Adv Top Wildlife Fish Sci
Adv Top Wildlife Fish Sci WFS 560
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Date Created: 10/26/15
GIANT CANADA GOOSE RESTORATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN TENNESSEE Prepared by Edward L Warr Waterfowl Biologist Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency During the 1800 s Canada geese were reported to nest in Tennessee at Reelfoot Lake Bent 1925 Hanson 1965 wrote that Canada geese at Reelfoot were very plentiful in the fall and large numbers remained the entire year The Reelfoot resident was considerably heavier than its migratory relative Hanson 1965 and apparently nested on cypress snags Hankla and Rudolph 1967 Nests were still being found there by the early 1930 s Gainer 1933 Today Canada geese still nest at Reelfoot but it is not known if these birds are descendants of the ones reported earlier Except for this Reelfoot population Canada geese were not known to nest in Tennessee Hanson 1965 In 1951 a Middle Tennessee resident Wick Comer purchased 12 pinioned Canada geese from a game farm operator in North Carolina These geese were released on his 1200acre estate four miles east of Hendersonville The ock survived multiplied and eventually spread to nearby Old Hickory Reservoir Gore and Barstow 1969 Coe and Pollock 1975 Gore and Barstow 1969 identi ed these birds as giant Canada geese using the criteria described by Hanson 1965 Aware of the potential of this ock on Old Hickory the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency TWRA in 1966 initiated the resident Canada goose project The goal was to have enough geese for recreational hunting Gore and Barstow 1969 which was in response to the low numbers of overwintering geese attributed to quotshortstoppingquot in northern states Crider 1967 Hanson 1965 Hankla and Rudolph 1967 Hubbard 1976 Yates and Whitehead 1979 In 1967 the TWRA began constructing elevated nesting structures on the reservoir and closed goose hunting in the ve surrounding counties In 1968 approximately 60 pinioned geese were obtained from the state of Missouri Half of these birds were used in a propagation facility at the Old Hickory Nursery The other half were used to supplement the ock on Mr Comer39s property Progeny from both sources colonized the reservoir and the ock continued to expand each year The propagation facility at Old Hickory was dismantled in 1972 but the naturalized ock was large enough that arti cial supplementation was unnecessary C J Whitehead TWRA Nashville Tenn pers commun By 1975 over 2500 geese were inventoried during the summer Coe and Pollock 1975 From 1967 through 1977 the TWRA banded 4568 geese there Cromer 1978 The US Fish and Wildlife Service started a resident goose ock on Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuge NWR in 1964 two years after the refuge was established The objective was to attract geese that were displaced from the Kentucky Woodlands NWR Kentucky where Barkley Reservoir had inundated goose habitat The initial stocking of 15 geese came from Horseshoe Lake Refuge Illinois and Swan Lake NWR Missouri In 1967 11 giant Canadas were received from Minnesota and in 1970 six more were transferred from Wapanocca NWR Arkansas The rst successful broods were raised in 1969 and by 1973 the postnesting population had reached 73 birds Oberheu 1973 A survey in 1987 revealed 239 adults and 39 goslings Robinson 1990 These geese moved outside of Cross Creeks NWR to areas around Tennessee