waste the Churchquot Consider then my best beloved if he passes so severe a judgment upon him who associates himself with those whom the pope opposes on account of their actions with what severity he condemns the man himself to whom the pope is thus opposed But now to return to our point Is not a sovereignty invented by men of this world who were ignorant of God subject to that which the a providence of Almighty God established for his own glory and graciously bestowed upon the world The Son of God we believe to be God and man sitting at the right hand of the Father as High Priest head of all priests and ever making intercession for us He despised the kingdom of this world wherein the sons of this world puff themselves up and offered himself as a sacri ce upon the cross Who does not know that kings and princes derive their origin from 3 men ignorant of God who raised themselves above their fellows by pride quot1 plunder treachery murder in short by every kind of crime at the THE STRUGGLE wrrH HENRY IV 59 instigation of the Devil the prince of this world 39 39 and intolerable in theiraudacity If then uie griggnfow id pgi stp ncgdhtipnthir wig tp whom may they more properly be come I w 01s ie over all the sons of ride F h mg our ngh Priest head of all P 039 e tempt 39 priests son of the M t H 39 all the kingdoms of this world said quotAll theseoswill 1 39gfelhng Dou wrlt fall down and worship mequot Matthew 49 8 ea fathp Cyoggsiipgbgftlhat the griests of Christ are to be considered as 39 rngs an princes and of all believ P W 39 not be regarded as pmable madness if en cum n a son should try39to rule his f th or a pupil his master and to bind with 39 39 39 a er through whom he expects to be bou d Jun Obligations the one loosed not onl also in heaven Evrdentl 39 39 H gr 39 y on earth but y recognizing this the em ror Consta t39 53980 giggly andhprilnces throughgtft almost thethttilr es m is etter to the em er M 39 39 the holy synod of Nicaea took his p or mm at place below all the bish 39 ptigzgptpglet gpaiigny juggment upon them but even addfelggirigihg y on t not to be 39 39 39 hePoughthp be bound by8 their decisiorsrzbje to his Judgment but that ope39 e asius urging upon the emperor Anastasius n 39 at t f 1 xvrpnxggiehy tge truth tllrzat was called to his attention saidfsll hgrne august mperor by which the w 1d 39 the sacred authority of the 39 39 or m governed I priesthood and the ower of k39 0 the priestly is by so much the P 39 mgs f these greater as they Will have to ans f gs themselves in the day of divine 39ud quot we or Know am on are Wye t j gment and a little further su emd to your Winquot 1 c to their judgment not that they are to be reliance upon such declarations and such 39 39 authorities man lhave ixcommumcated lungs or emperors If you ask for illuys39tlr39teiltlrf pip 112111 exclommurfugateJd hthe emperor Arcadius because he can1 pu sion 0 t o n Chrysostom from his o ice A gogzphpprpgi zihagyljdeptisild as king of the Franks Childerigmll39lgltl 0 new ee asbecausehewasnot a1 great an of ce and set in his lace Pi 39 f th equ to 80 Charles the Great releasin P ppm a er Of the emperor 3 all the Franks from the oath f f Wald they had swomto him And this is often done by HolyOChfiarlcth Ivy en dlt absolves ghting men from their oaths to bishops who have eenb eposed by apostolic authority 80 St Ambrose a holy man but 38 51th giethef who Clhurch excommunicated the emperor Theo a or a an t which did not seem to other mgvpthdhexdud l hifr n from the Church He also nightlight e pnes y 0 cc is as much su rior to golf is more precrous than lead He says quotTh honor 1 Idimifr a his ops aldmt of no comparison If you liken them to the spleirdoi of ngs an the diadem of princes these are as lead compared to the 7 THE INVESTITURE CONTEST 39 er of old You see the necks of kings and princes bowed to the Elias of pfiests and by the kissing of hands they believe that they gnarl the bene t of their prayersquot And again linow that we have satu a this in order to show that there is ngthttlng in this world more exce ent a riest or more loft than a is opquot I mifrbur lliraternity should zemember also that greater power is granted to an exorcist when he is made a spiritual emperor for the casting on of devils than can be conferred upon any layman for the purpose 0 earthly dominion All kings and princes of this earth who hve no piously and in their deeds show not a becoming fear of God are ml by demons and are sunk in miserable slavery Such men desire todru t not guided by the love of God as priests are for the glory of Gb and the pro t of human souls but to display their intolerable pride at1 to satisfy the lusts of their mind Of these St Augustme says in t e rst book of his Christian doctrine Hewho tries to rule over menTf who are by nature equal to him acts