Independ Study WildlfFish Sci
Independ Study WildlfFish Sci WFS 493
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correlate amp Reiaiiveahiindance gt pm Ageclam dnirmiivan Sex radii Size av age Population variables Organismlevel responses provide a pivotal pointtlirougli which mechanistic understandin and the ecological quen s rlked ces of stre s can be Ii 39 5quotb quotquot39aquot 55 organism Population coiiiiiiunity organ ECOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Bio indicator overy Assessment Ecological Risk Assessment EXPOSURE POPULAIIOM coMMuulw Environiii ental stressors mm V I Inmwg mgm m w x um mm w mm mu m mnh ruMm w mlmIlMuM m human hnkmn itrwrun WW WWW M m H mm mwmnmnm Predatorinduced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more deadly to gray treefrog tadpoles Hyla versicolor Rick A Relyea and Nathan Millst Department of Biological Sciences University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh PA 15260 and Department of Biological Sciences University of Missouri Columbia MO 65211 Edited by David B Wake University of California Berkeley CA and approved December 8 2000 received for review February 222000 39 39 39 39 quot 39 L39L39 quot I L I II inrliirling widespread pesticide use Our knowledge of pesticide effects on amphibians is largely limited to shortterm 4d toxicity tests conducted under highly artificial conditions to determine lethal concentrations LC50 We found that if we used slightly longer exposure times 10 16 1 low concentrations of the pesticide carbaryl 3 4 of LCSOM killed 10 60 of gray treefrog Hyla versicolor tadpoles If predatory cues also were present the pesticide became 2 4 times more lethal killing 60 98 of tad poles Thus under more realistic conditions of increased exposure times and predatory stress current application rates for carbaryl can potentially devastate gray treefrog populations Further be cause predator induced stress is ubiquitous in animals and carbar yl39s mode of action is common to many pesticides these negative impacts may be widespread in nature mphibian population declines around the world have been eiving increased attention but the mechanisms respon esized mechanisms include natural population fluctuations hab itat destruction introduced predators and pathogens increased UV radiation and environmental contaminants 177 Whereas evidence is accumulating for the first four hypotheses little is known about the effects of environmental contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides on amphibian populations Given the pervasiveness of pesticide applications negative effects of pesticides could have an impact on amphibians around the world or example in the United States alone 2 billion kg ofpesticides are used annually across many different habitats including nearly 75 of all farms and homes Worldwide use is nearly 5 times this amount 8 Our knowledge of pesticide effects on amphibians comes primarily from acute toxicity tests that estimate LC50 the concentration of a pesticide predicted to kill 50 of a test population within a given amount of time and under given conditions of exposure These tests typically are conducted for only 174 d and they are conducted without consideration of many natural biotic and abiotic effects 9711 LC50 estimates have been extremely useful in determining the relative lethality of different pesticides and the relative susceptibility of different rganisms However the lethality ofvery low concentrations of pesticides ltltLC50 is often unknown 12 13 iotic and biotic stressors have the potential to interact with acute pesticide effects and this has provoked a great deal of interest about the impact of multiple stressors Abiotic factors such as pH temperature and li ht can synergistically affect mortality caused by pesticides 14716 but we know little about the potential synergistic effects of biotic factors For example the fear of predation is a common stressor that causes most animals including amphibians to become less active and grow more slowly 17722 but there appear to be no studies that have examined the interaction between predatorinduced fear and pesticides as multiple stressors In this study we examine the Car t39 1 I 1 e 39 1 1 impact of low vwvw pnas orgcgidoi101073pnas 031076198 stress on the behavior growth and survival of larval gray treefrogs Hyla versicolor The gray treefrog is a species com mon to eastern North America that breeds in the early summer throughout its range Treefrogs lay their eggs in ponds and the eggs hatch within a few days The resulting tadpoles grow in the pond for 478 weeks and then metamorphose into terrestrial fro s Fgor our experiments we worked with carbaryl 1naphthyl N methylcarbamate commercial name Sevin one of the world s most commonly used broadspectrum pesticides an insecticide acaricide molluscicide and ectoparasiticide It acts by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and has become popular throughout the world since 1959 because of its low toxicity to mammals and its relatively short lifetime in the environment Whereas myriad tests of carbaryl toxicity have been conducted on birds mammals fish and invertebrates there are few pub lished studies on am hibians Past studies of am hibian re sponses to carbaryl have found that carbaryl reduces tadpole activity and growth and LC50 estimates vary between 25 and 206 mgliter 12 13 15 23 Carbaryl is applied to croplands gt100 crop species range lands forests wet an s oceans an sewage treatment plants to exterminate animal pests and it is applied to domesticated animals to control lice mites ticks and fleas 24 Ten to 15 million pounds of carbaryl are applied annually in the United States on 200 million acretreatments acres treated X number of treatments including 28 million homes and 31 million gardens 25 Because carbaryl is widely used it can enter amphibiancontaining wetlands through direct aerial spraying aerial drift terrestrial runoff or erosion 26 27 While our study focused on just carbaryl it is important to note that carbarv A f i 3le p H irl iiw fix in use Methods Experiment 1 In 1999 we conducted a pilot experiment to determine the chronic longerterm effect of carbaryl and predator stress on larval treefrog survival We used eggs from 10 pairs of amplecting treefrogs collected from a pond in the Baskett Wildlife Area near Ashland MO We hatched the eggs in filtered tap water and then randomly assigned groups of 10 tadpoles mean mass 1 SE in water 56 5 m to polyethylene tubs containing 10 liters of filtered tap water Adso tion of carbaryl onto these plastic tubs has been found to be negligible 28 The tubs were placed on two shelves in two spatial blocks in a laboratory under a 159 h lightdark cycle This paper was submitted directly Track II to the PNAS office 39 ime under a pulalion 39To whom reprint requeslsshould be addrexed Esmail reiyeapiu edu his I This article must therefore be hereby marked quotadvertisementquot In accordance Wllh 18 u s c 1734 solely 0 Indicate this fact PNAS l February27 2001 1 vol 98 1 no 5 1 2491 2496 ECOLOGV Tubs were randomly assigned one of four chemical treatments and one of two predator treatments all treatments replicated four times The chemical treatments consisted of a negative control water addition a solvent control acetone addition and two levels of carbaryl addition We made a stock solution of carbaryl by dissolving 501 mg of technical grade carbaryl 998 purity RhonePoulenc Research Triangle Park NC into 250 ml of acetone The carbaryl concentration of the stock solution was 18 mg ml based on highpressure liquid chromatography anal yses by the Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory Tubs as signed to the low and high carbaryl treatments received either 025 or 050 ml of stock solution for nominal carbaryl concen trations of 0045 and 0090 mgliter respectively These compare with LC50 estimates of 129 mgliter a 2d test 13 and 25 mgliter a 4d test 15 Solvent control tubs received 05 ml of acetone whereas negative controls received 05 ml of water Predator treatments consisted of either a caged larval salamander Ambystoma maculatum or an empty cage 250ml plastic cups covered with fiberglass window screening Caged predators emit chemical cues that induce antipredator responses in their prey without allowing the predators to kill the target anim s 731 During the 10d experiment tadpoles first were fed ground fish food at a rate of 18 of initial body mass per tadpole per day an abundant food ration Whereas shorterterm tests 174 d are typically conducted in the absence of food we added food because the tadpoles would not have survived the longer exper iment without food and because foraging tadpoles reflect the more natural situation Once we visually estimated that the tadpoles had doubled in mass across treatments the food ration was doubled Caged predators were fed five small tadpoles every other day to produce the chemical cues and if predators died the predators were replaced We changed the tub water on day 3 and day 7 changes grouped by treatment and the chemical treatments were reapplied after water changes Each day the number of surviving tadpoles was counted On days requiring water changes we quantified survival before changing the water We did not monitor water temperature but the laboratory was maintained at 24 1 C e data were analyzed with an analysis of variance ANOVA using final survival as the response variable trans formed as logsurvival 01 A repeatedmeasures ANOVA was not possible because control treatments had no variance on several of the days sampled 100 0 survival Block effects never approached significance P gt 05 and were dropped from the analysis Experiments 2 and 3 In 2000 we conducted two moreextensive experiments to determine the effects of carbaryl and predator stress on larval treefrog behavior growth and survival For both experiments we collected fertilized eggs from a different pop ulation 12 km south of the first population and hatched them in filtered tap water As in experiment 1 rou s of 10 tadpoles were randomly assigned to 10liter polyet ylene tubs filled with filtered tap water Tubs were placed on shelves in four spatial blocks in a laboratory under a 159 h lightdark ratio The tadpoles in experiment 2 were a mixture of 21 sibships mean mass 1 SE 13 1 mg whereas tadpoles in experiment 3 were a mixture of 8 sibships mean mass 11 1 m In each experiment tubs were randomly assigned a factorial combination of two predator treatments and six chemical treat ments replicated four times Predator treatments were identi cal to those in experiment 1 whereas the chemical treatments consisted of a negative control water addition a solvent control acetone addition and four concentrations of carbaryl In experiment 2 we made a stock solution of carbaryl by dissolving 6018 mg oftechnical grade carbaryl into 100 ml of acetone The carbaryl concentration of the stock solution was 627 mgml 2492 vwvw pnas 0rgCgld0l10 1073pnas 031076198 based on analyses by the Mississippi State Chemical Labora tory Tubs assigned to the four carbaryl treatments received 133 067 033 or 017 ml of stock solution for nominal carbaryl concentrations 83 42 21 and 10 mgliter respectively Sol vent control tubs received 133 ml of acetone whereas negative controls received 133 ml of water In experiment 3 we made a stock solution of carbaryl by dissolving 501 mg of technical grade carbaryl into 2 0 ml of acetone The carbaryl concentration of the stock solution was 27 mgml based on analyses by the Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory Tubs assigned to the four carbaryl treatments received 200 100 050 or 025 ml of stock solution for nominal carbaryl concentrations 054 027 014 and 007 mgliter respectively Solvent control tubs re ceived 2 ml of acetone whereas negative controls received 2 ml of water During the 16d experiments tadpoles and predators were fed as in experiment 1 We chan ed the tub water every 4 days and the chemical treatments were reapplied after water changes We observed the activity of the tadpoles 10 times per day by slowly approaching each tub and counting the number of tadpoles alive in each tub and the proportion of live tadpoles that were active moving by using scan sampling 32 t the end of t e experiment the surviving tadpoles were counted and weighed Because tadpole growth was based only on those tadpoles that survived our estimates of growth could be upwardly biased if slowergrowing tadpoles were more susceptible to the stresses of predators and carbar 1 Midway through experiments 2 and 3 we quantified the oxygen temperature pH and total ammonia in each tub Oxygen and temperature were measured by using a Yellow Springs Instrument 55 dissolved oxygen meter oxygen resolu tion 001 mgliter temperature resolution 01 C Total ammonia and pH were measured using an Orion Expandable ionAnalyzer EA 940 ammonia resolution 0001 mgliter pH resolution 001 H The activity growth and abiotic data were analyzed with standard ANOVA The survivorship data did not meet the assumptions of standard ANOVA so we conducted a nonpara metric analysis on survivorship by first ranking the data and then conducting an t e ranks Block interactions never approached significance P gt 05 and were dropped from the analysis For all of the experiments animal care was in accor dance with institutional guidelines Results Experiment 1 Survival remained high in the control chemical treatments but the addition of carbaryl at all of the concentra tions caused high mortality within 1 week Fig 1 Survival r mained high in the presence of carbaryl through day 5 and then began a precipitous drop to a point that was significantly lower than the controls F377 344 P lt 00001 The chemical and predator treatments interacted with the predator treatments 33 45 P 0012 When carbaryl was present at 0090 mgliter survival declined to approximately 8 by day 8 regardless of predator treatment When carbaryl was present at 005 mgliter tadpole survival declined to 40 with predators absent but declined to 3 with predators present Experiments 2 and 3 In the more extensive experiments conducted the following year we found similar results Figs 2 and 3 In experiment 2 which contained the highest four carbaryl con centrations survivorship was 98 with either control treatment regardless of predator treatment However in the presence of carbaryl survivorship dropped off precipitously beginning on day 3 at the highest concentration and day 6 at the lowest concentration After 16 d mean survival across the four carbaryl treatments was 4 significantly lower than the control treat ments F5736 350 P lt 000001 Predators did not affect Relyea and MliiS e No predator Caged predator W Water 100 80 60 Survival 40 20 0 1 00 W 80 Acetone 60 Survival 40 20 0 100 80 60 Carbaryl 009 mgL Survival 40 20 0 100 80 60 Carbaryl 005 mgL Survival 40 20 0 O 2 4 6 8 10 Fig 1 Survivorship of gray treefrog tadpoles reared in the presence or absence of predatory cues combined with the addition of either water a negative control acetone a solvent control or two concentrations of car baryl experiment 1 Data are means 1 SE tadpole survivorship F1736 07 P lt 0407 Because of the widespread death tadpole activity could be assessed only during the first 6 days Carbaryl caused a reduction in activity and this reduction was larger as carbaryl concentration increased F 5733 Relyea and Mills 607 P lt 00001 Predators generally reduced activity across all chemical treatments F1733 