Sem Wildlife Fisheries Sci
Sem Wildlife Fisheries Sci WFS 512
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emile Upton on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WFS 512 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/229841/wfs-512-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
91 82008 The Forest Inventory and Analysis Pro Current Research and Future Opportunities 91 82008 Three phase program Phase 1 rernote sensing Pha forest rnesuration plots Phase 3 forest se 2 health plots Phase 3 is 116 of Phase 2 7 One Phase 2 plot per 6000 ac Consistent core set of field measurements across the 91 82008 Overview Additional Components of FIA Timber Product Output Surveys National Woodland Owner Survey Tropical Islands Inventory Utilization Studies Ozone b ornonitor ng Cu rrent Research Status and trend reporting of southern forest resources including the extent character and use of southern forests e E pes assessment of the grovvth and removals of the hardwood resource an Hardwood Region contact Dr Chris Oswalt fressures of the u southern cypress resource contact Mar distribution of woodeprocessing m Is in the South and the development of estimates of nonewood forest products in the i S t Un ted tates contac Tony Johnson Ph sical constraints on timber avai ability in the South A mul ivariate approach contact Dr John Coulston Forest health Issue detection an monitoring arnples develcgment of the Southern Nonnative Invasive Database and Tool ontact Dr Chris Oswalt assessment of the oak regeneration pool in Virginia s forests and the dec ine of dc cjwogd populations in the Appalachian ecoregion ose Contact Anita Cu rrent Research The development of techniques for implementing forest inventories and u Zing annual forest data 7 Example s An alternative to tradi ional oodnesseofe It tests for discretely measured continuous data contact Dr KaDonna andolph detectincg mea al clusters of forest health changes using FIA phase 3 data an spatia s ics contact Dr John coulston Invasive forest pest s rve ance survey development and re 39ab Ity contact Dr John coulston Ecreas ipg statistical power of components of change analysis contact Dr Frank oes o t ng correlations among phase 2 and phase 3 variables for prediction and es atlon contact Dave Sartner landscape level forest disturbance and change detection and n Characterizatic m p eterm39 he impacts of deforestation in Puerto R co contact Dr Tom Brandeis i tegrat sat derived disturbance maps with FIA inventory data contact Sonja Oswalt MapPing LLS forest biomass usin nationwide forest inventory data and moderate reso ution information contacts ennis Jacobs Dr Dumitru Salajanu 91 82008 Specific Research Example Physical constraints on timber availability in the South A quot multivariate approach 91 82008 Physical Constraints Traditionally expert opinion has been used to identify plots that are unlikely to be harvested 397 Remove stands on slopes greater Principal Components PCA Used with continuous variables Seeks to explain the covariance among varlables In terms of uncorrelated comblnatlons Based on c es and characterlstlcs vector elgenvector of e r correlation lInear racteristic roots eigenvail 91 82008 Basic Steps Extract all currehtglot and condition level data from FIADB 35 OO plots Ic ilethtrfy which plots had beeh harvested 4000 p o s Attach GIS variables to plot Remove 200 harvested plots for testing 91 82008 91 82008 Harvested Plots in Feature Space deaeasingsmpe t39cm nrq mum mm m 91 82008 Application of the Model We have a model the describes the general condition Where we have observed harvest The linear combination from the multivariate anal Sis can be a lied to the MWOONMW Hardwoods 91 82008 Constrai nts NOnalndustrial private ownership 41 Volume greater than 700 ouftao stand falls within the draw radius of 35 a ha wood mi Hardwood forest type BVCE 25 Result 5 g zcE Approx 34 ion ouft of hardwood a volume was in the 39high oategory 17 Apprcgtlt 6500 of the hardwood ICE volume in nonaindustrial private ownership was in the high amp med SI oategory QCE vTed Ilell Im W sex W sax W W 5 W W 20 W W 15 W W 10 W W 5 0 high law are Softwoods Constraints Nonaindustrial private ownership Volurne greater than 700 ouftao hin the draw radius of softwood ml I softwood forest type Result Approx 19 ion ouft of softwood volume was in the 39high oategory Apprcgtlt 8000 of the softwood volume in nonaindustrial private minim ownership was in the hlgh amp med oategory Summary Multivariate techniques can b ood that a plot can be Classify the like ih harvest based on physical and observed harvest patterns This is a Iausible alternative to ex ert constraints 91 82008 Outline Introduction Objective What is Sustainable Forest Characteristics of forest and its implications An alternative view ofSFM Analysis Introduction Forests produce multiple products and Introduction ln economics forests are analyzed separately from other renewable resources Forests possess characteristics of both renewable