NWR and the Tennessee Valley Authority39s TVA Land Between the Lakes The estimated summer population in the area is estimated to exceed 1600 birds TWRA 1995 In 1970 the TWRA and TVA began a cooperative project to artificially propagate giant Canada geese at the Buffalo Springs Research Center The brood stock was the original 9311mm Hmpomtmme Matthew J Gray Univel ity of Tennes ee Chili 4 0M and M e am s 6000 Years oilistory mmmmmp Biological Values 39elhntlrtlep endenl mum thilz 39Aquz c and I T neslrial Fish m mum thilzl R sexvuilsul Eiutlivexsily E nvir omnenial Values mm unlml IGmuntlwzlex39Replenkhmenl huxeline Susanna edimenl m Nun39ienl 12mm amp Ewan Societal Values 39Fur amp Timhex39llzxvesl Aeslhelirs 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lrologic Signature H rog aph mm saw marsh Depth Ground Surl39are T ne ompanen 1 Flood duration Ave age or total amount of time standing 16 COE Zonesi Msts during a l loo even 2 Flood frequent e age number of tim a tland andii an 3 Flood depth Depth of aboveground standing lt 53 x Mm pnmola Variable wannnd gmunn su aca Fblfx aumd H dromr m 39 limate I V Prairie Pl ecedlng tel Le els Pothole ents inth ims amp stE flushed Hllnlallr induced V a in 2 611 Budget Quuut cilrion oi all llydl39 ologic iuputs qu outputs uet precipitation quot surface in ows sheet stream ow Irfnce out ows grotuulu tei out ows w New Budget ple 1 u eulute uet precipitation 1 late 1 1 noes titis mm dizl tite vzlu39 has nmzined sum AV pl xlGlETxG1T N22922 72232 11 0 Lmyr At viutaoesitmeauimvut mu n Remy Rmftes Res a ennre T me Renei 11 Rate Turuovei rate of the water in uwetluutl Q V v 39 ma re ilculin uwetluutl In e biocllanicill processes Re idence Time AvaIge time than IIQI39 remains in 1 V etluutl minimgrungy detentianu39mel R 639ng voltuue or me inweIliuul ttleptit x surface areal Q total in ow iute 1Pn si Gil R idence Time v Pruductivi 39 1391quot quot 3 A mu in Depth n m i As esitleuee tiutetleueuses quotquot39 product IwetliImls oiteu iueieuses ie tinunveiiuueaseswetiautipiutiurtitity Hydrmog c Pat lwa Precipim on 139 granny mkrpmsu gum mum sm nmnsr m mrp5vm amp Pm u mama 5k ln ologic Pm m rm Flox 39erlmulRIlno 39 Nnnrhanmlilzd sheet aw usually fnllnwing Malian and qm39ng Iluw nr as nes quot3952 R M JS Lanny mum 3n m mmmwanmnm um 11 mm m aw Puunl ufpxu ipih un hummus mm m A 1mm um I mmmmmmm Hydn q ogic Pa m 391 Surface Fl Stre39unl low Chanmliza l walm39 aw inln a wetland Bankmll Digkmge Whenwiluhap39m u um um mm m a anth Raul re 1mm Ann dunr39nnlhal a 39 anth ewerinzuhnmdixhup rm mm mum 1m in Hydrmog c Pat lwa yr ollmlw alter Subsurfam fhw nfwalm mm nr mu nfa wetland 1p Disthaige We an39 Ha Mumgnwmm andsape dlu39lhznwzlu39 welhnd min m mum am able Inks 39zl Hydrologic Pa m mys Granuh ubsurfam fhw nf walm39 inln nr nlll nf a wgllaml er am am ufsunnundng Imdsape ishduw szu39 in zwelland glmmrlwalm rmssr seriinnal ama pexyemliullar m 112 dhltlinxlnffhw c 7 km mm H mmmm snilpm39mmb iin wrlmulir gmrlienl m n m sap quotmm um lemlogic Pathway fun i Cum ina l walm39 lass mm amp nmlinn and Iransp imlinn Evapnmlin 39zlu39dulvzpurius vmwzlu39ux milinzwelhnd Tmnspimliun 39zlu39hsslhmughvas uhrphmsV enllyzllhe gunman Ems p as 39Ommmn 44m cm Du 39 mm 1 mng 51 m m w m liemung Renexth u LU n n a and ushivdv mm with hp 1 Mangn uve V Hands Spedes and La nulinal Zomlrion Gsngrzplly an m Egm2mmwmas 3 N awn Nos Speci c Effects of HVLl up on Wetlands 1 Veg z ve swig nmpnsi an and Ridmess sills in uni uevg mama hm u