220 P lt 0001 but the reduction was not significant under the highest two carbaryl concentrations in which the activity levels were already extremely low activity 1 6 The widespread death among most of the tubs contain ing carbaryl precluded any analysis of growth rates 24 tubs had no tadpoles alive but the few tadpoles that remained alive with carbaryl present experienced about 50 of the growth experi enced with carbaryl absent When we monitored the chemical conditions in the water midway through the experiment we found that carbaryl had no effect on water temperature mean 230 C P 0089 and only minor effects on oxygen P 5 0001 range of means 66 73 mgliter and pH P 0048 range of means 85 86 that were not related to carbaryl concentration Increased carbaryl was associated with increased ammonia levels P lt 00001 range of means 021 099 mgliter but this effect was likely due to the presence of dead tadpoles and an excess of unconsumed food regression of survival against ammonia P 0001 R2 0395 Predators had no effect on ammonia or temperature P gt 01 and only small effects on oxygen and pH a 9 decrease in oxygen P lt 00001 a 05 decrease in pH P 0019 range of means 859 863 In experiment 3 which included the lowest four carbaryl concentrations survivorship was again very high in both control treatments regardless of predator presence mean 90 However in the presence of carbaryl survivorship declined beginning on days 10 11 and the final survivorship with carbaryl present was significantly reduced mean across carbaryl treat ments 83F5736 83P 000003 Predator cues made the pesticide 4 times more lethal F1736 481 P lt 000001 final survivorship across the four carbaryl treatments with caged predators averaged 32 Over the duration of the experiment there were small differences in activity among the control and carbaryl treatments F5733 35 P 0011 but activity with carbaryl was similar to activity with the solvent control P 2 005 Predators did not affect tadpole activity when carbaryl was absent but significantly reduced activity when carbaryl was present chemical gtlt predator interactionF5733 48P 0002 Predators and carbaryl also had an interactive effect on growth rate F5729 97 P 000002 predators did not affect growth in the absence of carbaryl but reduced tadpole growth by 50 in the presence of carbaryl When we monitored the chemical conditions in the water midway through experiment 3 we found that carbaryl treatments and the solvent control had 6 lower oxygen concentrations than the negative control P 5 0002 range of means 38 49 mgliter but there were no differences in pH mean 85 temperature mean 229 C or ammonia mean 022 mg liter Predators had no effect on oxygen pH temperature or ammonia P gt 01 Discussion Our results demonstrate that very low concentrations of carbaryl can have dramatic effects on amphibian behavior growth and survival As in past studies carbaryl reduced tadpole activity and growth 12 15 22 Estimates of carbaryl LC50 in treefrog tadpoles have ranged from 129 mgliter a 2d test 13 to 25 mgliter a 4d test 15 similar to LC50 estimates in other larval anurans 12 23 Our lowest pesticide concentrations in the two years were 28 38 of the LC504d and 04 05 of the LC502d suggesting that our concentrations should have little shortterm effect on tadpole survival in any of the experiments Indeed after 4 d our pesticide concentrations had no negative effect on survival in any of the experiments However by the end of the experiments up to 97 of the tadpoles died Thus very low concentrations of carbaryl can still cause widespread am phibian death it just takes a few more days to observe the effect PNAS February27 2001 vo98 no5 2493 ECOLOGY O No predator 30 O Caged predator 3 20 E l I 10 0 I I I 0 l S A U U E 20 I 3 3 5 o E 10quot I o I I E i Q G 0 I I l I I I I I I I I W A 10 21 42 8 W A 007 014 027 054 Experiment 2 Fig 2 Experiment 3 Activity and growth rate of gray treefrog tadpoles reared in the presence or absence of predatory cues combined with the addition of water W a negative control acetone A a solvent control or carbaryl numbers along the X axis represent carbaryl concentrations in mgliter Data are means 1 SE experiments 2 and 3 Our results also demonstrated that predatory cues can interact with carbaryl to cause substantial tadpole mortality Predator induced stress alone generally reduced tadpole activity but it never reduced tadpole growth or survival Similarly when carbaryl concentrations were low carbaryl alone had small impacts on tadpole survival However when both stressors were present tadpole mortality increased by 2 4 times When carba ryl concentrations were high carbarylinduced stress dominated causing rapid mortality regardless of whether the predator induced stress was present The carbaryl concentration at which predators played a synergistic role differed between the two years this difference may be attributable to either different initial sizes or genetic differences between the two source populations We are only beginning to appreciate how abiotic and biotic stressors can interact with pesticides Researchers have found that changes in abiotic factors such as temperature pH and UVB radiation can synergistically affect the lethality of pesti cides 14 16 Our study is unique in that the synergism was caused by a biotic factor predatory cues that is extremely common in aquatic systems the majority of ponds inhabited by 2494 wwwpnasorgcgidoi101073pnas031076198 treefrogs also are inhabited by aquatic predators E E Werner RAR D K Skelly and K L Yurewicz unpublished data Given the ubiquity of predatorinduced stress in a wide variety of animals 17 19 similar interactions among predator stress and similarly acting widely used insecticides may be common Further it seems likely that other biotic stressors eg compe tition parasites also could have interactive effects with pesti cides However given the preliminary nature of our knowledge it is important to note that this interaction between carbaryl and predatorinduced stress is known only to occur in gray treefrogs Further research will be necessary to determine whether the phenomenon occurs in other amphibian species The mechanism underlying the pesticide predator interaction is currently unknown but there are several possibilities Preda tors produce chemical cues that induce prey fear 28 29 and this fear may simply be an additional stressor on the amphibian s physiology that when combined with the stress of the pesticide causes a high rate of mortality The predatorinduced reduction of activity and growth provides evidence that predators do indeed pose a stressful environment to tadpoles Alternatively predators may alter the abiotic conditions including the pro Relyea and Mills WWWW 75 Water 50 25 0 wombWW 75 50 25 0 1001 75 50 25 0 1001 75 50 25 0 1001 75 50 25 0 1001 75 50 25 0 0 2 4 6 8 Day Survival 0 No predator O Caged predator Acetone Survival Carbaryl83 mgL Survival Carbaryl42 mgL Survival Carbaryl21 mgL Survival Carbaryl10 mgL Survival 10 12 14 16 Fig 3 1 00 1 75 50 Water 25 0 1 001MW 75 50 25 0 1 00 1 75 50 25 0 1 001 75 50 25 0 1 00 1 75 50 25 0 1 00 1 75 50 25 0 Survival Acetone Survival Carbaryl054 mgL Survival Carbary027 mgL Survival Carbaryl014 mgL Survival Survival Carbaryl007 mgL llll 02468 Day l 10 12 14 16 Survivorship of gray treefrog tadpoles reared in the presence or absence of predatory cues combined with the addition of water a negative control acetone a solvent control or carbaryl at eight concentrations experiments 2 and 3 Data are means 1 SE Left Experiment 2 Right Experiment 3 duction of nitrogenous wastes that can be toxic to fish and amphibians 33 34 Our monitoring of the abiotic conditions in experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that while predator cues reduced survival at low carbaryl concentrations predators did not affect the temperature pH dissolved oxygen or ammonia concentrations in the water Relyea and Mills A potential concern in this study is the realistic nature of the concentrations that were used in our experiments and the rate of carbaryl breakdown There is little information available on typical carbaryl concentrations in natural ponds but carbaryl can be as high as 48 mgliter 35 36 The low concentrations used in experiments 1 and 3 were only 1 11 of the highest concen PNAS February27 2001 vo98 no5 2495 ECOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE CENTER FOR WILDLIFE HEALTH STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES Shipping Hazardous Materials Exempt Animal Specimen Shipped with Ice Packs A Description Includes shipment of specimens tissues swabs etc that are unknown to contain infectious agents This includes all field samples of animals mailed for diagnostic testing It does not include specimens known to be infected with a pathogen eg experimental challenges B Regulated NO C Procedure Triple Packing Procedure Wrap the primary container preferably not glass containing the specimen or swab with paper towel enough to absorb contents if primary container breaks and place it in a sealedZi loc bag ie secondary container Next place the Ziploc bag into a box containing a Styrofoam insert ie third container There should be 2 ice packs below and above the sample Put bubble wrap on top of ice packs to prevent the sample from jostling Lastly include a detailed descriptive list of contents including requested service with your name as packager and my arne as PI Also include my phone number 8659742740 on the list Place the lid on the Styrofoam insert close the outer box and tape with packaging tape Ifthis is ausedbox cover all previous labels with label paper especially any biohazard or dry ice signs Attach an address label identical to below except with your name as shipper Ship ovemight via FedEx or UPS w Mattth Gray PhD nt of Forestry Vl ldlife and Fisheries Institute ofA riculture 274 Ellington Plant Sciences Building Knoxville TN 379964563 USA USGS National Wildlife Health Center Attn Dr Hon S Ip 6006 Schroeder Road Madison WI 5371 1 Contents Exempt Animal Specimen Refrigerate upon Arrival Exempt Animal Specimen Shipped with Ethanol or Formalin A Description Includes shipment of exempt specimens or tissues packaged in ethanol EtOH or formalin Formalin with lt10 formaldehyde is not regulated For formalin with gt10 formaldehyde contact Brian Ranger Below are speci cations for EtOH B Regulated YES iAll quantities of EtOH Class 3 substance a lt500 mL total lt30 mL per container Excepted Quantity b 500 7 1000 mL total lt500 mL per container Limited c gt1000 mL Dangerous Goods Declaration C Procedure Triple Packing Procedure Same as before for a 7 see Brian Ranger for b and c Preferably do not use 9 glass as the primary package Whirl Paks suf ce for primary packages if they are gt02 mm thickness Place samples upright and mark box with orientation arrows For FedEx af x an excepted quantity label le Indicate Class 3 on rst line and quantity on second line For UPS only write This package conforms to 49 CFR 1734 on the box ino label is required Exem t Animal S ecimen Shi ed with D Ice must be done by Drs Gray or Hoverrnan A Description Includes shipment of specimens or tissues on dry ice B Regulated YES 65 lbs 226 kg for UPS special labeling and packaging C Procedure Triple Packing Procedure 1 FedEx Class 9 Hazard Label see Brian Ranger for labels Indicate weight whole kg and UN 1845 on label On air bill indicate Dry Ice 9 UN1845 l xkg to the right of the Internal Billing Reference Alli V 2 UPS M Class 9 Hazard Label Make label or indicate on air bill Dry Ice Cooling Material for Exempt sxlygotzzm can Animal Specimen Indicate weight whole lbs Use triple packaging as described previously however use a tent design so that contents do not jostle once dry ice has volatilized see le Package should not airtight Sampl w Cushiuning Paper towel I Pathology absen e from nor I I Disease a conditlon that impaIrs normal function organ that is 2 able ase v mses bac eria fungi pan ts I Not all pathogens cause disease all of the time I Not all diseass are caused by pathogens ex diabetes most I Symptom is used In HUMAN med39 39 e NOT for animals Thngs we feel and the patient dscribs to the physician l gns occur in Humans and Animals Things we ran measure or observe Common response o J Increased pigme39 k minomacrophag 5quot I Viruses I Bacteria Fun I Parasites internal amp External I Chemicals Endo rIne Disrupters I UV I Genetic Mutations I Ranavirus I Frog Erythrocytic Virus I Lucke Frog Herpesvirus I Adenovirus I West Nile Virus FrogsToadsSalamanders tadpolesadults Eliologic Age l39 r ov39rIIs r enus Ranavlrus Examples 7 ATnEIvans Frog Virus 3 Fv3TadpoIe Edema Virus 7 Caudates Ambystnma tigrinum Virus ATV ost Larvae and Adults but seem most severe in larvae Unsure about eggs and em ryos 39 gnsl Mass Mortality Suhlelllal ca Gross Slgns Skin Ies s Swollen legs and i body red atclles on skln esp at vent some no lesions subclinical Thymus u Transmission 7 DNIAL unlg but still testing lur vemtal Dullus Etalztl Distribution lubal Wildlife Implications 7 single speties are very sensitive am die amels su a sev seemst I Public Health e allaned I virus N infe ed 0 b by stress rido GT in mammals am 1 lans are then prone L rmgs adults am ladpulzs Synunyms FEv mnrymmqm virus Eh39ulugit e lrlduvin39dae pmer b g 1mm n lhouth u m nude mu m mm nuy mm mumquot onslderednon39vzlhoqemt my m be 2 mm M a 1mm 7 lu yneedxlobeexvlored Hus 7 sh amph ns rqaliles 7 Adults rqaurled ENLJadpulES alsu ubssrvzd 21d gn 39lndd lal am Dea lsrepurtzd in Sever Inlemu m muss 59quot Anemia lethargy I Transmission39 thought to occur via 39 ct t nsmlssion mechanically but l Frog eggtadpoIeadult only prob in adult Synon S a Lucke tumor herpesvirus l1 n39d Herpesvirus 1 Etiologic Agent Herpesvirus 7 Fish am hlbian and reptile herp39es not certain how erp related t mammalian or a n es ie alpha beta gamma a Green se turtle herpes causing fibropapillomas novel alphaherpes t 7 Appears to be VElIY SPECIES SPECIFIC a Northern leopard flog Rana pipiens may be others we just haven39t investigated enough l Field Signs None in eggs embryoS or tadpoles Normal development In adults none because tumors are in kidneys BUT tumors grow faSter in WARMER monthS HOWEVER virus iS only found in tumors during the colder monthS McKinnell 1973 l Gross Findings None in eggS or embryoS None in tadpoles except experimentally Kidney tumors in adults a Transmission Vlrus is shed from tumors of adults and thus eggs and embryos are feCted at spaw Only see tumors in adults that were infected as embryoseggs D tribution Range of Rana pipiens Ildlife Implications None known Thus far only reported morbidity and mortality is in adult Rana pipiens and it is rare I Pub Health None known butFrog legs from frogs with kidney tumors are rejected for consumption e Ir t virus that was linked to cancer tumor forma Ion McKInnell 1984 s the virus scIentists were studying when they dIscovered FV3 I Fro but likely salamanders too I Ta poles but kely adults too I Synonyms Adenovirus Enteritis I Etiologic Agent Adenovirus I Host Various Amphibian Species I Field Signs None reported occasionally estinal tract in Tadpoles See inclusions on Histology Histology I Transmission Unknown but presumed feraloral I I e mp lra ions 7 Generally considered an incidental finding OWEVER We are learning more se and inding that in reptiles t 9 serious 0 39mals to bel susceptible to other diseases May similar in amphibians I Pu Hea t Adenoviruss are not thought