wrth intolerable pride Now i exorcists have power over demons as we have said how much more Clive those who are subject to demons and are limbs of demons Ah 1 exorcists are superior to these how much more are priests superior to hem t Furthermore every Christian king when he approaches his end afhks the aid of a priest as a miserable suppltant that he may escape e prison of hell may pass from darkness into lightand may appear at the judgment seat of God freed from the bonds of sin But who layrglaln or priest in his last moments has ever asked the help of any ear y king for the safety of his soul And what lung or emperor has pgwe through his office to snatch any Christian from the might of the ezid by the sacred rite of baptism to con rm htm among the sons of and to fortify him by the holy chrism Or and this is the greatest t mg in the Christian religion who among them is able by his own wor to create the body and blood of the Lord or to whom among them is given the power to bind and loose in l ieaven and uponearthSTrom this it is apparent how greatly superior in power is the priestly tgnttyi 0r who of them is able to ordain any clergyman 1n the Idoly Churc much less to depose him for any fault For bishops while they39may ordain other bishops may in no wise depose them accept by authority 0 the Apostolic See How then can even the most slightly39informed per son doubt that priests are higher than lungs But if lungs are to e judged by priests for their sins by whom can they more properly e judged than by the Roman pontt In short all good Christians whosoever they may be are moie properly to be called kings than are evil princes for the former see ing the glory of God rule themselves rigorously but the latter seeking their own rather than the things that are of God being enemies to THE STRUGGLE WITH HENRY IV 7 themselves oppress others tyrannically The former are the body of the true Christ the latter the body of the Devil The former rule them selves that Lhey may reign forever with the supreme ruler The power of the latter brings it to pass that they perish in eternal damnation with the prince of darkness who is king over all the sons of pride Let kings and princes fear lest the higher they are raised above their fellows in dais life the deeper they may be plunged in everlasting re Wherefore it is written The mighty shall suffer mighty tormentsquot Wisdom 67 They shall render unto God an account for all men sub ject to their rule But if it is no small labor for the pious individual to guard his own soul what a task is laid upon princes in the care of so many thousands of souls And if Holy Church imposes a heavy penalty upon him who takes a single human life what shall be done to those who send many thousands to death for the glory of this world These although they say with their lips mea culpa for the slaughter of many yet in their hearts they rejoice at the increase of their glory and neither repent of what they have done nor regret that they have sent their brothers into the world below So that since they do not repent with all their hearts and will not restore what they have gained by human bloodshed their penitence before God remains without the fruits of a true repentance Wherefore they ought greatly to fear and they should frequently be reminded that as we have said since the beginning of the world and throughout the kingdoms of the earth very few kings of saintly life can be found out of an innumerable multitude whereas in one single chair of successive bishops the Roman from the time of the blessed Apostle Peter nearly a hundred are counted among the holiest of men How can this be except because the kings and princes of the earth seduced by empty glory prefer their own interests to the things of the Spirit whereas pious pontiffs despising vainglory set the things of God above the things of the esh The former readily punish offenses against them selves but are not troubled by offenses against God the latter quickly forgive those who sin against them but do not easily pardon offenders against God The former far too much given to worldly affairs think little of spiritual things the latter dwelling eagerly upon heavenly sub jects despise the things of this world All Christians therefore who desire to reign with Christ are to be warned not to reign through ambition for worldly power They are to keep in mind the admonition of that most holy pope Gregory in his book on the pastoral of ce quotOf all these things what is to be followed what held fast except that the man strong in virtue shall come to his of ce under compulsion Let him who is without virtue not come to it even though he be urged theretoquot If then men who fear God come under compulsion with fear and trembling to the Apostolic See where
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