and nonrenewable resources trees are not forests and forests are much more than trees Introduction Is it ripe time for sustainable forests If yes the big HOW question Sustained Yield Timber Management Wildlife Water Sustainable Forest Management SFM x Objectives To discuss economic perspectives of sustainable forest ma conte externalities and non m rketv ues To contribute to the current debates on SFM by clarifying major issues of common concerns policies that encourage sustainable forest management What is Sustainable Forest Management Sustainable Forest management SFM is an internationally accepted and applied concept that balances the environmental social and economic values and services that forest provide There is no universally agreed upon definition of SFM De nition Background Forest resources and forest lands should be sustainably managed to meet the socia economic ecological cultural and spiritual needs of present and future generations These needs are for forest products and services such as wood and wood products water foo fodder medicine fuel shelter employment recreation habitats for wildlife landscape diversity carbon sinks and reservoirs and for other forest products Forest PrinCIples Principle 2b De nition Background The stewardship and use of foests and forest lands in a way and at a rate that maintains their biodiversity productivity regeneration capacity vitality and their potential to fulfill now and in the future relevant ecological economic and social functions at local national and global levels and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems MCPFE 1993 p1 But we all agree in the concept FAO Montreal Process PanEuropean Roundtable on Sustainable Forests USDA FS SFM based on MontreaIPmcess has 7 39 etc criteria and 57 indicators Sustainable Forest Management and Modern forest economics Social economic and ecological features of SFM are different than that of sustained yield timber management Hence the economics of SFM wil be based on different economic principles The two main requirements of the economics of SFM are the economics of multiple equilibria and a consumer choice uieury 39 heterogeneity of agents context speci c and dynamics of preferences distin ion between needs and wants and the subordination of needs Guidelines Solow 1992 has proposed that sustainability s ould allow intergenerational tra eo bu no generation should be favored over any other It implies that people should not create any burdens for other genera ions Chichilnisky 1997 found that there exist sus ainable preferences which satisfy axioms that neither the present nor the future should play a dictatorial role in society s choices over ime which implies that there would be solutions for sustainable forest managemen An alternative view of SFM Applying Public Economic Lens to SFM Market failures Externalities Local and Global Public Goods Local and Global State and Local Public Finance An alternative view of SFM Any the same levels of government may not has the same objectives on SFM Any different levels of government may not has different objectives on SFM Multiple equilibriums Based on public participation and local and global needs Key concepts Well defined in Natural Forests vs Plantation Forests Public Forests vs Private Forests Property Rights Ownerships Local and global agreements Good economic instruments could be applied Using intergovernmental transfers agreements and broad legal system Example With environmental dimension normal forests should be separated from plantation monocultures based on ecosystem management Pulpwood or sawlog production purpose could be explicitly designed plantations or mixed forest management SFM could be better applied when certain characteristics are known Requirements Legal requirement Forest certi cation Carbon credit at global levels broadly internalized externalities Natural forest taxation or differential property tax rate Promote technology offorest products including recycle Support re management pest management and patch managemen No dictatorship Governments provide estimations of biodiversity and ecosystems value try to remove asymme ric information Analysis It is true that SFM has One Hundred Faces Wang 2004 If we could internalize all externalities to forests or fully set up markets for forest products and services SFM could result in the First best world solutions However they may result in the Second best world solutions With the public economics framework SFM could be seen in the stakeholder approach Need bargaining Department of Forestry Wildlife and Fisheries University of Tennessee Knoxville TN Electroflshm backround Information Implications for populations Implications for endangered sh Electro shing effects on survival for Emb os Future research needs Use ofwaterborne electric elds to capture sh Used in most 39eshwater habitats O en considered an essential technique by sheries managers 39 n NM 11 Equipment Either boat or backpack electroshockers l i V m Electric output Voltage