to cross taxonomic groups but unknown about hey may nore be Eliologk A enl39 Flavivirus other Simi ar viruses includ Dengue f e St Louis encephali s virus Yellow fever virus Host 7 av unlantzd experimental lnletlluns but low grade a not yet dutumentzd natural 39 le 39 3911 amp 39 39ans 7 am have dnuiniented in rep les so maneventudly dutuma t i all ans Field and Gross signs in alligators we see neurolo signs Cutaneous lesions pIXS disease letharov death Setnndary Histology Transmissio insectbites ingestion of infected mosquitos or feces or animals with viable virus I Distribution Started in eastern Africa but becoming worldwide and the virus is changing Wildlife Implications Mass mortality in naive species but many no real p oblem Generally most serious very young a d e old But not certain what will see in public Health Flu including death n v amphi ians ke Most serious probl em very young and very old I Bacterial dermatosepticemia red leg I Aeromonas hydrophila I Salmonellosis I Mycobacteriu m u Icerans Synonyms red leg bacterial septicemia Eliologic Agem a ll Em 39ei ical eu m uatrmsepti 1 Gross Signs Erythema reddening of the skin Cloudy eys or bleeding In the eye hyphema Fibrinous coel s body ravity can look e buttered bread Fibrinous or cloudy lymph sacs Splenomegally large spleen Hepatomegally large liver Transmission direct but generally through wounds and when immune system Is compromised stress I Distrlbution global I Wildllfe Implications Unknown I Public Health some of the pathogens may Infect humans mall Synonyms Salmonellosis paralyphoid footlrpoisoning Etioilogic Agent Salmnnel a spy Gramnegative bacilli ro s ans may be susceptible and p a on We assume all serovars are y nfec ve but this remains unknown ealth e potentially infective via handling or via consumption frog egs Many species of wildlife ma be affe ted but 7 Note Salmonella specres and serovars a ectmg amphibians are generally not as contagrous to humans unless compromised Etiologic Agent 7 There are many yt abat lerium that are infectious to amphibians especiall I marinaer 7 Some ofthe m cobacterrurn are similar to I t abat lerium NICE3175 whic r is infective to humans and trerefore may have zoonotic potential ans unknown 7 continue to eat but weight loss may be severe emaciation gramrlomatous inflammation of internal organs 7 in esions Tia on presume direct contact ingestion Distributro kely global 39 un HOWquot potentially zoonotic 3 Al lrnsealsmm ubiiliw mustm1 lal x impailnmh aaalanns tauna imming miilvy mum innlmall an win we um lanm i anaiaaaumuuaausnnee mu znnl Momma l g2 l x cllnnnulmalaulx WWW snasalaanlaslanskl lnlnelamwa a Fisi llnimnsmwm39 EWme Rmamin Widow ltdm ohmian hm s al l s m ldls i lh l li laaaWaxuulesnlnemmn in a Watermold Saproegnb Algae Chamydomonas Batraciociyl rium dendrobatd s Basidiobous PratSta Mesomycel ozoan Ichthyopmnus Mesomycetozoanlke Infections DRIPS Dermocystdum and Dermomycodes 00m ycetes hiya Aphanomyes Leptoiegnia Pythiopsis erl AND live but damaged eggs and 5 2 d inva er a Host egg masses injuled tadpoles and adults anuians and salamandeis Fie 39 Zy egg capsules or lesions on tads and adults 10 1 n infeded y can see but may need hand lens noidsTHus they invade DEAD eggs 7 clunips ofollon w e filamentous areas on skin or mouth Stonnnon at ed es of tail fins base or tip oflhe tail around ie vent tips 0 digits and mouth Watermold infection Saprolegniasis many types miss o opportunistic throu h juries or otherwise com romis surfacs Exposure is like y Global nations Un us I D tr utIon39 I Wildlife Imp eg s but may ect amphibians and fis egg masss Th known for ought to be mal in larvae and adults m I Public Health none known Alg ae Chlamydomonas 5p Eh39u iI Agent L hlalnydomona 5 Host Einly rqaurled as prublenf39 ysmma quotyarn5mm grarlle nokre mm s d Embryos are greenish baause autDEvELnP anva I n m nknuwn bulme pamuiugyiikay depends on host sm39bun39un Elmp a un Ap Ears m boa smamnt ma Isl PublitHedm None I Synonyms Chytrid Chytrldlomyoosls Bd I Etiologic Agent Batraclmchylrillm dendrabatidis 7 There are many chytlids saplophytic fungi but only Ed is pathogenic to am ns 7 Bd only fects cells that contain keratin ed skin cells Suspect any adult am 39an tadpoles only oral disc because of eratin l Field Signs Tadpoles thought to behave and grow en metamorph ed s Adult anurans considered ins h persistent gradual deaths more often than mass mortality Varies hyspeci Adult salamanders no mass mo tallt reports but suspect population declines In Central Ame a les 7 Tad ol jaw sheaths and tooth39 rows of the oral d 39 39 sta S ALSO toerups 0 late ge tadpoles Gosner 42745 ass of inelan39 n blatkfigmenqh otinding of the titling edges of the jaw shea is slotig e pigmented portion of the teeth39 With preserva ion oft ie 7 Adults II oftl 39 tooth ridges Lethargy weakness orrigitin re ex teariessness abnormal posture de iydration eath rttte 39 39 eiingotskin is noted presents as have reddening erythenia of the skin or the ventriini espetlally at pelvlc patdi ventral thghs ventral alves and toes Thought is that dehydration is die to inability to absorb water through skin Also theorized to Interfere With Na piinip of tells ml allene Pub am animal I 7 me znnsnnye us me lnletllve stage and s mnnle thus may he nlemye yla surhte water 7 unknnwn hnw lam znnsnnyes an snmye m enmnnmem 7 Alsn nlemye hy dlmtl nnlatl Ind lneemnn buhun aemmmg Elubal le lmplitaliuns w til 7 ladnnles llnueally knnwn hetause allhnu n Ills nnsldered all s m laryae lnletled ladunles may e at mmnnnsls 7 Adult annran maye lnr many sneues suetlally rannl and severe nnnnlannn detllnes lnr Dads and same rannls 7 Adullsalamander unknnwn lnnmay hetnnlrlhullnnlatlnrln detllne nlllalwnnds salamander and smnnern dusky salamander hetause deelmes naye heen rennned nnsnehymd lnletled annran rennns 7 ume Predamrs that rely nn amnlnlnans wlll llkely he d a he nnnnlannn level as well Health nune Duel Infection Synonym Zygumytus but m y ns n mensal Nulmuughl n n asas man an are Etause Realm Dr 32 and an we sag Spares Hus va mphlblans Field Si une ummun in healthy animals skin HES Data 39 Ilzsn39nes uns unknuwn are but masiunal huma inleth39uns omsta l Icrtryoproms l iesomycetozoanlX39e Infections DRIP l Dermocys HZm and Dermomycolb es Ichthyaphonus l Synonyms Ichthyophoniasis Hislm ystidium rana dull an adiaspirumymsis ht ophonus a an I lade Mzsumymluzua same as Psoraspa39lniuln nma sn and Rhinuspuri um anuses and humans larval and adult amph ans also ported39 Bullfrogs green frogs spotlednewls alaphlhamus virdessens Ichthyaphonus Field Sign Four forms of diseas e 1 Iqapaanlinlz iuns leun g n the rump arcInd me umslyle tail bnne u an ns esp bulls an greens e luw bndy axial mustlzs rump tail ears 7 2 S39 I retenlmel mrp suel39 gsnlm n p s eas em r med newts a 4 rare Ems au39nn severe lemargy mdeam in adults n skeletal muscle EIng al musd aul subiatanllu a In adults usually s evenly dlssaminalzd mrnuglnuu n ustlzs ulbudy Ichthyaplwnus Transmission Unknown Distribution 7 Prim aily reported along eastern us ard also in nuebet er and n Implication 7 Really unknown but may lrave population Impatls 1 severe r m reports indude spotted salanranders a rarine a Highestprevalenteistlrouglrttob adult reds spotted newts a Unknuwnl smre speeies alletts salmlaldsrs and r one but realize a member olmis tlade Mesamycetazaanlike infectinns DRIPs Synonyms DRIPS Dermosporid s Eliologic Agent Dermaspammm penneri t a Einly lound n adult toads in the us and only during breeding a 5qu amEn39I ms 7 possiblya In Fowler39s toad and yose Field Sign a prevalente 5715 o 7 Mortal es not reported even in severe tases Elmadhausii awm nnte toad s an1m Gross 5 ns 9 a one to numerous ysls ke struttured lled with spores a Ventrum around vent but uttasiunally miter areas asi EUIHHHUIIIUHIH H Green and nuverse 2on5 Mesamycetazaanlike Infeclinns DRIPs e Transmission unknown but the spores from the skin pustules are thought to be the infective sta e Thus rupture often occurs 39 g and toads may become e in water or eating prey from water stly along coastal n a A Vnsemlle nlar to what seem Eurupe from similar sms Wildlife Implications seems to only affect loads in US but in Europe the Similar disease affects frogs and toads public Health none Dennacys tidillm and Delmamycaides NDIE in Eurupe th causative agent ulDRlPs En39ulug c A33 a suspect is also a member oithe claoe Mesa lyremzaa e as Dermafparldlumpennerl a pascolm et al znna suggest that they be placed in a new uu Whammy and HermanStimuli only used lnr os Eurupean anurais d ns 3 to DRIP in North America mosporicliosis DRIPS in North Gross from Rana esculenta astolini etaq 2003 Pastolini etaq 2003 I Protozoans I MetazoansHelminths I Ectoparasites I PerkinsusIike Alveolate I Microsporidia I Myxospiridia I Coccidia I Others that we see Amoeba Ciliated protozoa Flagellated protozoa Trypanosomes I Etiolo ic A ent Recenth classified as an Alveo ate avis et al 07 Host anurans so far Field Sign mass mortalities I Gross Signs Skin lesions Sloughing Proteolytic degradation of tissue melts the tissue away UT See organisms on histological examination and in multiple organs wli ml I Transm 55 on prsumed direct conta t I Dst u 0 So far Alaska Georgia Ohio Mississippi Aush39alia d I WI I e Implication Mass mortalltles of loral populatlons I Public Health unk ow n I We st I know very little berause there have been few reports in the US thus far Microsg 5mm 5 E ulugtkja Iimzspa diuln 5th i Husl unlyrqaurled as pmblem in Nurthern Impard 1 92 95 n d gns egg mass pears enlargedpalebruwn m Ilhmsh gray lass u Ish39ntl pula pigmenla un nnly aliens small pumun ulmass muss Signs larged hum ugmeuus m u u I D39 39buliun39 but w dEI 125 Pub Heath Nune Histology fish in SE US Dz Myra Is lcl ill rl Etiologic Agents and hosts 7 Le Ilalhez a ahmaz heri tadpoles and a ull anurans 7 Myxzmm spp and Chlaramyxum spp bile ducts and gall bladders of anurans and salamanders sspp onads ofold World and 39ans 7 Myxabau Australian amphi l I Field 539 ns s gn one Depen g on ee in renal tubu s or bile adder on histological sp 5 w s ducts and gall bl examination Histology ransmlss 7 unknown I Distribution 7 possibly global I Wildlife Imp 2 ns 7 Possibly if Heavy infection I Public Health None u Etiologic Agent Isasparaand Eimeria suspect Cryplasparidium as well Host likely tadpoles and adults including in cilians s39gns e reported Gross Sign likely none unless severely infected or omproln ised then perhaps diarrhea ally see on fecal examination or 39 alion I Transmissiol I Distribution I I Wildlife Implkations Unknown public Health unknown but generally these are SomewhatI ll10Sl S39pedfk thW39EVER amphibians irect fecalcoral kel lobal Histology Eimeria in various African anurans Crypto in corn snake 51an gullalagullala I Amoeba I Ciliated protozoa I Trypanosomes I Nematodes I Cestodes I Trematodes Nematodes Synonym rullndwcrms Eliologic Agents and host arious but 7 Rhahd 5 Sr Illmjw nrm PEnElrale skln and n1ll1r e In Imus Ill 2 damage nnlEd UNLESS heavy lll39Kllnll r slmnnylnldes sun mm 2 mg nles nal land nmlalndES dlmtl quot22 In DEIDIIIIIZ avlly and ml ll hlnnd r Pseudalalilllamldes XEIIDPL IllanEnllS 5km hgmnrrhal and Exlnllallnn Ill Xelllwus Hens a ly only a problem ifheavy 10515 parasites on necropsy or 5e asile eggs on cytology offecal Samp e Irangiaides Histology Intestlnal ematm es Transm most direct l DistribIIt n Probably Global Wild fe Imp cation Probably only if heavy Infection or if compromised populations l Public Healt Probably none as most are fairly species spec c Synonyms Tapewonns Etiologic Agents and hosts various 39eld Signs usually only a roblem ifneavy infections or compromised E0515 s Sigl Usuall only see on nistology s v BUT 39f severe infection may be tlnn or eniacia e Transmission not clear may be direct or indired Distribution likelyglobal Wildlife Implications probably only ifneavy infection or ifcompromised populations public Health probably none hummer A Lab ab Ribeiroia Clinostomum Ri bei ro Ia Synonyms Formerly called Psi051017711177 undamae I Etiologic Agent 7 Many species but generally Ribeiraia undamae a Eman39a penetrates me lava skin and men EvinSIS as a melatsrta ae Host a First imennedial a Second imermedia 7 al w snai ls file amphibians alerbirds and snakes Ribeiro a I Field Signs Malformations Genemlly malformation nuts 350 are considered due to Ribeiroia But severe ones we likely don39t see because they 39 cord of those Experimentally mortalities with as few as 5 metacerrariae I Gross Signs Malformation of various types BUT usually supernumem 7 LOCATION of ysts is Key to problem C nostomum l Synonyms Yellow Grub fish I Etiologic Agent Metacercariae of the digenean complex life cycle at least 2 hosts to complete trematode fluke I Host FIrst intermediate snails Second intermedlat fishamphibians Final waterbirds and snakes Clinostomum 39 Field Signs Can be easily seen as nodules on skin Unsure if could potentially result in malformation Gross Signs Raised nodule39 on skin 23mm Occasionally see internally especially in salamanders H stology Clinostomum Transmission as noted in life cycle freer swimming ercariae invade skin I Distribution Unknuwn but thuught tn be at least natiun 39 Wildlife Implicatl IS39 ll Inlmal but In lutatiu a d d ay he a problem depen mg m weiupmentai stage at the m iai problem aiamandeis may he n eciesofClinostomum nay infect mammais incl humans in Asia UT er cooking kills the metatercariae in fish a is I Public Health So I B rop frog legs and l Leeches l Anchorworms Mites Leeches Synonyms none Etiolog e 7 nener plat ifslavMarmbdev avHavamlnillaand Ullyalnilla 7 they are really DDDDmmIsm as 7 Larval and Adult amphibians 7 Ranids are most often reported F eld Signs 7 Blood loss 7 setondary 7 possible Seon anemia transmission of protozoans ry transmission of batteria n as and VlruSeS 15 b wit 7 Malformatioi y B oweIa arlzttIalain the European toad 81 alarm in Germany in i3 tautaiiiie Leeches Gross S39gns 7 irtular bile wounds 7 Small amphibians may have I 2 blood loss I Dlstrlhutlo W p rat ans 7 Weakness due to blood loss anem 7 Transmission ofsecondary invaders 7 cums 7 malformations I Public Health Unknown Anchorworms Eliologit Agent 7 zamaaaa rmmaaa DNLV m FEMALES ARE PPRASIHK 7 Amharwmmsqnueunus lass Eruslam phylum Anhmunua os 7 Musny sh 7 Larval anurans bulls amp greens amp uttas nally pusl7 melas Sign 7 Prevalmte nut repurled assume spuradit dean s 7 usually nd waterva in sh Gross Signs i penetrates deep I sullh39ssue unlyrqaruduth39ve 39 alsrdly symmeu al pa39rul 7 lead urgans rema vls IE I mm d m Elungale Egg sats 7 in ladpules usually see near ural dISI and base una39l Anclm M an Anchorworms D stribut 0 Unknown reports include Ohio and Georgia W dlife Implications Uncertain Likely ind dual morta s tadpoles directly or from secondary Invasion Pub Ic Health39 None M39tes Synonyms chiggers Etiologic Agent Usually enu Hannemana Field sign only see gross specs in skin Gross signs small 1mm finn specs in skin Red or while Traism issio 7 Although s have 4 lil ges eggs larvae nymphs adults only the larvae pl ians E lar wl El halth Distr mostly lat larvae r summer Wildlife Implications none known Public Health none as this is a different genus than what infest humans e st iectam vae ae diremy invasive I ibution most re orted in southemU and e summer autumn winter aid e rly spring nam in host for sr months aid leave in White Egg Mutatio Al m recss I Black pigment of eggs comes from the female