dun unuf snilznu39n and mzymuuse ux den m queisr39rhness Fhwlhmu u amp dynamiz hydlnhg39w 5pm klemlurily 2 Primary Prndnnin 391 Dependsun nuninl 1an 1 genemlh fhwlhmugh syslemswidnperhdi dnwduwns Alhzhzhunumwulu Mum inl Suulus 3 Organir Armmnlzrinn and Emu cnunuh un gnzlesl in slzgnznl sunirpennznenllv uuded welhnds m and expun gxulesl in 11mm u m h39gh pximzx pxnduc viuwsuunts WWW mm mu 4 Nunimcming 39Nulxienlszihhi uyWhenprinm39ypmdu v 39ns am hia Ni 115 an u mm mm amp pa Wez ler Sudan and Rain Ganges Measuring HV lrolua in tlands P 2 and Wm 4nd Remrders 4quot we upped 2 rainyquotdune une hunum end 51 an W et and L05 es and Hum an Impacts M attllew J G Uni of T elm Disn ibmiolm of North American W e am 5 mm North Amerin Wf aml Estimates Lm me 27w ugh um mm A mquot Vie md T pass in the United grates 39US N39Etlands Dnminzlmd V Peatland ilSkil Balinnesnta lv higan Furested 39etlands Must Cmnmun er 48 mm mm rmssum mm mm mm X 1 mil ha mwmv marves r m mgrWV mum m Yum Estuarine etlands are must mnnnun mastah uand Gulf urM Luuisiana Distu butmn amp EV atrium 1M Pem ands Acclulllll quoton 1 Precipitation E apol a on Decomposition Anaembit F91 Sedges amp Tamara Muss amp Sprufe s pH Dlsdmrge Redrarge Terrestrial e mm 3a0fLand A ea 26 7 Iillion L cre as 780000 ac 316000 ha 08 n at Luwer US Lakes Wetlands Inquot 25quotquot Fumsl Farmland 44a 52 Rivers quot n Brnadrlezwed and 4 Lakes needlerlezwed Detidunus rater Cover etlaml m mummm mm my 39 semm mmcunws v V V 7 Sin39n1u 1m uIW39elhnds State e and Lasses 53 in anu US 1 dam a wmmxnmwm LawnsAnn o mannavava Mm u Lam J annel Lou w 6000 Loss 1 12 Million ac M a mum in W t Tenne ee D095 0 State Legislat Mean Cannot I I It 1 a Tennessee etlands Acqui tion Act 1986 Real Estate Transfer Tax 39 7Enil39 azmml lV m 1 1000iac Luna rent E at s w and Lo 01 o Loss pe ear 2 47000 ha Early 19005 490000 ha per yearltgt 11 per year 1950 7051 185000 ha per year c 04 per year 198039s 116000 ha per yearc 025 per year 1990s 47000 ha per year z 01 per year So the equivalent to 39 0 o of Smoky Hmmmm ll il fi l i on a L zmr tlands 51 L3 0 v D 39 11110611 Rafa Clay Til Plastic Pipes a 5 Over turned Pit Q P x S mpg Floating or PT07lriven Pumps Human Hn uenms 0n Weeu nnus Enu Deforestation A uuualUse Espe all 151 ardwnud 5 mt Bu am First Dr T imb er Human in uences on quotW Levee 1nd Channelization FWD C mmlAflS 1923453 Flnnd Cnntrnlrlrnnit Navigatinn amp Human Innuences 0n Wet nnd Filling etlands H nc39xeteRunutr 39 Prim 39 Causes Urban Develupmem Cnnslruttinn Sedimematiun s Etnndary A51 Inlltuml Runun39 Bank D estab lizatinn r urld 39 s Pupummn an Cnasts Human In uences on e ands Wer P nlhm39nn Human Influences on e am s P a linil mm Hummus wummmm 1 mania Hm m m m nu smm m Human In uences xcn nuisianz mslzl Erasian my quotwwwhwislurmldhn39 ms ildexhnn 4 sq mic pu m awn sq mks Delva K n in m hssp Human In uences on Wet am s mm L mnslana C mm Erasian lfuulball ld 1 a m L hu uinsluxmsu e Hm I icane hatrul a St Hermld and Phl rmimspa sks will mills hss inhuman squot L31 Man v and Losses and Hum 2m Impacts M attllew J G Uni of T elm Disn bm on 01f Non n American V Ve amls n n em Nomi American e am Estimates 4quot 39 s9 m1 5m 1m mm m Ah Current A wwgg f I am T3 peg rm the United Stateg W WWW Us Wetlands Dnminated I Peatland aska Minnest 1v I 39 Furesled 39etlands Must Cnmmnn m h anquot mum X 1 mil ha r39eshwamv n39zrsrcs mums Estuarine Etlands are must mmmnn masmh land Gulf urM Luuisiana D mt bull 1m lt3 Chm mfmn s st cg