controlled by operator Electric waveform tin Ilchingj um U Environmental factors impacting waterborne electric eld intensity Conductivity C oosing voltage Waveform Conductivity Target species Electro shing effects on survival for Emb s ryo Juveniles dults Future research needs I 1 39 McMichael et al 1998 Frequency of injury decreases with increasing spatial scale sample reach stream scales Insigni cant proportion ofthe population will be impacted when viewed at the stream scale Electro shing background information Implications for populations In a us for endanered Electro shlng effects on surVIval fo Future research needs Nielsen 1998 Loss of even one individual is unacceptable and considered quottakequot under ESA lfa small isolated population of sh is exposed high mortality could have devastating effects on the population During spawning seasnn uuhlple Me hislnlyslagus can he expnsed In elm Ids F39sh um aggregaleln snawn wnnm he na nularly susceptible Pnlemial nnnulaunn level enacts illhe eleclr39 lethal Electrofishing background information Implications for populations Implications for endangered fish Electro shin effects on survival for Embos Juveniles Adults Future research needs All life history stages Mortality increases with electric field intensity Dolan et al 2002 Henry et al 2003 Differences in susceptibility exist between species Meismer 1999 Henry et al 2004 Henry and Grizzle 2004 I A o n A o I A S y A o arms 3 so A F t lspenesB a 39 ASperiesc g o l A o I A A o A o IIIII a eld Intensity Certain developmental stages are more susceptible than others Dwyer et al 1993 Henry and Grizzle 2004 DC is more lethal than PDC Henry and Grizzle 2004 Embryos shocked at later developmental stages can hatch prematurely Henry and Grizzle 2004 in mg UK II U1 Early developmental stages particularly susceptible to electroshock Dwyer et al 1993 Henry and Grizzle 2004 e Survival tn binning percent Davalnpmamalslagellime pnsliemlnaljoul DC is more lethal than PDC Henry and Grizzle 2004 no Newlytransformed juveniles are more susceptible than larvae and olderjuveniles Henry et al 2003 PDC can cause mortality in larvae and juveniles Henry et al 2004 o L A quote Newlytransformed juveniles are more susceptible than larvae and olderjuveniles Henry et al 2003 mu 7 5a survival 3 kl AC is more lethal than PDC or DC Pratt 1955 Taylor et al 1957 Larger sh are more vulnerable to electroshockinduced mortality Greater size More responsive to electroshockshock Nlore injury39 More mortality AC is more lethal than PDC or DC Pratt 1955 Taylor et al 1957 Su rvlval A u A I I I I I I E eld Intensity Electrofishing background information Implications for populations Implications for endangered fish Electrofishing effects on survival for Embryos Juveniles Adults Future research needs Investigate the impact of size on injury and mortality Examine why embryos are susceptible to DC while adults are more vulnerable to AC and PDC Find the most harmful waveform to larvaejuveniles Compare ACDCPDC vulnerability in one study 1162008 Wild Turkeys in California Introduced or Reintroduced 39 Angeline Sootten BS candidate Forestry Wildlife amp Flsheries 5 November 2008 1220110pm 160 P33 Life history of the wild turkey History of wild turkeys in California Restoration efforts Current issues Future directions Overall History Overall History Farmpen raised turkeys 039 39 turkeys couldn39t survive in wild Resto ratio n Trapandtransplant meih d 0 Rocket neis 1162008 1162008 Current Range tory Turkeys native to ouihwestern United States No turkeys in California at European settlement History became eitinct 10000 2000 years go 1162008 History History Closely related to today39s wild turkey Only differences in Restoration 1877 First turkeys released from Mexico by private ranchers 1908 California Game amp Fish released 48 birds 39om Mexico 28 Game farm birds California hybrids released Cross between Mirriam39s and Mexican 39 ds no longer released 62 banslocated Rio Grande turkeys from Texas released in San Diego County 1162008 Restoration recently successful in coniferous foresls z successful in California39s oak woodlands Established in approx scpare miles of California Restoration g h Current Issues Turkeys in residential area 1162008 Current Issues California Dept of Fish amp Game Keep Me Mld program Current Issues Agricultural depredation California Vineyards Current Issues National Wild Turkey Federation Set remote cameras in 4 vineyards in 2000 amp 2001 E if my 1162008 Current Issues Current Issues Impact on native species Current Issues Resulls 1162008 Current Issues Argument of native vs intr 39 Future Directions Turkeys will continue to expand their range CA Dept of Fish amp i quot Game will continue management efforts No future releases of turkeys in California Acknowledgements Tom Hughes amp the National Wild Turkey Federation California Dept of Fish amp Game Billy Minser UT amp the Department of Forestry Wildlife amp Fisheries
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