maternal pigment and rsists until a fewdays before ng hen em ry roduce their ment UNLESS they inherited gens then may be albino I But realize that other pigments may then be present 1 I Chemicals Endocrine Disrupters I UV I Genetic Mutatinns Ia 1e but pos bly others such as grourih harmona s39 Lecture Mine 5 Genera tadpo efeatures Howto use featuresto key outtadpo es AnuranFamiHes Body size Coloration and patterning Generahabilals Summary Genera Body Features Bodyfealures used lo39ky tadpoles Ocuar position vOra discmorpho ogy Papiae Cuspale and serralejaw sheaths Patterning oftaH muscu ature Spirade positioning Ventpositioning Ocuar Position 39 Hyi39dae excluding Ace s lwlicrohyiidae Oral Disc Morphology Emarginalion MicrohylidaeNopapillae Cuspale and Serrale Jaw Rana caresbeiana does not have cuspateorserratejawsheath Gastropmne H I carosxnensxs Spirac e Positioning Medioventra Sinistra Familieszlvlicmhylidae Vent Positioning Dextra F milieszlwlicrohyiidae FamiiesRanidae a Pel balidaeand and Hyiidae Bufonidae Ranidae WWMMWWMMMM wmmmmmmmmmmm MMWWWMMWMMWWW mwmmmmmms mm 392 xx 39 r a wiy 1 w wgfi P u w W Ma a g iuleIfv r r 5 Hf k i H X WMMWMWWMMMM WWMWWM wmmmmwwe ammm mmmmmmmmm mmmmwmmmm Acriscrepitans Bufonidae WMMMMWW meMMMWMM mmwmmmmmmmm V WWWW MMMMWMWW MWMMWW WWWWMWWMM mm Pe obalidae vwmmwmmwu memd MWMMW mwmmmm mmmmmmmmm Microhdeae ltWWWWWMWWW WWMWM wmmmmmmwmmm MWMMMM wwmmmm H wm Gastmpmmemmmemm Summary r Ranidae Bufmidae Eyes dorsal Eyes dorsal Ventdemral Venlmedial oraldi cemarginated Oraldiscemarginaled Mediumlargetadpole Darkbrmmmblackmlmalim rm Pelobatidae Usually green orolme m color I Eyes dorsal Hylldae I Vemmedial 1 ACHSSPP Oraldiscmlemarginamd Emsd ml 1 Micmhylidae Vemdemral Eyes lateral Orald39 mlemarginaled Vemmedial L W Naresabsem W95 Oraldiscabsenl r lld mmmalflpsmermmulhpans x Mothers Spirade midmmal Eyeslaleral 0 mo mal me d tinalmilmisible Summary tmwmmm Large tadpole in permanent pond Raniderladpme in emporam pond WMWWWWW Smamedium oive orighl brown tadpole with eyes alera Med39um sized dark brown ladpoe lens oflhousands f hem SILVICULTURE ANDlTS EFFECTS UNTHE DHE F5 AND DECLlNES Ell AMPH B ANS 412009 WHAT IS SILVICULTURE SILVICULTURE r The art science and practice of establishing tending and re roducin forest stands of desired characteristics it is ased on nowledge of forests and related resourcesto keepthese lands in a productive and healthy condition for present and future generations andto increasethe econ i en ronrnentalandsocialbeneihsoitheselands COMMON SILVICULTURE METHODS axeuPsElEcrluNVREMUlEs SMALL owouvs lu HAcwEl or was TD CREATEEAPSW mow srmrxm LEAVESA raw or we rmness momma TO BECOME PARENTTREES umcuwwovzs ALL or warms to A MULTH EREAREA w A SlN LE our 412009 AM P HI BIAN S Ectmhermmtetrapadsthat have a bwphasm Me cyc e canswstmg afanammauc eggs often aquauc and a terresma du lslage AnurafragsyS PSspemes88 g Caudata sa amandersy sspemes9 A Gymnaphmna caecmansy 17s spemes 3 mmmmmmphm POPULATION DECLINES 13 acampmman spemes nearmg extmctmn 43 m dechne Ampmmans have athm permeame skmthatmustremam mmstfar respwamn and asmar g E IMPORTANT FACTORS vegetatmn present m terresma a h a a new and 93 Muengmundrsurface hummy and e perature hydrapermd water depth and water many of ponds 8 g 412009 Deforestation Hot Spots SILVICULTURE IS NOT DEFORESTATION w wwth much uf u practmed wegzmy by cmmmz syndmztes Aswan and Chmese uggmg cumpzmeszggresswew muvmg Prub emsslemfrumthe natureufhrmtedrtermumber and puurfuresl p znmng and management Curruptmnwhmh makes Estung fareslry zwsunenmcezme encuurzgessemement uf prevmusw mzccessmxemea znds furfzrrmng and 2nd devempmem CLEARCUWiNG RAIN FOREST 412009 SIVICULTU RE IN TROPICAL REG ION S Area wtth the must defureslztmn and greatest arhphtbtah dtudtverstty and abundance Each year 15 rhhhuh acresufthe wurtdstrupmat turest are ugged Farmmg deve upment umber harvest n sudth Arhehca defureslztmn has severew degraded the r d a s rmHmn acres are deared each year m the arazmah Amazuh E DHE setectwe Cuttmg asthe preterred rhethud ufUmber hen251mg Sa zmznder Cummunmes reqmre 5mm yearstu recuvertu preharvest evets C ezrcumng degradesturest uur rhmruhabttatstur satarhahdersby Ehmmztmg Shzdmg reducmg ezf htter ncrezsmgsm surfacetemperztures reducthgsmhsurtace re 757mm uf sa zmznders m mature stands are usl quuwmg dezrcuts vimmu man n n reams m a uss uf 14 rmHmn sa zmznders annquy ChrumczHy reducesrsgmnz pupu ztmnsby murethzn a quarter uf a When sa zmznders Se edwe cumng methudswumd presumzbw have 25 nnpad 412009 merwumd be reduced but wumd reqmre mare acreagetu be out w urdertu harvest a spem cvumme vimum man e s v ulture Tne cusaz p zm cuntzmsthe hwghesl Spemes densny uf amphwbwznsmtheuian Canada 77 Spemes uf amphwbwzns nztwetu cusstz p szS dependant un ung ezf pme HisturmzHy s rnmmn acres 60uf ung ezf pine den cumpused uf ung ezf savanna Nuw reduced m essthzn 2 uf urwgmz cuverage Pme p zntztmnsqmme ceudmse prududmn nave nuw rep zced Vung ezfszvznnzs MEAmunml Pine Silvicu Itu re Longleaf savanna open canopied much light on forest floor hundreds of grasses and forbs woody species in understory thousands of arthropod species amphibian food firei maintained plant community Pine plantation closed canopy low light dominated by single densely stocked species dense carpets of pine needles twigs and bark Flatwoods salamander 1St documentation of the decline of an amphibian population over a period of two decades Means 1972FI Conversion of longleafto slash pine Deepplowing the topsoil into long parallel ridges MEANS 2000 41 2009 Coastal Qla ns LONGLEAF SAVANNA PINE PLANTATION ll t 412009 vicultural edges Forest fragmentation can threaten wildlife populations by eliminating blocks of continuous habitat Sil Intense timber management limits the presence of mature forest sourcehabitats from which colonistpropagules can reinvade nearby disturbed areas icultural fragmentation in mostly forested areas Many amphibians maintain close contact with forest floor with small home ranges Maintained edges in agricultural landscapes DEMAVNADIER 1997 wobooo 3302009 3302009 3302009 Emdkm er Ewen w F s nqum 3302009 Amphibian Courtship and Email of the Lecture 39 n oduc on Reading Assignments 1 Ianlol eproduerive energetics z Duellnuul and Trueb Chapter 3 3 Types or dis mp3 le on website Lem1mm fi irmmunn e Breeding Site Cues II Anuran Vocalization III Seconda Sexual Char cters IV our hip External vs Internal Fertilization VI Comparative C of Reproduction mum mm Funding a Mime MM ues Used In Find unspef KS 1 Andimry Cues Msd mmwhmmm IIunn nu Mummy smmn nu mm mm 0 Magne r Cues mxuurpmqmu m mm mm Earth39s m mm M39sn diam pm 1 h n Imp mama 5p Emmait nr Hygrmar r Cues mum ammmmm mm manna mm m humwethnis Vocaliz anions Salamandu samlC aed ans new V 2nd w uxwmm m ldnpahuu ds a shank inzslqm a law Fm ma mam lam mm Lower Emma numHUurm uwumxm mmmmm Imam Blec mnics 0f the Em T pica Autumn Tail 3332 1p Inhale Lungs 5p Burral ity 2D lnSE Nam 5 Van slits JD Cnm ran Trunk MIISrlES mmmms 0 Laryxlx 1mm mum mmmm mm mmsmm m multilka mm m musmvpxmmmm T puss of oca Sacs 1p Median Subgular 2p Paired subgular whining on s 0 Paired Lanaa1 hum Mm cu mm Cum haw 5mm s5 mm amp Inme T Et9 of Autumn 1D Advm sulmm Call At Cnunslnip Call Malevum n m uszd u mm and unsperi rs m m m Tu39rilnrial Call Mnkvum nw39nnpmduud in mm m an adven sunem all mm unlhu m1 mmmmu w m Cnmpnlmd Aavmisunm 1 CDEnrnunlu Call mhmeshuh a r with mulhu 1 Tv39pes of Amman Calls 2p Rzriprnm nn Call Phi uid mm in Funk vuml39uz un m quits in spam u mule mmth mm mums n Rdmse x u Armani siglnl ulpunlvhn uml in spam u an unaveknmzd imiykms mvmpm pmmumamm mumram spam u dismr 2pm by mamquot mm 2 Lundvuml39uzl39nnw ennsqmukl in n hm u Ad ven isemem a S n a egie 1p Sinulhanmllsvs Synrhrnnnlls Callers Iuhnnmus Exylu39ve mdusms 2wth 3 ISndmmms r 1 dmudusms Immuth 7 n 5 r1 Fast Ratzs all g isle nulls w i 39Fumk mnrled u quilt am imw39nled hm a wile ufdumimnre hunky Facmn Eminencng Adven tis mam C His 1 Tempu39amre 3D Sail me mnmkm mimbmma a m an Fennlsmmnmdmalkpmdudn mm Mum m H Egaa nn mums sultan um ath um Warm mums m mnutwghaummy Mdmbmmu I thusmwm Secondary Sexua Char cter s c C aeuhaxls n m g mm m Mammal v mh mmmmmmamkma Salamandu s I sgmnmmmu we an Mi WWW mm m V xmmm mamm 1 buy mum Exrnsruns mmued 1damm m s Nasalth 6mm amp anznilhrv der nagmm um me Secondaig Sexual ln 1 cten is cs Amn ans h manhunphsnu feInk my 39annvEI enlms39m nds 4 was Emustuns mmdmm 4mm mm Ilulxnmmnmlememxhl gumfumk mammaqam m A s om gmouumm Enngnd 1m ulna magma mm Amphll o an Lmii ts np C azr39 an v mmm Salamandu s Hymhiidsnwnhrxh smdsimsm mm Aovhus gm 1 xmrmam Edges hmmemmk mmmmsmmm ammmmmm mmammal skm wama a ammmmwh s humus w 5mm th mm Amphibian Cour 1 amamlm s Ambyslnma dae DQ no Suban Snunm mamas ran Com ship In gamerJ NOT e to 1 7 1qu 1p AdvexhsunemLa s 2p Lnnspzu rREmgnnmn a ma Camii Cue v a z m cum m mamdud x km mm ka Plv2nlzkquot a bkne npmmm pxqulul of Amplem Anumm External Fm ti za on Salamandu 39 m ma nan nn max Aqun r enigma Ahdonmnlwmxm on mm as b hun vwdkinuulx luvi us in su39hv y Conservation and Management of llege oI AgricnltInal Sciences and Natural esollrces University of TumesseerKnoxville Goa 0f the Lemur fur an mibia Reading Assignments 1 Rernnnmmlal39nns m Riparian 3mm salamamlm met nn l an l Semlivsrh Rernnnmndal39nns rm Wetland Bn exx Any in bus and qutilzs tSemlivsrh and Bank mun mm 2 nr magnum nt qualir smutg Amman Jnnm at Me n mm tsemlilsrh Inn 5631 Lemme Sin m tm e Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitat Needs Aquatic Environment Strategies Terrestrial Envn unment Strategies etland Buffer Small W39etlanl and Roads Aqua s and Ten n es n 24E Needs hm ran we an m ensure Inbiunnea ls are ma Aqna r Envirnnmem Terrestrial Envirnnmem La c La on and R anagemem nnment Share Vegmciun 1 an h m mu m 3992 le A quatit Envimnmem A II PhuDilrhuaninTik unmadsz Come a iom and Fvlamagemem Aquatir Envirnnmem Predatnrs m Mannamy mum m Anrsunkls a augusmn ms mm as MI I all huuduud auris mm am A unmokame mm W m Numberunkdhlbdwm amnhumiwml WWW nnwlhan M buHhum mp baw n u nun um llll mmmmmunm W n m mm anmnwmm u m mnnwllwuunm man u m nsen vatiom and B amagemem T El restrial Envil unment y y u my a g V gt r 5 mm swam mu mmmmnm rum v v rkq urr Esl l39mhm V 5 mm D39spusul uxr39duxs An an Mme mud cm Aum a 1mm V as dullmena mm amps m Luge Dude ma dz mann mg Semlitsfh and Budie 2003 I muse likinrhn u us mm a y Hm Manage 1 mam un 1 mun Funnies may 12mm c Can a 1 Importance of Sma W etland bbs 1993 and Semlitsfh and BudiE 1998 null w mum m k Effects of Roads mun glnmumuduls I gal mm 39u w Madonna mm m u 5 n n Hahim rxagmmmn The diversity and evolution afAmphibia What are they and where did they come from Lecture goal To familiarize students with characteristics orthe Class Amphibia the diversity of extant amphibians and the fossil record of amphibians Reading assignments Wells pp 115 4158 6574 7780 Supplemental readings on amphibian taxa Wells pp 1641 5965 7577 Lecture roadmap Characteristics of amphibians Extant amphibian orders Characteristics of amphibian orders and diversity Amphibian fossil record and evolution What are amphibians ortneir cold body pale color cartilaginous skeleton lilth skin erce aspect calculating eye offensive smell narsn Creator has not exerted his powers to make many ortnem earl Von Linne Linnaeus SystemaNaturae 1753 consisting ofmnmmisjggi o ien aquatic and a terrestrial adult stage Klngdm Annll pnylunt chumu Suhvlvylllm Val Elsmn vmhl man In Hamlenm Suhclls Lislmm Innquot 1me cuot SalquotIndus Wannaquot lceclnsl Amphibia characteristics ll Clnxnenus mom 0mm Ind co mnens mu mum GinsumneJewmn nunmom 2 Lmuslmunsl Gnnulr gums Amphibia characteristics at Mml clllmis Mmddle Ind Inna Hr Inna m 00quotst manly w hdul Ditches Pnnl nnsgt1nnn mp u mun nwnnnmms1nnn rm V quot F 1 4 W 3 R39 quot quot Amph39 ia characteristics Glanrm k mm mummy use m Involved m m autumn1mquot m m IIqMD amusee w crummy vmmnn Mlms Lev1m mm undmyln the 9 mum dell1mquot m Emuum urinaltunaquot men hnve gum Pulled onan m quotmama n Rmuvlinm m mm nuns Guznl hum mmma wnh wannnnmhmls Modern Orders qumphlhl 3v cam 2m Ensues m us 2 czuuzm assumes nu Innndelsb 51 Steele 31mm mum ms sueses Gymnophiona Caeci lians Characteristics Tropical Distribution Limbless pectoral amp pelvic girdles absent Elongate and annulated bodies Degenerate Eyes covered with skin or bone K r N lnternal Fertilization phallodeum Tentacle between eye and nostril 6 Families Left lung reduced or absent 7 Some with dermal scales Video Distinct skulls Stegokrotaphic versus Zygokrotaphic Caecilian families 1 Caeciliidae Common Caecilians 95 species 57 Primary Annuli Most Fossorial No true tail Stegokrotaphic skull Can reach 5 ft in length Caecilian families 3 Ichthyophiidae Flsh Caecilians 38 species 23 Primary annuli with secondary amp tertiary annuli True tail Females attend eggs Stegokrotaphic skull Primitive family I Ichthyophis kohtaoensis lchrhVODIis kohlaoervsy s Caecilian families 3 Typhlonectidae Aquatic Caecilians 14 species 8 Primary annuli No true tail Strongly aquatic Zygokrotaphic skull Viviparous Caecilian families 4 Rhinatrematidae Beaked Caecilians 9 species 5 Primary annuli with secondary amp tertiary annuli True tail Oviparous Zygokrotaphic skull Primitive family Caecilian families 5 Scolecomorphidae Tropical Caecilians 6 species 4 Primary annuli No true tail Some are viviparous Zygokrotaphic skull Calci ed spines on phallodea a Uraeotyphlidae Indian Caecilians 5 species 3 Primary annuli with secondary annuli True tail Stegokrotaphic skull Caecilian phylogeny Primitive Rhinatrematidae Ichthyophidae Uraeotyphlidae Scolecomorphidae Caecilidae L055 0f Typhlonectidae Lo 5 o ViviparousDirect Development Stegokrotaphic skul DeriVEd Caecilian morphology and ecology Some other topics to explore on your own 1 Modes of locomotion 2 Burrowing 3 Sensory systems Caudata Salamanders Characteristics Mostly Temperate Distribution Tals and super CIally segmented bodies Welldeveloped limbs except aquatic lnternal fertilization most Larval development external most Pheromones mucous glands Lack tympanum amp middle ear Regenerate lost limbs Salamander families 1p Vietnamquotsz unnumss salamandels Salamander families 1m 2y Salmandndaa True summers 39 Wane 1 av rn mus quotms u my m H mm mme mmmng Mm mm Salamander families M Salamander famllies nmhysmmmmze 1mm salamandersl Salamander families o v Extum gulls imamHal Izllmnllcksvunlhecll ILck new mus we lids and amenu um menmum huk Salamander famllles rihyzcmmnnmze ll nrrem Salamanders waveclesan l chammndnnlldaE 16ml Salamandersl a mm mm and m mm uw us and cum ingelumml SalquotInner 2n cm sun Vnnuneleah my a M L 9 want an 275 yum Salamander families 9 Amp hiumidae Am phiumas r s e lt snennznnnme directly depnsiled inln spermmhecz Tne number usedlnr specles ID 10 CryptobranchidaeHellbenders quot15 eastern us China Manon m rnns 2 one excessive skin lnlds zzllnn Nn eye has nrlnngue pad Salamander phylogeny Plelhudunlmae Dewed Ampmummae RWacmmumdae Ambmumalmae chammmunlmae Salamandndae vmemae suemeae anenueae CNplubvancmdae WWW Salamander morphology and ecology Some omenopios to explore on your own 1 Adaptations 2 Paedomorphosis 3 Evolmion oflunglessness Anura Frogs and Toad Characteristics snmmn Islcnl umwme um y m mm s m nles umum cum nlsmhnlmn 2t Anuran families n Lwlndh ylldzeisnulhwn ansb 1sz mm mm med Inlhe Newwnrld mm vs Imam quotmy man arm 91 mummm was usually allmad 139 Anuran families Hylmze nee r must Anuran famllies at