mlquot Peat mm s Precipitation g Accumlll 39on E apola on V I Decomposition 2550quot n Anaembif Fe Bug Sedges amp Tamara Muss amp Spune pH 0 pH Disfhzu ge Temrmressee Wext anm r 3a of Land A ea pprox mate a 269 Million L cre as 780000 ac quot 316011 ha 1 08 nanwer US Rivers quot n Lakes 3 1nquot 5quotquot 4 a Lakes Farmland Fm I 44quot n 52 Brnadrlezwed and needlerlezwed Detiduuus rater Cove E e am A Barrier to Amen cam Progress N 4quot 1111an In at Wedznds Last in t mu mm nxa u x mamau m mmvapmmmumenmmrmmn m mummm mm mm mum mole smwm NTERLNANGE p W M Stme W e mml Losses 53quot in anu US V Imm AvumALWMAmu o mmmmnmmqm Mm u Lam issipp Alllm39ia Value 39 e aml Loss u nf Hzrrhvnnd Ennnmlznd Fnresls e quotb se39ftlannd 1L 6000 Loss gt 12 Million ac Does not Mean Cannot 1000iac K Euumgum Milan mng on Drai ing tlands Dr nage Ditch Clay Tiles Plastic Pipes Pit Q P x S mpg Floating or PToidrwen Pumps Hummarm llm u on Deforestatl Many Hardwood Bottonllands cut First for Timber Fragmenta l 391 Cotton nce so eans Curring Louisiana s Cypress S oug ls 46555411 Mnnkuulynurplemphns nuq JY cm mu m Kepnenle Human in uences on We am s melizz nn quot1quot CHImum 1a m mp cat m C uamurs m a m and men n zau c csiranspor39 nd 0 lhe river m eomwphic mpactg P mb m C ology Source 0 mama Erosion MEN Laad Transg Fine Silts Curremmrecllon and Clays Bed mad pamcles mnvmg by sanauan Coarse San Headwaters tu eroswon Cnanne eroswon Cnanne depogmon VaHey P ug cnanne s 9 we Exces sand deposmon Abandoned Downstream Jam23 reek w w 7 Valley Plugs 39inlerseciions oflribuiaries coml onlocaiions 3951er plugs the channel urinqsubse er 39ows plug 5 a ionalsandis depcs Jvel39aank Heading B s productive soils and see Abandaned Channe Impacted in 539 IIE ways svalley plug bui 10 a lesser 0 flood 9 an water table Crevas F wwwwarumm ZEUS quotquotquot quotquot quot quot quotquotquot quot quot39 osposltlcn In me oodplain n Ltvcafzmn m Fem air C ay Sediment Pads c z E 3 m a z e E e a a a Larger galmom m a wmwall S d mgm miiy n I Hexmann g Humhg Mc wve g Hupp amp K exss Rae zuuu Bmzemme Nanev Mums 1995 1993 1 199m meme g ng 2mm meme g ng 2mm may lt2cmper year Percentage omooe Valley Plug Shoal Emsm EI VaSltSznd Samemhn Tn endz a rash 40X Spnng Ham GVL WWW mamer m m n Yam mm Magma Abundance of Tree Species Conirol Silo u mm mm W am Kmun m Differalms in Spain Evenness Human In uences on e am s Filling Weuands Primary am UxhanDewlqumm 39 v umui Human in uences on W e am s Wer P nlhm39nn w Human Hn uences on N e mm s P a linil mm Pullimulus mm Pm mm I 139rill39mn39um 1 Finland dimsia nu ma um I smm m at m Human In uences on We am s nuisianz mslzl Erasian u uICniml us Mth m murmhwislurmldhn39 ms ildexhnn 4 sq Ink pu m awn sq mks Delva K n in m hssp Human in uences on W e mnds mm Lnuisianz mslzl Erasian Humman I hu u inslunnsur39e mo Mm Hurritane Katrina lil rmimsparisks my mills hss mm Salad 70mm Louisiana before Katrina 77 w L31 Maqu lmmlelem Is am s Hm n cane Katrina 1 2 Glob39n whining and mslzlwnlands USDA PROGRAMS WETLAN D RESTORATIO N P ROGRAMS FOUR PROGRAMS a WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM WRP a CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM CRP a WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM WHIP El WETLAND CONSERVATION PROVISION OF FARM BILL SWAMPBUSTER WRP XHIP ELIGLBLE LANDS El PRIVATELV OWNED El TRIBAL PE L mm m 52 M v n pr u ummu N 3 r RESTORATION REQUIRENEENTS El Pre conversion hydrology El Hydrologic enhancement for targeted specnes