Rznsz nu must Anuran families op aurnnmae mm nuns Anuran families mm mmleus mun stuns Ind glnhme humus 39mm mm mm umnnsln llckln mules Anuran families nm calmum nn Inmrlllm Sumner Anuran families 7 Hype IIdzEerlczh Ireerrnusl 251 swamm mm Muf nsun SBEhdles 4mm valuequoty ammoI mum s mammalian Anuran families El Dendmhamm anisnn Almw qusl 252 mamm 3950quot cmwugam win nemmhnme Anuran fam ies 12 Mynhmtrzchmze waer Frans mum nnu mmmnm 39Hnnue egg hmmnn mum mum B ii a mum am mummy emuc0 13p Anhmlenlmzelsquezkels Wane sunsnm Mncl quotmast nna1 neman mneudnrle Anuran families an annuueluss rmust 15p Astylnsnemmze t slylnstemmsb 2s queues mm sunsnm Mncl quotangst mu stunned m Annnlwme m a m vy Dmlecnnns my Anuran families s 1 Y 12 species 02 sw Europe Northern Africa Females vocalize som e Toad like 39rerrestrial and life in burrows r 11 species 02 a All direct development Reduced digits Eright orange tetrodotoxin B didactylus sm allesttetrapod in southern hemisphere 313quot 17 11 species 02 Us Mexico Europe Eastern Asia xeric environment Explosive breeders Fast developing larvae cannib l39stic larv e 19 Bombinatoridae Firebellied Toads 8 Bamourulas 10 species 02 Europe EastAsia roxic skin unken re ex Earbourulas Rocky stream 5 21 Heleophrynidae Ghost Frogs 6 species 01 Southern Africa ell n v r like oral disc tadpoles Fast owing streams Anuran families 20 Hemisotidae Shovelnosed Frogs gt9 species 017 5ub Saharan Africa Eurrows head first Lay eggs in burrow Females dig ditch or transporttadpoles 22 SooglossidaeSeychelles Frogs 29 species 05 Madagascar 5ecretive litter and rock nirect development 8 tadpoles on back 23 Leiopelmatidae Lelopelmatidsl 1 species 01 ealand Primitive group Do not call no T ME vs lnscriptional ribs Leiopelma archeyi 25 Ascaphidae Tailed frogs 25 2 species 01 Nw Us Elritish Columbia Fast moving stream rail cloacal Extension lnternal fertilization Most primitive extantramily don39t call 7 yrs to maturation Anu ran families 24 Pelodytidae ParsleyFrogs lt1 species 01 a k 8Caspian Seas sEurope when amplexed Rhinodermatidae Mouthbrooding frogs 2 species 01 Southern South America Chile radpoles Develop in Vocal Sac m ale Rhinoceros nosedquot Anuran families 23 27 Allophrynidae 1 species lto1 39NE South America Centrolenidae related foot muscle morphology Litte known about its ecology Ruthven s Frog 29 Rhinophrynidae 4 species lto1 Costa Ricato Rio Grande lossorial Explosive breeders Termite and ant specialists No teeth Nasikahatrachidae 1 species lto1 ndia discovered 2003 Fossorial Explosive breeders Little known Purple Frog Nasikabatrachus yadrensis Anuran phylogeny Primitive AFCPAEGEA39RACMA NEsOEnmAcHln Lelnpemulluau Discaglomumn Mommas Mwaphmdae Ascaphlda ppm Allnnrvvmwe VsnaAr AcxlA Mada patidler r Derived Anuran morphology and ecology Some other topics to explore on your own 1 Habitat associations of adult anurans 2 Body size and ecology of adult anurans 3 Adaptations for different life styles 15 Evolutionary history of Amphibia Events in Geologic History Fish to Tetrapods Tetrapods to Amphibians Geologic history Alfred Wegener Continental drift Events in geologic history MVA QUAYERNAHV cm 7 lCl AGE ENDS RECENT PLE S OCENF LE 7 lCt AGE BEGINS PUOCENE rum lFSI HUMANS an 5 MIOCFNF 5 TEmimv z OLlGOCENE w 7 366 u wrw 7 rORMAlIOIlUF HlMAlAVxs PALEDCENE W DlNOSAlJR 39 EXTlNCTlON late Permian IE CRUACEDUS m gg mns JURASS c 250 MYA a zen HRS MAMMAI S 2 i F ANGEA ENEK UP 5 rinsT DINOSAURS Carboniferous V riim uminniims Mississi ian HRST LAIID PLANTS pp HHST FIer 35 MYA FARI IFS SHFl l m ANNALS FARI IFS FOSSIl 7 RECORDED or LirE FlRSTREPTlIFS First Amphibians 16 Eculugical history Hrs Iarzrums 211112er in the Dmnlzn Um MVM Mmt were the cnndninns at Ihls tlme Irnmczlsuhtmplczl mnmsr relatively warm and male anmvE plants and munms Fish to tetrapod transition m k 41hr manna mm mm m ngu bums may mum 41mm humus ul ml ndlus r n m rml sst vwmmmm jwi A mm quotanan v rip ammmm lt31 a a mm 52715 9 Kquot Fish to tetrapod transition Ichthyostega Acanthostega Fish to tetrapod transition 1 7 l I ell l quot Evolutionary gap 30 million year gap in the WMWW fossil record for tetrapods mumquot quot mama Relationships between Devonian and Carboniferous tetrapods obscured Amnhl ans Amnlm Age of amphibians Carboniferous 360300 MYA Many species were large and protected by armor diversity in form and habitat Probably lacked cutaneous respiration but well developed lungs Retained aquatic reproduction Pangaea starting to split apart Amphibian lineage split from reptile lineage 360 MYA 18 Temnospondylous am e hibians 152 m long Bicuspid pedicellate teeth Lungs amp Cutaneous Respiration Likely piscivorous Engulfed prey Not a strong swimmer or fast tetrapod likely hunted by stealth or opportunity Shoulder disconnected from skull Lepospondylous amphibians Nectridia Mostly aquatic Microsauria Resembled newts flat tails Small Lizardquot Some with triangular heads 39Terresmal and fosso al Small sh and aquatic invertebrates Lysorophia Elongate body Diminutive limbs Fenestrated skulls Fosil record of Lissamphibia Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods 1 Anurans 2 salamanders 3 Caecilians Pal batrachus x J Triadobatrachus massinoti 0rigin Madagascar K rll lls S IBIOVI39 Early Triassic 230 mya 39orlglm KazakStan Late Jurassic 17o mya Apodops pricei 0rigin Gondwanaland SA Late Cretaceous 100 mya mm mm mm m 19 Amphibian Chan amen 1i 9 39onomy and Ew oIlmwn Goal of the Leciun e RmdingAss39gnmuns 1p Hananmaam aml Mg m1 Lam39inl nh 2p mdhnan and Trad pp 424443 Lecmve Ou me Cl npllil 39a Charact 39 E am Ampllillia Families Amplli nan F0 sil Record er unnphibi 1m Ettnthermi tetrapnds um have 2 biphasi D life ung nf anamnin umn aq unit and 2 terrestrial adult stage do bklikquot 39Anun his huthln Inn ux 39Gymnup um taxman r m p nnbna 39 haracte Is 165 1 Wm mum owma OJnquxnz39m rmwrmmmws mum rm rmvmmmmmwmm sum mm mme cm rum mm whammy cmh M rm New mmm was Wanna cm WWWMWs r a Amphib a Charade istic Ampth a 112 4 mums WWW mam mmmak mm Maw mun srmy ya mmmdmammmmam smmn nmra mmmgmx unnum mm um emu mm wmdummansmmuus umlmmmmmmmsk mm mmwmmm whammy Moden O n den s of Amphibia minuphium mam 421qu M 39 mm um hum n suds mama imam xpmmm my dune absent nun and mnuhledhudis IDAgenial nys mvuduizhsh39noxhom pm u m tment Tenlnrkhemveen eye and msnil hunt a uh ymnmphmna Families 1 n Cunmmnt nui imsl Idnh phiidae F39shCneri nm Sqlstiksal w Pmmymunw ammnm an hmmm mm mm a M 39Plimzu39y Amuw Strunhry Teninry dawns m m1 Gymnophmna Families 5 Srnlefumnrphidae Txupiul zun39linm 6 Umeu phlidae mi zun39 imsj 2L2 m Pimnry Annuliw unthry cums me ha hquot P nlri zd spinean mwphie m phylogeny Wanamame Wyme Uraemwmae smmmpmdaa Camih dae A mutilate C haranaigirs 39Tnl39ls and swu h y sgmenled hudis Velldavehpzd mm magnum 1 In F n mum LIv DavdupmenlEnumhnm My Lnrk Tymynnum amp mm Ear in my mum madam Familiks39 3p Hynnbiirlae mg Sahmand s 0 Ambyslnma dae mkks mmdus Warm 5pmquot Wham Whammy mum 5D Fx ntEiI laEMubwpisampwnedocs 5 S EllidaE mma Familiks x Y mwlhdml 9p Amphiumidae mummy alm mal phylogeny WWW Sa aman mae Pmtemae vaamdaa Hynobndae CWobrancmdaa Amara Climaclais cs quot hnnma l Frmu al ammtemmny s quot31quot mmquot rim Sallzlurizli L Ribs arn39zdllmd nr absen 2M atquot H F39 Px emu al u39mbme F39 mly Arrinumed bx Nn mil up 1 may 39 a 2 Hmrl L m Extu nal Fertilizatian usually F1m hm and Large Mnmhswsuzlly 39nml Sarsin Mala usually 29 F mi ES F I es 1 Leptodacty he swam rm 2 Hymhe m FM speriss 15quot u munmm mus d39skv q N39mmIIlL mu Guud mum jumyus 39 39 mum Famine 3 Ranth True Fmgs 4 BIII39onidzle True Tnzds N mien quot aw magmas 5 h crollylidaeNznuuumumhedFm 5 mm 119 sperms mu Wm M m a JPde ulds mm vermin c vgwm as mm mm v Aim at Fni 4 lm m Game ldkwa w egg sn hhmdlirlae mm a qummmmym nannymm 12p Mynbarmrhirlaei qu Ill gu s y n mm mm w Mum Arm39nlspridae 10 Pipidae a sp 39esm 1 er a Tramuh pmnmm amen mum mm mm Ann St Families 15 Astylngemdae Amiganib 15p Dismwlnss39dae W1 7 gt u mmnm39l 18p erhyrsphalidae mmmxmy sp lzsm a magnumm am mam mum Aim 1 Families 19 Bnmbinam the m a 2m Hanisnrmae shadymanna 1 y 2 1p Hdmphrynidag 01m Fm 22p Sunglass39dae we halls mm m 9 runes m n 11 whom am km mm 1mm mm mm Amara FamiliEs 23h La39npdma daE mpdma s 20 FElndV dae Mkyfw 1 m a mm m m Amman FamiliEs ZTDAIlann39ynidaE Ku men39sFm 28p Nas39kabah arhidaeimpkl mn m m m quot mun Rhinnphrynidag m um Altamira Pkny ogemy u39 a a Aquot 39 392 EVz om mmnm Eusto of m hubnm Events in Geologic History Fish In TeIrapotls Terrapotls m Amphibians Fossi Rec of mphibians E39s olu imnwalr tn ansiu on First mmst appeared in the Devnnian 400 MY Trnpir mbnnpimua mazs mm plams and anhrnp m ls m m Fish o Tetmpods Sarfnpter ian lnber inned fishEs Panda39irhthys m mm Aw mm m Mg Whammy m pwm lt mm m r W mgmdgms Emmumur rNerksepmled umhudy WW 3 E Fish m Tetn apods ldnluunega AmmQO Fish o Tetmpods Evolu i mm Gap so millim em gap in the russil remd rm mmst Relauunsmpsbm En Devnnian and Carbummuus tetrapnds ubsuued Temnospondy ous Amphibians x r1 hymen Nn larval farms knnwn Mirrnmuria mn Moyzudhkyulml hurhzmzy x aman taremls Fa in 39libia d ed ans College of Agricultln al Sciences and Natural Resources University of TennesseeKnossdlle oiquot the Matisse Reading Assignments 1 SeeWebsite 39 lell39l 2 Types of Calls mp3 tile on website cosine Breeding Site Cues Anuran Vocalization Secondary Sexual Characters l Courtship External vs Internal Fertilization Comparative Costs of Reproduction my Findingan WW CuesUsedeindesp quot 1Auditury Cues ME 39 Mm SlnMnm mlCue els al lldiatiludhnthtlz wymmuwn mm Iimnlznnnrh39l39th 339 Enigma Fi nnmls39lvligrmrylixpmm 39illlmai lm remwmlsm Importance Nan am MINE m1 m1 Laminar fatal age El39nlid nt In I39Inl PM 5 Gantadic ur Hygruta 39 es IIigmedmml lml 14m mime I Iamlllamdis1wlmm nmwahllls 11de 339 mmmvsmmy m im wions Salamandersand aeci anw 3950mPMMantilsiiremmlAnuhim 39 11 w y fav umlnextann aiFm mphihemIaim lmtils alken mmmlgeafmmsigmkinwlm I me silglepukemmm tree ogarseris 11pr 33933 gmjy39tree ng Imllmmuralindatiwkdl Pithmuralinfrauemj z IIn mlltambnafmulmdsmdsiidweafmulsm My LnrgelmverFra1HingPukersImgerImnthn Ste smmmmamwmsmvmm Tmth Mum Mmhamics 0 this line 11mm quot 13mm Ca Emit 5B11ml r39 6 Vim Slits 3 untrm Trunk Mu 390ldiluelvlmda 7 Vuml Sac mm Emmi 8 Nam Open vumlcurds Snnmll lw IImhremrg mmemrg Si1glemlasinlnlm time IIult39qlel uh3539 Emulate ll lr lelian Sabgalar lirglelatiallaaal lrlasl Gamma 2 Paired Sabgalar Twa lauiallaam 391 al allgrar Caauleldy lqramal 3 Paired Lateral Marla Bethaw Emma aura aamaaaaraamraaar Internal lljamlandi al al Arraraa LCalla 1a rtisement all Ill f la sla39a f all lrlalevnalimila aral II attrarl female quotall eri rr fur matirg BlTer lll39iall all lrlalevnalimilapmlamliarrrplarell aa aelrertireareal tall ll39llll aalllrer male Mm mmmhlm DH Implaarlarlvemseareal th39 kiln lB l lllanaalerf all 39 m m lrlalevnalimilapmlamlia V quotB realarellarllreeanaaler villraalllrermale qrr a oaemQarrra rarrrlraa Calla ljReciprmatiunCall Willal eaagaaae Femalevnrallmila rlme rperirr in mp rare In a maleaelver reareal rall ll39 amplra ar 3 Release all Anartir rigml Ill39pll lll llll lllllll in rear Iarell aa amrelnaml ampllaar rirrgpmarewiilr ramll aalfare agersmar lag 39 Llllllvll allmllll Iflea a rqaealz iareanarellaelirtarlraarelr rapturelry apredallr llath 115a lllll lll llwl l lll liall l l mrhnmnl Pnlugellllrmlm BS lmllllll lllnlsnltemmemlkllmlnlmlm39 hp 111mm mll mlnvlmnfemleix dialectal llLZlIwullamepeminme ssmllinmnllleuvamlk Swing ml Femalmprelerlggmlkl39 390ftenwnelnalm39 1lmllyslm lll usLaulers Femzllel ntlmlal ll lpBlllIBl39 11m initiaIKl rlnm l wileme Iftllminzmre lnmnhy 5 Satellite Males l1mllerlllnls 391mmqnllamls lllll ll 1ll lllg to PM lam Mammals Racmuns Amphibians Buflmml1llv lanmmlwiana mum ll limm ml If llllEl39 mill ml lllllll lll lllg l llSl ll llllll Calls 3 Sui lmver allleml lllIlI ll7 111mb 1 Temperature 391jmrelmimwlllmllmdpukems lemmas unmdem afBl 5 4 Five Tex germ 39 Famlanremlmalmlkpmwm mammalme Cemlnils ml 1mm lamedan l mung slum 2 Vegaatlun 39lll39lllllzllllll 1 5 Fund Resumes Gmfe 19 Calms afunfal males meme llnfalmlsll39 39ilsnsiallmls llnfahmls smuinli night of alligaan liiilsnlme Umgez wminmm mlk ll hwerfral 39Flmll vlllllm Elmer quot trawl lin amnemlgnlmlmduh m ZJhnpernighl JJIIllmlexperlnnr BMW 39 Fowl Paugmum my arbuhydmm Dietary39mallydrnswlprderen am ll lm af derimlfmm thlgalhrealmrelymreanlnilsu m Em Tame 21 BS Zwaels A A A a Mmmm SW Themlrvgiln Iflmlu firm a rirmhnlqnmim Smhnardaqiilrgmlnnkmwllen mplnll eum39simm Salamand 3 Cnmhlmld IllmlFiJu lSexmlIlimuphixm Famlahrgerinmmefnm is e nomad ZEnhngal lmm IVIEISWPW WM In rgldllmulmlil 4 Head Glzllllx Hum IAInmnwi lwml l Sunnalllinmplaiam 4Nllp al Emearenrea I Famlslarge nml L quotWWW a a mummy amergemgmsneapw ST39 annna ZquotnalSaren emlspp mp Ialnm allrm am in nrhgninfannla Pnlilhnnklnlg la ma lnarnlfar i l KlnngladNng lr Talk a ql39m lanmafnlnii l Mai 39allajmiuul Salamander lastrgnnhmhiisnasneml znnnane 39I tllmlmwhham InmlFer ira an Emma Fu iantinn mamas unnleaemamaeappmnmmangsunnsmm ZInlalehhtspmlaa1ll continua nulgingana nmenm nnrlalennns awnnflanaiamle hefalhwsifemim Nylaledqaasils mammalian 311mm 1 mmnplmena39 alias aftlm mnlanamlinlmala 39Elinivadll 39m 39EarlyBraaias 01111 will nmqnmnnmm hm 4i anasilan mm a Malawi Samara Imullfwg n ml Amphibian Cmu lshEp Salamanders PMImbnjmzbmi PMHNMHH Pnnnr umhw ue 39IlelleGemr J Calk unmNuagai I Mu Mimi 3951ilTexme Ewllnsive Breelers v Satellite Males Famlepmilim farmlem 391 mlilmk unk exit Minding llmmlilal mlimll Illmtiln pas fAmpEmms 12 In Mums Ilgnhnl Wm mummy mm A Global Climate Change The Most Important Cause of Amphibian Declines Wm Hamlmlnn 11 mm 2w Global Climate Change Stressor of amphibians Decreased prey availability Time of breeding Increased desiccation amatic Video What is Climate C nge 1m G recnhouse Effect How is Climate Change Affecting Amphibians Documented Declines Irrefutable Evidence DECREASED VEDDY CoNnmoN z KNCREASED suscammmv TO DISEASE INCREASED MORTALlTV How does climate change affect amphibians Terrperatue and moisture are affected by climate change Heat exchange occurs with air water soil or solar heat gain Body terrperature determines biochemical cellular and physiological rate processes mperature and rnoistue have such strong effects on uding reproduction and became of their limited mobility arrphibians should be relatively vulnerable to the effects of rapid climate change Carey 2003 W y study amphibians Amphibia mam mm m w Importance of Climate Change vWide spread effecls Occurring fast cl all facmrs that could lead to amphibian decli s In uences of Agricni iumi Land Uquot on Southern High Plains Amphibians Univors ty of Touue omKuow illo Lectni c Sti i nine Amphibian Abundance Communit Compositlon and SourceSink D 39namics II Postmetamorphic B0d 111 Agricultural Landscape Structure inii ni n 11min ogenic Habitat Destruction and Lamlvcape Disturbance Intn oduc ion Agriculm a1 Cultivation Uni ed Siam Smith 2 nf ie z mdi m an 14me c 1 mm m i2nsirne Asmda nns Elemmd Abundanre in x upland nirharinn nigau dy a ens amnnianm rirlllwss and fmwss rnn39daies an my 39 Bi udingSeasnn Introduction A mpllili ans and the Southern High Plain Tllnllsands nf Playa u Spades nf Weilamls Amphibians 250 7 hum Gi zss aml E en ni39 Disturbaan E zn nf Landsmp n nurture Inti oducno Re earth Object 9 1p lil uaim Brag mumd land use an ampinhian immunity chamm aim ai land use aid ymr nzl mm mm A hit 0 men manhue nn diamit dynamirs ni39 amphibians 0 mm nf lamle nn mnpmai idle par mung nf a Iiibia IS as mine a iarinnship mined i 21w agi39cninaai iandsmpe m awne and amphibian immunity r i pua39tinn 2 LandIIsES 2 ms 15 Flayas hivalim ciassiana 4000 2mm 39hnduse ynr Objective 1 E est DI Landing and 391 Faun iimi Demugrnphics GI Sunnheml 0quot Pk m in i 1 Study Area and Pia as mnhem High Plains 4 C nun es in T 15 Playa Walamls 4 playas landllse ymr Experimental Design A airedFactorial D esign Landu 9 1nd 2000 Niet wds TH 9 tr all Capture Pill liilll EanDSEd 25quotn 604m D rift Fame 197L Pitfall Traps hletlw Snnutrvem Length T 1194 liple 39Refaptures nm Measured onse V an 2 Categories Camilmaux ay Mean Daily Species Diversity All 5M mm mm cmega ml Frequency of I lmmi gratinnEmigra nn Ink Dynamirs Emigm m lmmigm nn Smn39re Dynamirs lmmigrariHnZEmigra nn Nam39al Dynamirs esu tcs Abundamcve El Cro lantl ms m rsr El 1999 El 2000 v 1 ms m rsr scr PLF vxrr Resu tS39 311001911111an Diwen S uj39 WHY N01 Sp ecious 4 Common Sp ecies Only 16 P1ayas Rem ts gammaSink Lauduse A B 005 Discussion Disturbance Confined Indiudnals mum 1999 vunmmm mm 1999 Speries per Vagim Lamlsrape Cnmplexi v c rmmnnnnsnn Fatd isrnsity Bnlmdary Penumbih v m mm L anduse Brzeding Snmss anrl Abundanre Discus iorm Soulemu Dynamics Objective 2 ELYc1 GEL4nd 1m mm A mmesmam and Sou m JL 1 Body Size ngo le ad Site at metamnrpllnsis 13911 be a rnnseqllenre m larval exw ailment and rnnfer rims m pnstmetamnrplnr adults 1 39 ns EMF anNamdisl I um I silgsperi r mi rates in bud tllelarval and terresh a1 en 39nnments Pashnetamnrpllir may site is a rnnseqllenre n 39 mar 39 El Effeci of Landuse on Body Size n have explored the p I 19 in uences Fe md39 l of agricultural land Ilse o stinetamorpllic body ans Pntential Effects Hydmp eriud Dens Chemirals Research Objective Compare postmetamorpluc body size between individuals captured in cultivated a on ml landscapes during 2 years 1999 and 2000 ties 1 Ve Classes mpmnmmljmm 1va Mexicn spadmmn Maamnrph plains spadernnn tGrthlainstmdh nlnm smrm lign39lmln mm39anillln manm tiger salamandu39t Resu m Intel ac n Effecm P 0001 1r main effects 11 anduse and or A ecl and age cl excep n adult plains spadefuot Spell bombi 39om sumu shts gt L5 5 n Increase in Lamluse Emu between Ye Rew m LaunduSe Effect Io slam I Croplaml E E Resu ts Lamduse Effec D 2 148 n N Resu ts Year Effect Resu fis Year Effect Summary of Results 10714S n Postmetamorphic be e of inli luals captured 39 1nd land apes are ter than t lose captured in cr pland land 2 for all and species 11 3712M Postmetamurphic body size s Greater in 1999 than in 2000 for most age cl s and spec Land 9 Effect Aquatic Em onmem B C Immimls F and Resnurrks 2mm Cum 1 Negative 1mm dummy Cmnpe nn magnum Discussion Year Effect Yearly Di 39erence in Rainfall 4 mm Pmm al Variables 39lnn nse Pny Ah undann Con enmion Implication Advamagesomod s oinAmpllil ans Awe m 1quot an39nrlllr nn anging Emrimry Ma ng Sums FPra lamr ESrapE Fenml FSr39i39ing Den PPnplla nnPE 39Slmre Emlugv deULH 4m mle landFlayasFE inr nn 39 V mem imtimn Objective 395 111111119 re 11 La Intn oduc ion 1 Cnmpnnems Spa aanshinning introduction Amphibians and the Southern High Plains Thnllszimls anlaya lids ldml Nannal sming VE a l lmplE Landsrape lnrlnenm nf 39ullmml Lanasrape Srnlrmre 2 Pi ni a l Objec l39i e mnpumms nf Landsrape Slnlfllll e Spatial Fn Genmerrir nmplE Demugraphi Variables hlmn Daily Abundanre ninii nmpns39 n mm N s I s BT zmuha pln 15 Flap Wetlands P e wds Ten restnai L aptm Panially Enflnsed 25quot n 604m Drift Fame 197L Pitfall Traps CherkedAnemme Da quot7 Mm Daily Capture Quantifying Landscape Structure Remote Sen 3mm m Mn cc 1mm e Maps Quantifying Landscape Structure Remote Sensing 39 i Ed Images Quantifying Landscape Structure Spatial Anal39 39 Attained snnettne using FmgStatS e Quantifying Landscape Structure Spatial Anal nmple ensily en es ens ED main titan Phyz rum a itape Index LSI MNNAIIPhyzsMNN 39LGdug Rieitnesstw Purenl n wanna imam hznnim EvennlssSEl quot39quotP IShznnimDivusil s n anteiqieisim lndex JI Results mnical Cm spondence Anal nisrLandupe Mani mm Results Canonical Correspondence Analysis Hm vs r r T s PN c r 1 a m m vizIN HE E m 2 H10 m 1 r a Result Pearson and SLR W m ED FED le LRPnll Summary of Re ult anonical Corr pondence Anal Landsmpe m39llmn39e in umred me rnmpns39 an 17139 me amphibian assunbla ge m playa we ands PT and BIS were negativdy assurimed 39i l spadefnms msr rs n Spadefnms were pns39rivdy assurimed with mm n representing 39 ty ni39 nprimal spatial pns39rinmng ni39playas and genmerrir rnmple me landsrape 1 PT and B abundanrewasnmin uenrerl lmi iahiy by landsrape srmrmre Discussion Spadei39oo In uenced I snnunre nmm rm 19939 new an 199 name nnm SmallBud ze named aglhty n h V L 1 Wanl scum R 39Bnundary Penneah iin 39 benmeh irally Cnmplzt Dprimally Jnmp used Landsrapes alands me in Penelnle inneased Negednm mundane lehl 1w Discussion GPT and BTS gt soci ml in Spadei om minan nun cape1 menu Differential Differential umpe vee Mm M rnhabitat Use nmp airively nminam Larvae 17 nsrmetamnrphir ma Overlap a Km Purinrlim Cnn nunml Punb imtimn 70mm tion implications of Southern High Plains mmmity Srnlrmm Aha39a l nurm Dynamirs in Grassland Playas Dimn39banreA zns 1mm Dynamirsaml 1m I Bnrl3 uei mmwmmunam I ideiiiiiicaiiom of Heiuvmiwiar i PILD nllege Ii grieulmml Sciences and i um Resumes University IiTennesseeiinniiille Snimier 39 39 39 Snimier ii lesnimrhia A A u iiiuialmiiia o quot5 TmeTIatis emmmnipadeinls iiamwmlnlimiTlads Hyhdie Ranidae miu True ans we mm WWW Family r 7 Eggs 12 strings 400012000 eggs gt16 mm longt n Emailing Call a j Long musical trill constant silgl39i iiisih 1w V r 39 A I a as l39m rl n 39w gt 9h l iurWaL i arrml r 39 39 a L g airmani1 quotis u H i I l H l I n I Mai h 9 am Br d l lg gg ggm P l his n 5513155 Early March syn 2 Parotoid glands rarely touch cranial crest Charactcristics Bufo americanus istriloumion BF quotIn Iquot HI quotWquot Family mm 500010000 eggs lt3 no Homgt u Bracing CCall Nasal quotWaahquot Sheep bleating or baby crying mailing cason V a 0 Mid May haractcristic Parotoid glands touch cranial crest I 1 fwl 1 quot j J l 1 J 2 7 H 3 l J l i l l l w l 2 l l vl N Family quotT mwmon V Ujmwum girihmiem 7 if quotI39ll r l vi 1 V r c 1 1 quotv L quot My 21 r r rv 1 quot7 v Family rookii quot Metataral tubercle reedirng all Nasal grunts wahh wahh wahh Youn crow g CE W Breed rn Seamm T storms lim gahlmy F39L Il lllrnn quot S39VL 2 oLate J uneJ uly Charac rerigmez heavy rain 0 Vertical Pupil gf mills MN m w g xtiwwill Family quot Xem S c Adapted Genera Family gt e9 1 Li 1 carolinen re lling C1111 High pitch buzz bzzzzzz o Fi Insect Wlngs 139 Tstorms g I T REFQEEHBg S31 Late June July Characteristics heavy rain Pointed snout short limbs plump body 1 quot 39 17quot 1 177 in A ii i 7 1 Family a n 1 I quot e sis istribution Southeastern United States 1 r r 451 7 7 V 11 1 1 c 1 v l 1 l Specialize in eating ants Family H37 Hidi 2 lquot 1 quotFlquot quot 15 9 A cris cre itans reedig a1111 Metallic clicking receding Seasn 2 lllctal M Tempo changes 39Mid May slowfastslow i 11 7 7 J L sillL 2 lt19 haracteristics 1 1 1 133 1 Il 7 l 39 3 11 11 1 ill 0 Dark triangle between eyes often bright 39 quot racing stripe Family A s J Emergent wetlands with direct sun 0 Midwest and Eastern US l V H39 W 1 g H Acris locust 9 gryllus cricket A Mats Ereeding Call Metallic clicking needing eason 2 lllClal Raspier shorter Late June July Tempo constant hraeteristics 0 Dark triangle between eyes often bright racing stripe more distinct line than A crepitans 7 17 7 I3quot Family Acrls Distributing quot 0 Deep Southern US J waif 77 1 Wilt v l H l l J 7 Family H1ghly arboreal x forested w 7 x T H337 L M l Wetlands and a streams Breeding Call Birdlike Chirping BFQQd mg g m Whistling for dog A oMid May June SVL215 Cam g g g go Coloration can be highly variable l 0 Light green or gray with lihtcolored atch under eye n 0 gig 39 w W 39 w a F a m l i SIN5 J Distribution 0 2 4 vivoca 4 if xii xquot 1 R C gtED K Ll l Hyla cin ere Breeding Call 39Short nasal repeating Breeding eason quotQuonkquot E JT 139 Bicycle horn Late June July Charaeteristie SVL2 Always green smooth back and belly quot quot quotquoti39L39 a i gQL f 1 Vii LL Famlly i Q A i 39 LK Good chmbers s O Nocturnal y nol Southeastern United States L 1 H w 11 TR 1 If h o Breeding Call Short raspy trill constant 3912 Chromosomes of H versicolor Faster than H verszcolor 34 69 pulsessec C quot reeding SQQSWH 739 I39 u a Mid May June Highly arboreal forested l wetlands o o synzzw Charaeteristies U Gray to greenish With mottled back Jilly 31 s in s Family J H V mistrihntionz y 39 Eastern United States Grar trsairag Family v Wag slaversicalar H v3 BrccdingCail V 39Sirlrlraspyil39iii c BrccdingScasun ilrsswrlirarrlldrnsrascmr 39Imd vlay hm liliprrk r1 Distributian H ciqsarcaiir iirs1Trrrrrrssre Characteristics Graytu greenish with muttled basis GS s5 Fri r Hyiidae Miig Lg At Hrlagratmsa M BrccdingCail Slrariyraspyirrrrl Breeding 93501 Srrrrrrissirrriiartraisra 39 39Lm lm my Higirrrpitcirtirarr L gunning Characteristics Hyiidae Distributiun a water 3359 A r39 Pseudacris crucife Breed Call Clear Distinct Peep a Early trig r gt Feb March Charaeteristies Lightbrown smooth skin with dark line between eyes 71 7 M 1 W quot 7 J r l Family CV str ntion Eastern United States Family in LL 39 LI n Pseudacrls brachyph 0n Breeding Call Short raspy call that 392 f 7 quot F f i ig Qamm rises in pitcn A Running nger over L 39EaI39IYAP139il comb but duller than P feriarum l 3 13 size of a o o SVL 3 wood fro Charaeter sties Lightbrown smooth skin with dark line throu gh eye j 11 MLHwe l 39 Evf wim ni seudacris 0 Southern Appalachia j 7 L Hr L aftHi m l 7 J 39 51ml 7 i39 x Family t a a H dacrls fermrum I V 4 mv x Bmedimg Call Earliest Running nger V breedlng frog over comb but more metallic than P brach hona yp Ti SW 2 11 i P G V r gt Note call rises gray treefrogs do not EQQd m g gmn Chamaetemietiee 39Early Gama 0 Light to dark brown with dark trianle between eyes 39 quot Family E y id Dietriwtiem lO 1 as E r aal Mma Fm mammal 3 x i quotii quota Wuslmn Chums Firm H rn wnala EL 1 EoulheasI Earn Emmi grog P feri mn I Upland Ehoru rm P imam i illaw Elwin139 Elmira FEDH F F haml Breeding Cll 39Deep quotWaaaaaquot Sounds like someone snoring Hit 5E 1 Characteristics a In P clarkii Lives in craW sh and small mammal burrows Early March Breding geason SVL 20599 Species of Concern G4 S4 0 Dark spots encircled in White White throat I reolata k Known to eat craW sh and small amphibians 7 Alluvial Valley I J Mississippi httpI Wwwaapsnaea unamatlas ll rims Gopherdrag Mm Rana capita Srrrretinres rails Breeding Cal fmnh errealhwaler 39Durdmvnnm Breeding Seasun srrrrerrgmrl Srrrrrdshiea 39Early s eh rndaeelmrpeclirrg Characteristics 03 h Dari SpldS NOT encircled in white Mthruat Garpdrer Frag Ranacapita Unlrrrwrr Faust arrsuarr in Tennessee 1993 Dr Brian Miller 0 e r r Family r ricars hailfrdg Rana catesbeiana Rarddae Breeding Call dendriqu N mmquot a 390fterrphy lard when handled WLSquot BreedingSeasuh Lalednrre duly Characteristics Family snarisarriarilfrag mm Rana catesbeitna 39 Easter US irrimirrraiw rstrrrr states m M Graarrirag mid Rana clamitans ansminim platted Lrwerpitlr lirarrlsariingtraetrsrg Characteristics Green ur brawn with dursal lateral fllldS estendirrgmt tyrrnpanum center 0139 tympanumr ed Gram irag Rana clamitans 39 Eastern Umtsttatss Family Rareieiae Breedithall I While rperraga hasslerat 1 trealqrelnr llSl HllllJlg srnre quotyeeem n awquot iirtas sh srL2s39 arcahharrelcayrhr Breedmg Seam Characteristics riI Tan with darir paired dursal sputs is rare I Pieirereiirag Rana 1minsh39ir 39 Eastern United States ereiaeiirra 0me last atheism ieaaarciirag mid Rana spherwcepimla Breedithall Srriesrfelacisrr charlies arrssirrrihr P In rah raghaaelrver ahailnrr WLliquot BreedingSeasua Characteristics 39Miii39ivimi Tan with darir derail SplliS irr irregular pattern 0631911 did Escapes predators by swimming underwater Southeastern US f 7f s 2 not common in Smokies receding Cell Series of clucks or chuckles mallard Interspersed with i 39 1 739quot EEC v a a 9 low grunts SVL 299 Chereeterieties Bicolored Embryos Black above white below Forested wetlands often before ice is gone Breeding Seeeen Early February Tan dark mask below and behind eye httpWwwoepsuaedunanmatles 739 i 15 o Ema Missmg anmically Endangered Q Addmmlzl Thxemwrd Endangzmd mVuanmey my mummy mm quotup rm Mm A 1 m Num 3 m m L nrmrwm hwnuuuml Mun ath quotMnmm Climate Change 39 39Eh JILLmm i JLll quotif m m Elm Dist 2 quot quot The des uction o natural habitats is undoubtedly the biggest threat facing Cl shopping center consequently decreasing the amount of available habitat for amphibians lTll The fragment egative effects on remaining haolt L amphibians by isolating populations Animals may no onger be able to reach breeding ponds or in eract with other populations oduced snec39 12 14 murln i en each hind mm consmhion at base man a Jenn M mm 9552 as Ea No 22 Wellers Salamander Plethodon welleri 23 25 WFS 433533 Amphibian Sampling College of Agricultm nl Sciences and Natural Resources University of TennesseeKnomille oi the meme RendingAssignments spewepr 1 TAMP Protocol 2 Burton et al 2007 one Simmhn e Amphibian Sampling 1 What is your Objective ll Samplinghlethods Ill Sampling Designs Measuring amp Marking N 1muw Traps uver Boards 9 Netting PV Tubes lm Searches Endus11re Sampling MS v lmy humsnkmwmmmf pmwthm Begin 3lminutesaftermnset End 1lam Duratiun 5minutes Album Iilnuneha1rd 1indi dualsmnhemumed mlls uverlap but indi duals mnbedi Misha 3 mlls l lap and indi duals mmmtbedimnguishedtfullchurusj mm mm memgsrds Wm diameter S wmas Rummy Q Tmlmgmbu ad mam Jim at Time uns rrained Saudi Standardize E 39urt n llllllllllllllll Sampling Pitfall Trapping 39Redirected Movement 39Capture 39lllovement 39Interception 1 llllll lllllll llllll llllllll lllllglll Straightlinelrrays 3Fence lFence ll llllllll lll XArray 39 39 39 v Ir 39 lt llriit lenoe onel l itioll lleoigne Continuous and Partial Drift Fences Complete Partial eEr eirnntel opnlntion Size and Composition 39EetirnnteDireetionnlMovement llriit llenee onel Pitiollo Materials and Costs 39Fenee to Slurrnnnrn llnslrrng Hnrelnnrelloth Plnstiellloth Erosion Fenee ten per i Berel 6or19 lrerlwlLiels till Tin nstlfnstarol81iterl 39ShodeConerelSpon lloodorPeghon Spnthetie Fl lll or Sponges llriit Ferooe onol Pitlollo lrntollotion F enee Plneernenl Strntiliol Pnnelorn or 5 In nlronenntieipnteel HlllL Pitfnll Plneernent Enerp 1 In and Adjneent to Fenee llnllt lente anal Pltlalla Installation asnreanantribntelolaterial llnlt lanee anal Pl lalla Installation STEP 3 RemovellegetatlonnnelDig Treneh 1amp5 inehesl Contnnaoaallnlltnenee Completely Set Up aniline e llnill llenee anal Pl l alla Maintenance 9 2 in W til lll39ll l lenee anal Pilialls Operation Pitfalls shunlel be eheelial dail before 121 lnsl lleelneel nleali ilp eelatilnunaliee meennel Ileninntiln Dunning Annie Pruees singtimeis enpnnefreqnenep dependent liminnlee l mptnre In m nelillm Preneeningslmnldhemntinnuns lleelnee Pnliale ilp IfIleneilplnelnml l llll39ElllBIll Handling can enhnnee desieentlun i p eprilell eelmee lusinglil Inplenllel39nnteelapsl lleelneepnliali ulfimnmlialeeeraptnne lneeeneee temp ml imqu enelenee Delia llenee anal Pillalls Caneideralians Funding lllmtarethe Mlleraitlnl Capture Rates Climbing Jumping D k k Dill39erentlnl T an be plan Leentlun ul39 Fence and Pitfalls Pogtmetamorphic amplingSchematic i