El P 39 quot Iant r LAND OWNER RESERVED RIGHTS 4 p QUIET ENJOYMENT COMPATIBLE USES WHIP PROGRAM AND PRACTICES El 75 COST SHARE El 510 YEAR CONTRACTS i U L CRP CONTINUOUS PROGRAM WETLAND BUFFER PRACTICES Filter strips CP21 Forested riparian buffer CP22 Shallow water areas for wildlife CP9 Wetland restoration CP23 and CPZSA Farrnable Wetland pilot wetland CP27 Farrnable Wetland pilot wetland buffer CPZS Bottomland timber on wetlands CP31 IlIlIlIIIIIIII Filter Strip c1321 El Remove concentrated flow points El Pass gt50 of runoff as sheet flow El Width 20 120 feet El Increase width with slope DA high runoff soils El Restricted hayinggrazing allowed Forested Riparian Buffer CPZZ El 3 zones El Zone 1 15 feet Shrubstrees bank stability rapid growth low blockage risk El Zone 2 20 feet Trees 3 species El Zone 3 Native grass filter strip optional El Width 35 180 feet Shallow Water Areas CP9 El 10 acre limit per tract El Native grass buffer around waterline 20 120 El Impound for at least six months El Average depth of 618 inches W etlaud Restoration CP23 23A PC or FW acres 51 hydric soils in field Within 100 year floodplain 23 Outside 100 year floodplain 23A lt31 upland buffer 23 lt41 upland buffer 23A 23A offers cannot be eligible for CP27 Either grassland or forested ecosystem landowner decides IIIIIIII Farmable W etland Pilot CP27 El PC or FW El Offered area 10 acres or less El Enrolled acres 5 acres or less El Area outside the 100 year floodplain and not on NWI Bottomland Timb er Establishment CP31 El Reforestation in 100 year floodplain El Does not have to be hydric soil El Min 3 mast producing hardwoods SWAlVlPB USTER WETLAND DEFINITION I Hydric soil sbil parameter I39Inundate d or saturated hydrology parameter long enough duringlgrowing season in most years El Wetland plant community under normal Circumstance vegetation para meter SVXCAIVIPBUSTER El CONVERSION OF WETLANDS TO CROPPABLE CONDITIONquotAF39ER NOVEMBER 28 1990 WILL RESULT IN LOSS OF USDA PROGRAM PARTICIPATION DEFINITION OF WETLAND CONVERSION El DRAINED DREDGED FILLED LEVELED OR OTHERWISE MANIPULATED INCLUDING REMOVAL OF WOODY VEGETATION THAT RESULTS IN IMPAIRING OR REDUCING THE FLOW AND CIRCULATION OF WATER FOR THE PURPOSE OF OR TO HAVE THE EFFECT OF MAKING THE PRODUCTION OF AN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY POSSIBLE TYPES OF WETLANDS u WETLANDS W n PRIOR CONVERTED CROPLANDS PC I FARMED WETLANDS FW 1 FARMED WETLAND PASTURES FWP u WETLANDS FARMED UNDER NATURAL CONDITION W WETLAND LOSSES LN TENNESSEE I 2 million acres in 1780 s FWS I 800000 acres in 1980 s I 59 loss I 80 of wetland conversion due to agriculture from 1970 to 1990 Audubon I 2500 acres lost annually from 1975 to 1985 I Only 9 of forested wetlands in Mississippi River Valley remained in 1990 Presidential Policy Earth day 2004 I President sets new policy to expand base acreage over the old no net lossquot policy 1 million acre restoration increase by 2009 I 1 million acre enhancement increase by 2009 I Between 2004 and 2006 I 588000 acres restore 563000 acres enhanced I 646 000 acres protected acquisitioneasement I VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS PRIVATE LANDS ii Wetlands Reserve Program NRCS ational r 18 million ac amp buffers T nessee r 20000 ac in Conservation Reserve Program FSA Nation 7 23 million ac amp buffers Tenn 7 929 ac botmmland reforest in Wildlife Habirar Incendve Program NRCS National Tennessee n Pariners for Fish and Wildlife FWS National 750000 ac