Whm mmuW Dip and N Dip Nets Seines 7 Mesh size and width 15 tn39e39mm antlltn 15 mwide 7 Larger and small sizes can mused Seineparalleltn share 2 m Quarterhaul intn share WWW Traps Em sssnu aes Pnn n39ng n n Tngnt nnn Snmph39ngDesign Shndnnlimiln amp Snnnling anqnnnry Enn ngnnwmnnsning General Information Gpecies ge and Gender lt1 ldftnntllesns Genetic 39 1500 Malformation rate UVB rays Chemical Pollution Trematotles llln nudging lluultninuus Batch Fluresuent Elastumers lnjeutaltle Liquid Elastumer l culurs 01000 Kit 1000 individuals Fluresuent Dyes Water resistant Dues Puweder and ShakwndBulce 11in 100 individuals Tw lipping Ma marl ur uniquely ca 2000 individuals Rapid and lnemnsiue Batch an Individual Clipping illnu39t uuul STEPl39 Stenllzatlon 390 diacetate S EPl Store DNA 3 391 Bath 39Store 39i0C 462009 Endocrine Disruptions Lecture Outline Acris Crepitans Pesticide mixtures The global impact Terms ncnne SySlEmr a maii uvgansmai ideveiupmemi eny amussuemncuun Effects on Individualsi Metabolic disruption Developmenthrowth regulation Sexual development Tissuefunction Hormonal changes 462009 Effects on populations Reduced recruitment Reduction of genetic diversity Reduced reproductive capabilities Increased predation on populations Genetic deformities Less studied A Few Causes of Endocrine Disruption muman mm UibanExvans 462009 Magmmmmmmnv mm Amv eederel studyvanadsamzam amanmmaammm m uhmmmmm chavadevshcs Faundm ampmmandephnq cauhmedwnh pvadudmn no mm raw mmm m umpmmasswam endacune dsmpwn is mm mmmm ACRIS CREPITANS W Vveavvanacmmme H1952 92m mm mumvmmm mwcas gamma 945 Vevcenhve m ntnrsex mm mm m mamquot M mam mm mm Managua 95m mmmewmwm mm heillvuseand mmmnmm ma Enmmnmema mwememandVevummn m mm ntnrsexvevcenuves 5mm mm Us mm mm Evamcammued vevummnmg u 2cm cam mm as mm chemma m mm Sam2 Reed eta 462009 acris crepitans mevsexmdmdua cuncemvauuns H ghesy mdusmahzeduvbamzed ave s maymemaw mmnsuexmmhzeu agnwhuva ands Lump ess Menswe y managed and mum ecumgmaHy dwevse aveas E mmquot m numbeysnum muve umanmusmahzeu aveas Gengvaphm msmbmmn uwum mevsex and d2 rung pupu atmns ave cungmem Alaaswmh me mghe enducvme msmpnun mu m we amphng n pvuduce enuugh spammensmv s 462009 Pesticide Use Ves m demlxmvs endaume dsmmam mum dechns New undevshma nv m mm WWW mm at m Swan 9 mm Wm mums m 3 msemcmes Bammed arva mm mm sexdmevermman m mmunemndmn m mm mm mm mmmWW mamquotan mm mm mam mam Hayes et al Findings Retarded larval gmwlh and develupmenl exacerbated when pesticidesweve mm Negaled m reversed the typically pusmye Lunelaliun between melamuvphusis and SlZE luuk lungevlu melamuvphuse andweve smaller Alsu damageslhelhymus results in reduced immunusuppvessiun and susceptibility in diseasespalhugens Preyiuus studies luukmg at unly une pesticide may have 462009 Source Hayes et al i iThie Global Impaot i 7 As countries strive to become developed nations they produce more harmful chemicals that will eventually make it into the water Endocrine disruption uni es all the other theories of decline we ve discussed providing a a encompassing theory that explains without a shadow of doubt that this is the single greatest threat to amphibians I Pathology ab ce from ormal I Disease co ns that Impairs normal functioning of an organ or the body as a whole I Pathogen a that is capable u g ase generally restrict 39 g m roorganlsms viruses bacteria fun 39 parasi es I Not all pathogens cause disease all of the time I Not all diseass are caused by pathogens l Symptom is used In HUMAN med39 39 e NOT for animals Thngs we feel and the patient dscribs to the physician l gns occur in Humans and Animals Things we can measure or observe Common response 39o I Viruses I Parasites internal amp External I Chemicals Endocrine Disrupters I UV I Genetic Mutations I Ranavirus I Frog Ewthrocytic Virus I Lucke Frog Herpesvirus I Adenovirus I Wst Nile Virus FrogscioadscSalamanders tadpolescadults us 3 rva IadPJIE Edema Virus 39 m 5A v IEV Amby39smma grlnu Eliologic Agent Iridovirus 7 Genus Ranavirls Host mg and Salamanders Tadpoles and Adults l Field signs Mass Mortality Sublethal Gros signs 5 in lesions Swollen legs and body red patches on skin esp at vent some no lesions sublethal Transmission 7 HDRIZDNIAL only Distribution Elubal Wildlife Implications 7 Same species are very sensitive aid die others Sublethal a 52v affected by stress public Health Iridovi IS NOT in mammals T f infected amphibians are then prone to oprortunistic pathoge these e on a inva ers may be problematic to public health eg E coli Salmonella Cryptospori ium Frogs adults and tadpoles Synonym EV 39ntracerythrocytic virus Etiologk Agent Iridoviridae RANAVIRUS It is thought that FEV infet5 ONLY erythrocytes whereas other Ranaviruses may infect other cell types clearly needs to be explor d e Generally for Iridoviruse I I39 39 r 39Izs a rt d auf tadpoles also observed Field Signs Incidental BUT Deaths reported in severe infections in captivity Gross Signs Anemia lethargy Cytology l Dist II n Considered NORTHERN North Ame ica Iyall North America e Imp s Unkno Health Irido lPIlh c viruses do not affect mamm Frog eggctadpolecadult only prob in adult Synonyms 7 Lutke tumor herpesyims 7 Ra Herpesyims Eti Iogl Ag t Herpesvirus 7 Flshamph ana eptil es nut erta39nhuw related tu mmlmallan or avlan IErpES e alpha beta gamma 7 Green sea ulr eherpestalsing bmpaplllumas navel alphaherpes Host 7 pears to be vERv spmzs spmm 7 Nurthem Ieapard frog Ralapipiyu ut may he enters we just haven39t in yestigated euuugh Field Signs None in eggs embryos or tadpoles Normal development In adults none because tumors are in kidneys BUT tumors grow faster in WARMER months HOWEVER virus is only found in tumors during the colder months McKinnell 1973 l Gross Findings None in eggs ore None in tadpoles except experimentally Kidney tumors in adults Transmission Virus is shed from tumors of adults and thus eggs and embryos are infected at spawning Only see tumors in adults that were infected as embryoseggs Distribution Range of Rana pipiens Wildlife Implications None known Thus far only reported mor y and mortality is in adult Rana pipiensand s rare Pub Health None kn w but Frog legs from frogs with o n kidney tumors are rejected for consumption l Gee Whiz This was the first virus that was linked to cancer tumor formation McKinnell 1984 l l Frojg but likely salamanders too Ta poles but ikely adults too I Synonyms Adenovirus Enteritis l Etiologic Agent Adenovirus l Host Various Amphibian Species I Field S39gn 39 None reported one or occasionally estinal tract in Tadpoles See inclusIons on HIstology I Transmission Unknown but presumed feraloral t bu n Global dlife Im lirations 7 Generally considered an incidental finding a HOWEVER We are learning more about 39n reptiles they may 9 serious or ause animals to be more susceptible to other diseases May be similar in amphibians I Public Healt Adeno re not thought to cross taxonomic groups but unknown Frogs and Toads but likely Salainanders too onym Westlvile Fever Etiologic Agen avivirus others Dengue s Louis encephalitis virus Yellow vrus VET REPORTED BUT EXP E Host NOT ECT D Field Signs in alligators we see neurological signs lethargy death 6 ss Signs Usually we see evidence of secondary invasion by bact 39a BUTmay see hyperemia reddening oftissues such as intestines oral cavity brain Histology Transmission ingestion of infected mosquito bites Distribution started in eastern Africa but g worldwide and the virus 39 nging Wildlife Implications Mass mortali in naive m enerally e 39o 39 e d ut 39 h39 i not e a n I Public Health Flulike Most serious problem including death very young and very old I Bacterial dermatosepticemia red leg I Aeromonas hydrophila I Salmonellosis I Mycobacterium ulcerans Synonyms red leg bacterial septicemia Etiologic Agen Many agents inost Giamrnegative bacilli rods 7 Most often amibuted to Aeiomonas liydiopliila 7 39kely undei lying viial Ranaviius omponent I Hos likely all are susceptible Field Signs 7 random deaths few to massive 7 Previously thought was a primary pathogen but 39 e hat there are likely contributing s from parasit factors e wound es Ranavilus etc 7 Water quality is likely a factor as well Gross Signs Erythema reddening of the skin Cloudy eys or bleeding in eye hyphema Fibrinous coel s hrinous or cloudy lymph sacs Splenomegally Hepatomegally 1 I Transmisslon Irect hutgenerally through wounds and when immune system is compromised stress 39 9 e Imp cat ons Unknown and I ely based on other pathogens 39 econdary invader ma 39 fect humans especially if compromised immune m mU Synonyms Salmonellosis paratyphoid foodcpoisoning Etiologic Agent Salmonella spp Glamnega 39 e bac39 39 rods Host We assume all amp r rans may be susceptible and may be carriers Field 5 ns none reported Publ Health a potentially infective via handling or via consumption frog egs a Not Many species of wildlife ma be affected b t Salmonella species and serovars a ecting amphibians are generally not as contagious to humans unless compromised E 39ologicA ent 7 There are many Myrabat mrium that are infectious to amphibians especially 1 marriramm Uyt abat lerium tIt eransls of recent concem because of its zoonotic potential a Field gn I Gloss 7 Andsfasl Host various amphibians s sunknown continue to eat but weight loss may be severe emaciation gramrlomatous inflammation of internal organs skin lesion ns resume direct contact jestion r u o kelygo al Wildlife Implications unknown I Public Health Zoono cm A leallswnnmumwmnshmil raixmumrmrhmmm minim willan Armanll ulmllllwquotWilynmnli umnlumlzllnnunwimlulwmwvw anasoimlmansrl mmemean can Fnslsllinlrauvmvmnxlml Ewmmmwm Rhoda Mmsnunlslwnlvw in man n er mimic uuv wear an aim le mm momma a a m spines will mam OD TEM m stic acquot l Watermold Saproegnl39a I Algae Chamydomonas I Barraclroclrytrum dendroba ds I Basldbbous I Pro sla39 Mesomycetozoan Ichb yophonus Neson1yetozoanI7lte Infectms DRIPs Dermocystli llm and Dermomycoides Watermold infection Saprolegniasis many Sagmlegass mlhv Ilan Dnn yt 7 ManY gtnaa nemya Aghangmees lemglegm Pythmrass sagndegma 7 samphyue lrzshwakzr mnldsYHUS they made nun e gs AND Iwe but damaged eggs and tadvnlzs and adults 23 mder usl egg masses injured ladpulzs and adults anura s s mandem gns ggague or may egg ansules nr Iesmns m lads and adults nmmnn m see man Inkdzd muss Signs usually em see but may need hand lens 7 mm or ggague eggs lumvs n1 nttnny me mamenmm 7 sklnnrmnuth nmmnnatzd mm hasenrkl nlkhe mu mi ml was a g and min Watermold infection Saprolegniasus many types miss39o o portunistic thruu h juries or otherwise cqm romls surfacs Exposure Is lIke y larvae and adu ts I Public Healt 39 one known Alg ae Chlamydomonas 5p Eh39u k Agent L hlalnydamana 5 H051 Dnly rqaurled as pmblem in Ens mama quotyarn5mm grane t nut re and d Embryus are greenish baause am dwelup nurmally a n m nknuwnbulme pamulugylikdy depends un husl sm39buh39un Elmp mm 3 Appears m be a symbicm39t ma Isl Publit Heam Nune I Synonyms Chytrid Chytrldlomycosls 30 I Etiologic Agent Batraclmcllylrillm dendrabatidis 7 There are many chytlids saplophytic fungi but only ED is pathogenic to am ns Suspect any adult amp Only reported in ranid and spring peeper P c and only oral an pseudoacrid treefrog tadpoles c because of keratin l Field Signs Tadpoles thought to behave and grow when metamorph ed s Adult anurans considered ins persistent gradual deaths more often than mass mortality Varies hyspeci Adult salamanders no mass mo tallt reports but suspect population declines In Central Ame a les a Tadpol jaw sheaths and toolh39 rows of the oral dst ALSO toeru39ps o ate stage tadpoles Gosner 42745 oss of inelan39 n blakJigmenq ounding of the tiitting edges of the jaw snea is slotig II of the pigmented portion of me leelh39 with preserva ion oft ie toom ridges 7 Adults Lethargy weakness or rigitin re ex fearlessness abnormal posture de iydration eath Often only mild mitkening of skin is noted presents as abnormal inolting in ave reddening erytpienia of the skin of the ventriini espetially at pelwt patth ventral thghs ventral talves and toes niotight is that dehydration is die to inability to absorb water throtigh skin Also theorized to interfere with Na piinip of tells n w 39 nap WWW39natmn2 vk nsw unvau n ws narmamentFmacnymamnaus Histology trangnissiun 7 me znnsunm us me Inktllve 51392 and s nnmle thus may he Inktllve via surhm mam 7 unknnwn hnw lulu znnsunm an survIVE n Envlrnnn 7 Alsn InlEtlIve by dlretl nnlatl IIIIZI breeding buhun Bemmlng Elubal w dllle lmplitaliuns 7 Iadunles unmauy hmwn hetause alunn n ms nnsldered nus n lam39 Inletmd ladunles may 2 at mnruhnsls 7 Adult annran mm In many sumes sueually ram and 5mm ununlaunn dEdInEs nn mad and snnm ranlds 7 Adullsalamander unknnwn hulmay hetnnlrlhullnnlatlnrln detllne n1 namnnds salm ander and snulhEm dusky salamander hetause mung have been r n l 1 n5 InletlEd annran mums 7 mum Predamrs that rely nn amuhlhlans wquot Ilker he alletled a me ununlaunn level as well Pub Health nune mnymd olornycosis also called Zygomycosis but ma y yveteri ian Etiologic Agent Basidioholus Commensal Not thought to he pathogenic Often find in rroneoIIs mplicated Host variety of amphibians Field Signs none Common in healthy mals sk fecescloaca intestines t lon mpllcations unknown I Pub Health rare but occasional human infections FV maquot J U L JLL I Ichthyoplonus I Mesomycel ozoanlie Infections DR PS I Dermocysl idium and Dermomycoides Ichthyophonus I Synonyms Ichthyophoniasis Histacystidillm ranae a Misidentified as Ichthyospor m and adi piromycosis I Etiolo 39c Agent Ichthyophonus Now clade Mesom cetozoa same as Psurusperm 11111 of crayfish and Rhinnspnridium of horses and humans I Host larval and adult amphibians also see in fish Most often reported Bullfrogs green frogs eastern redspotted newts Nataplrtlralmus vilidescens Ichthyaphonus and pmxlmal d n s Iatiah39un severe lemargy mdeam in adults Melus Gross Signs see swollen skeletal muscle ae t n1l einguinalmusdzsaldsubiataullu 7 ln adults usually is evenly dlssaminalad mruughuul mustlzs ulbudy Ichthyaplwnus Transmission Unknown Distribution 7 Prim ally reported along eastern us ard also in Uuebet r In W repurts ndude spotted salanranders r rreslr water and nrarir Wildlife Implical39 7 Resquot or s y rknown but may lrave population impatls ii 7 H gheslprevalente adullrzdrspulled newts 7 unknown 1 Smle speeres alletts salmlalders and anurans Public Health39 none but realize a member of this Iade can infect humans Mesamycetazaanlike infectinns DRIPs Synonyms DRIPS Dernrosporid s Eliologic Agent Dermaspari 39umpenneri Host 7 Univ lornd in adult toads in the us and only during breeding 7 Hum amen39ranus n Fuwler39s toad SHAWIdhamii lly5139 etoad 5 snow 7 is al rot reported even in severe 3525 Gross Sign 7 one to numerous pustules e Ventrunr around vent but uttasiunally Elmer areas 1 miiifiii imiillllin Iii Green and nnverse 2on5 Mesamycetazaanlike Infeclinns DRIPs Transmission unknown but the spores from the skin pustules are thought to be the infective sta e Thus rupture often occurs 1 bree my and toads may become e d whl e in water or eating prey from Infected water Distribution 7 onl reported us and mostly alon naslal nor eastern us other Astrose s ut si ar to what seem Europe lrom sim ar s urganlsm Wildlife Implications seems to only affect loads in US but in Europe the Similar disease affects frogs and toads Public Health none Dennacys tidillm and Delmamycaides in Europe th rausative agent ulDRlPs o o l e suspeetis also amemiteroitheeiaoe Mesa lyremzaa a as Dermafparldlumpennerl e Pasmllm et ai 2on3 suo est that they be plated in a new atlas MooIoeystmuni t ana oemmeystmm only used or Hos Europeananurais d an a to DRIP in North Amerira moss Signs smnla to dermosporieliosis DRIPS in North Amer an anurans 39 kely similar to Demiospor Gross from Rana esculenta Histlgy I astolini etaq 2003 Pastolini etaq 2003 I Protozoans I MetazoansHelminths I Ectoparasites 2O I PerkinsusIike I Microsporidia I Myxospiridia I Coccidia I Others that we see Am eba o Ciliated protozoa Flagellated protozoa Trypanosomes Etiologic Agent Still unclas Still not certain where to place be a dinoflagellate I H anumns so far d PLUS because may JLLLTW Lj I Transm39ss39on prsumed d39rect contact 39on39 I Dist u Disease in anurans Alaska Georgia Ohio Mississippi Aush39alia I W e Imp ration Mass morta loral populatlons I Public Health unknown I We still know very little berause there have been few reports in the US thus far L flicmsg m idk Synunyms Mlnnsnnrldlnsls nrntnznnnns 5 39 I Iirmsparidium xhumi Hust unly rqau ed as pmblem in Nurthsrn Impard mg 2995 g 5 Egg mass pears Enlarged pale brawn In Win sh gray lass ui Ish39nttpularpigmenta un Dnly aliens small pumun at mass muss Igns39 larged smutmega and hum uga euus m ulur Iraism39 5i D an rqaurt in Vermqu but urge ted 1m plitah39uns SuSpKt an Ely me In pupillah39un 25 Pub I Heam Nune Hlstology sh In SE US Eviwzospm a Etiologic Agents and hosts 7 Le Ilalhez a ahmaz heri tadpoles and a ull anurans 7 Myxzmm spp and Charamyxum spp bile ducts and gall bladders of anurans and salamanders 7 Myxabal sspp Australial l Field 5 n I Gross Slgn None Dependlng on sp 39 s w see in renal tubu s or bile ducts and gall hladderon histological examin 39 onads of Old World and 39ans 1 amphi S Histology Etiologic Agent Isosporaand Emera suspect Cryplasparidium as well likely tadpoles and adults including in caecilians Field Signs None repor Gross Signs likely none r omprom ised ftlien perha ec led unless severely infected psdiarrhea al examination or o ca e a i Transmissiol direct fecalcoral Dist i 39 global I Wildlife Implkalion 39Un nown public Health unknown but generally these are SolnewhalI 10Sl S39pedfk nOW39EVERamphibians o Gel hislol g r Histology Eimerla In various African anurans p corn snake flaplg gummy gummy I Amoeba I Ciliated protozoa I Trypanosomes Nematodes I Cestodes I Trematodes I Synonyms roundworm s I Eliol g Is and hosts various h I Agen Ill 7 Rnabdias spp lungworm enetrate skin and migrate to gs Little damage noted UNLESS heavy infection es sop direct life cycle intestinal olarid nematodes direct free in coeloinic cavity and inicrofilaria in blood a s tidat apilaraidesxenapi cutaneous skin hemorrhage and exfoliation in Xenopusaevzs d Signs usually onlya problem if heavy fecl ns or compromised llosls I Gross SIgns some skin lesions paras39 es on nec sy or see parasite eggs on cytology of fecal sample Strangilaides 25 Cytology of Fecal Sample Histology Intestinal Tlansmission most lrect Distribution Probably Global Wild e Impl ations Probably t r if compromised populations Public Health Probably none as most are fairly speCIes speCI lc Synonyms Tapewonns Etiologic Agents and hosts various Field 539 is usually only a roblen ifheavy 3901s or comp d ts romise os Gross Signs Usually only see on histology BUT ifsevere infection may be thin or emaciated Transmission not clear may be direct or indirect Distribution likely global Wildlife Implicatio robably only ifheavy infection or ifconiproniised populations public Health probably none We ma mire Riheirnia l Clinnslnmum Ri bei ro la Synonyms Formerly called Psi051017711177 andalrae Etiologic Age t r I n l I I lx any Spedes but generally Riberaia l7 Elf38 r maria panenates me larval skin and men sunSIS as a melarerrarae OS 7 IrSt inlermedial 39 snails a Second inlermedla fishcamphibians a Final walerbirds and snakes Ribeiroia Life Cycle RI bel I Ola I Field Signs Malformatio Genemlly malformation nuts 350 are considered due to Ribe39 39 But severe ones we likely don39t see because they 39 re rd t ose Experimentally mortalities with as few as 5 metacerrariae I Gross Signs Malformation of various types BUT usually supernumem I39Y 7 LOCATION of ysts is Key to problem Ribeiroia I Transmission free swimming cercariae invade the skin generally atjoints If prelimb bud Gosner 24 mortality 475975 If limb buds Gosner 27028 mortality much lower BUT malformation 16 If olderlittle effect 29 mmbl Wm 30 Ri bei ro 39 I Distribution ot really known but thought to be at least Nationwide snail distribution 7 Probably varies by year 7 Likely affected by agricultural practices I Pu 39 None Clinostomum Synonyms Yellow Grub fish M I Etiologic Agen etacercariae of the lgenean complex life cycle at least 2 hosts to complete trematode fluke I Host a First intermediate snails 7 Second inlermedial fislic atnpliibians 39 39 walerbirds and snakes 31 Clinostomum 39 Field Signs Can be easily seen as nodules on skin Unsure if could potentially result in malformation Gross Signs Raised nodule39 on skin 23mm Occasionally see internally especially in salamanders 32 H stology Clinostomum Transmission as noted in life cycle freer swimming cercariae invade skin I Distribution Unknuwn but thunght tn be at least natiun 39 Wildlife Implicati IS39 D lnlmal but In lutatiu a d d ay he a problem depen mg m welupmental stage at the m ial problem damandels may he ecies of Clinostomum humans in Asia n nay infect mammals incl UT er cooking kills the metacercariae in fish is public Health So I B rop frog iegs and 33 l Leeches l Anchorworms Mites Leeches Synonyms none Etiolog A e 7 Eener Plat ifslavMarrabde av a arabde aand Ullyulnilla 7 my am wally DDDDrlIInIsh as 7 Larval and Adult amphibians 7 Ranids are most often reported 5 oss anemia ondary transmission of protozoans ssibie setondary transmission of batteria wat rmolds and VlruSeS 7 Malformations by B aweIa gruntale in the European toad Bu alarm in Germany in i3 tautaiiiie Leeches Gross S39gns 7 irtular bile wounds 7 Small amphibians may have I 2 blood loss I Dlstrlhutlo W p rat ans 7 Weakness due to blood loss anem 7 Transmission ofsecondary invaders 7 cums 7 malformations I Public Health Unknown Anchorworms Eliologit Agent 7 zamaaaa rmmaaa DNLV m FEMALES ARE PPRASIHK 7 nrmsnu2unds lass Eruslam phylum Anhmunua os 7 Musny sh 7 Larval anurans bulls amp greens amp uttas nally pusl7 melas Sign 7 Prevalmte nut repurled assume spuradit dean s 7 usually nd waterva in sh Gross Signs i penetrates deep I sullh39ssue unlyrqaruduth39ve 39 alsrdly symmeu al pa39rul 7 lead urgans rema vls IE I mm d m Elungale Egg sats 7 in ladpules usually see near ural dISI and base una39l Anchor Vuml Anchorworms D stribut 0 Unknown reports include Ohio and Georgia W dlife Implications Uncertain Likely ind dual morta s tadpoles directly or from secondary Invasion Pub Ic Health39 None M39tes Synonyms chiggers Etiologic Agent Usually enu Hannemana Host Field sign only see gross specs in skin Gross signs small 1mm finn specs in skin Red or while Traism issio 7 Although s have 4 lil ges eggs larvae nymphs adults only the larvae pl ians E lar wl El halth Distr mostly lat larvae r summer Wildlife Implications none known Public Health none as this is a different genus than what infest humans e st iectam vae ae diremy invasive I ibution most re orted in southemU and e summer autumn winter aid e rly spring nam in host for sr months aid leave in 36 1 White Egg Mutatio Al m recss I Black pigment of eggs comes from the female maternal pigment and rsists until a fewdays before ng hen em ry roduce their ment UNLESS they inherited gens then may be albino I But realize that other pigments may then be present I Chemicals Endocrine Disrupters I UV I Genetic Mutatinns In a My others such as 37 Unknown wastewater LAB TIME 38 39 Imesnn uncailed as 139 f 39 Develuying gonads Kidneys 4O Identi cation of quotfemale ee Anumns gunman wage nf Agn39mnml Stigma and Natural Remm Univexxily nfTemImmKnnm i E uggniEalmhes m a 91 a Bufnnidz s 12an mud Mirrnhy dzs A v 2 n Tmrms Muian u e mvs Nu39xmwmuudledTuzds Ranihe 539 True Fmgs mm mm Bufo americanus 7 S 10 n1 length 39 Breeding Call 39Long musical trill constant 3 Breeding Season Early March Characterlstlcs Par Family Bufomdae Distributio mum mm mm a Bufofowleri W39 E n In g 500010000 eggs 73 Ill length Breeding Call Nasal quotW39 lalquot Slleep blea ng or baby crying Pf Breeding Season Mil R Iay Characterlstlcs Par id glands touch cranial crest u A w v F F NEWS Mad Bufom Bu wleri Distribution 1 edufamatlasf Famin i J Scaphionod dae scapthPMS holbrOOkli 1 liletatal Breeding Call Nasal grunts Wank wank wank Young crow 1 Breeding Season Late J uneJ uly heavy rain Famin Keri Adapted Scaph upodidae Genera Famin Blicroliyli ae name If v thStl 011quot V119 Cll 011119115 15 Breeding Call Higll pitch buzz bzzzzzz iquot 391 Insect Wings Tstorms Breeding Season 39 Late June July Characteristlcs heavy rain Pointed snout short limbs plump body w ll lla VHi lll iiii l i It Gastrophlyne carolinensis Distribution Family HV he i iC i i frog I Acris cre itans p Breeding Call lletallic clicking Breeding Season 2 metal balls Tempo Chang quot gt 39Mid May slowfast W xi Characteristics 0 Dark triangle between eyes often bright 39 7 racing stripe F am i V Emergent 39 2 wetlands with direct sun 0 Midwest and Eastern U S L Famin m m 39 HH QD Equot Hyiidae Acris gnvllusjg Breeding Call Metallic clicking Breeding Season 2 metal balls Late June July Tempo constant 4 Characteristics 0 Dark triangle between eyes often bright more distinct line than A crepitans 39 racing stripe 1m 1th 3m airfic m Acris gryllus Famin Hy i d ae Distributio Deep Southern US N V2 0 0 d1 Familv Highly arboreal I f tel A l w o s urhytyuh 153 Wetlands and Hyla avzvoca streams Breeding Call Birllike Chirping Breeding Season histling for log 39 gt Mid le June a V g SVL 15 Characteristics Coloration can be highly variable 0 Light green or gray with light colored patch under eye I To Family A f Hylidae 11 mum39ng Hyla avivoca Distribution MAY quot71 I Family EEC J l o I 39liulae Hyla cinerea Breeding Call Short nasal repeating 39 Breeding Season quotquonkquot 39 Bicycle horn 39Late June July r i Characteristics 5 ME Hyla cinerea Family Hyli d ae su 9llle amatlass Southeastern United States In AN 9 k 1393 Fam w yb u Hy ii d ae Hyla c pxsoscelis Breeding Call 39Sllol t raspytl i Breeding Season Faster than H versicalar 39 pub 6 Mid May June 2 chromosomes of gt Highly arboreal H vensz39calar wetlands Characteristics quot 5 4w Family mpg165 s bra 0 rmnng Hy 11 d ae H a chqwoscelis Gn m treefn og E Iiylaversimlor I4391 o Breeding e quid mmn Disuilmrion veg 1 Clmnuerisrie 5mm 39eenishwi lmnnlerlbark 91101 on Wash colors Inden legs may Barking n Hv dae h eefmg i Hy a gmti 051 Breeding nu gludy new hunk ulirl grEEn granulamrlb nr 39te uppen zip hes no e 1 v Barking tre efmg Hy a gmt39 51 Distribution Deep Southern U u39esuTH S Clumbe quotA Famin Hyiid ae Breeding Call Clear Distinct Peep 1 bearer Characteristics 0 Light brown smooth Spri Pseudacris crucifer Breeding Call Short raspy call that ri s in pitch Running nger over comb but luller than P feriarmn I Characteristics 0 Light brm 1 Breeding Season Early April 13 ze of a Famin 39 Mmm w m C wrung Hyl dae Pseudacris brachjphona 1000 m elevation Smut neastem C nmms ng Pseudacrisferiarum Family ae Breeding Call Running finger over comb but more metallic tllan P brach lhana 3 SVL 1quot Breedng Season Characteristics 39Ea y Jammy 0 Light to dark brown with dark triangle between eyes 1 Family 39 Uvuutheastem Ufmms Fr Hyl dae Pseudacrisferiarum Distribution Prefer emergent wetlands 10 Chornu I I Barcnl Chmus mg F macm ara Weenm Chorus Frog F rnseuauL Suulheaalem chum Frau P ransnm I upmnn cnnmn I39ng N lemmm Ncw mac Chorus Frog F I know Family Cu ugh Frog Rmime Rana areolata Lives in craw sll and small mammal burrows Breeding Call Deep quotVaaaaaquot 39 Breeding Season Sounds like someone snoring 1 Early March Species of Concern haracteristics G4 34 0 Dark spots encircled in White white throat L a n in Known to eat craw sll and 12mm Rana areolata ma amphibians Distribution 11 Breeding in men dun 5quot gnni 1 nnds Eh z n undpmhrpech39lg Characteristics liner Fl 0g Rana mpito 39Sdmuimls ails vmhenudiwzlu39 Brccilin Season Dark spins NUT curirrlcd in whim spans 1 tiirnzt 015le in s in n Faun sz dze Distribution Fm American bullfmg Rm dz Rana atesbeian Breeding Call 4 IOi Icnphy and when handled irnd 1ch Characteristics her Frog 0 Rana mpito Breeding cason in in July Gum nr br wn wid dnrsd laurel aids zrmun l tympznllm in mm t 7 Made Tympani ex Fm mei ican bullfmg Ra d Rana Eatesbeiana Distribution Easter U mmxduud mmquot shins Faun Green frag R3 1 Rana Elamitans Breeding Call I 3913ij min a plurkld Characteristics 39nwn win darn lam21 fnlrls g ultiingpzst a mpznum r mu ni39 tympanllm mm upnm Family Green frag Rania Rana Elamitans Distribution p3 Pickett frog sz dze Rana palm 1 Breeding 11 an m 4 descendilL snun am as deep is K mu me my SW Breeding enson Characteristics 395 Anquot Tan win dzxiepziud darn 5pm squats No drespwtm Ity mpamm Faun Picken I fmb sz dze Rana palumzs Distribution Family Sou nen n le 1nd frog Rania Rana spit mot eph 11 Breeding 11 Breeding eason Characteristics EIr Feb 1mm Tanwi ldal dnrsal spmsinil gnlzryz rn 2 spatonmnu m1 anthem leopard mquot Rana sphenocephla Southeastern U S I 4 u not common in Smokies O Rmime Rana svlvalica lured Emb above while below Breedino Call A a 8 v7 Forested wetlands Biico 39 Black Series of clucks or r chuckles mallard Interspers ed with low grunts 3x Breeding Season Characteristics Early February 0 Tan dark mask belo 11d behind eye m mg 12mm Rana sylvalica Distribution 15 aeaaonmll Octunence enne eeAnIIran mm cums m mm mm w v m M mm 1mm 5 pirhnl v adms r z whyma ammnmmumg gamma hixdqvuicednu v g m mnanhum mum mm s mmmnuammmqmmmh mm mm mm m Wm 1quot mm memm mm mm quotmm auvsanrznznauviquot 2m ma mpmkmm mam u Cim ons and He pful lduni z nn39lutv mummy Collins 1m Pelumn ddc lids miqu mmcmunuumsnma m dixinn 33 mum and m use mwmmmm ma 2 5 2m quotEamam m mnemmgnmxmwma main man Wis and identi u nnzu e m u nvwalIunmcov mumidzu d I mmmmnmmwmmnwm 1quot de adsol onh Cm zn m wwwm dnmdmne lllxqauml39llvmWJ m mwmmmu Ecology and Natural History of Cavedwelling Salamanders with an emphasis on the Tennessee Cave Salamander Complex Matthew L Niemiller Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology March 27 2007 Colonization lazy Vertebrates No sympatry Phenotypic Characters Associated with Cavedwelling Salamanders m iljration Caveassociated Traits Cave Development Tennessee Cave Salamander Complex Gyrinophilus palleucus and G gulolinea tus Salamander Life Cycle Pale Salamander Gyrinophilus palleucus palleucus Big Mouth Cave Salamander Gyrinophilus p necturoides Berry Cave Salamander Gyrinophilus gulolineatus l Spring Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus Aquatic and terrestrial troglophile Range from mountains of east TN to Cumberland Plateau palleucus in appearance J but differ in eye size and Spring Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyrit icus Blue Ridge Spring Salamander Gyrinophius porphyriticus daniesi G palleucus or G porphyriticus G p necturoides and the Stone Cave G porphyriticus Frick s Cave Walker Co GA Coffee Co TN G porphyriticus Processing TN Cave Salamander VI Alpha Tag Implanted TN Cave Salam der Distribution
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