Independ Study WildlfFish Sci
Independ Study WildlfFish Sci WFS 493
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emile Upton on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WFS 493 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/229843/wfs-493-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Silviculture and its Effects on Amphibians Dalles Phillips WFS 533 Outline 0 Silviculture basics o Salamanders and Anuran importance 0 Research 0 Effects on Salamanders and Anurans o Readings Silviculture o The art and science of controlling the establishment growth composition health and quality of FORESTS to meet diverse needs and values of the many landowners societies and cultures over the parts the globe hat are covered by dry t Forest Regeneration o The act of renewing tree cover by establishing young trees naturally or artificially o Happens right after the previous stand or forest has been removed Silvicultural Regeneration o The harvest of the timber on the stand and reestablishment of the forest w 2x 5Methods of Regeneration o Singletree selection method 0 Group selection method 0 Clearcut method 0 Seedtree method 0 Shelterwood method Intermediate Stand Treatments 0 Release Treatments 0 Thinning o Pruning Amphibian Characteristics 0 Relatively small home range a Sensitive to local changes in microclimate and microhabitat o Remain close to the forest floor all the time o Require a moist and cool environment for efficient respiration due to a permeable Terrestrial Salamanders o Are an important ecological component of deciduous forests 0 Usually most abundant species 0 Total salamander biomass in a given area can exceed that of other small vertebrate species present 0 Species distributions vary according to moisture and elevation gradients Predator and Prey 0 Very important in the food web 0 Feed on prey that are too small for birds or mammals o Are prey for snakes birds small mammals and other salamanders o Forage in the forest floor litter primarily at night after rainfall or during high humidity Vb l Anurans 0 Important in the food web 0 Species distributions vary according to moisture and elevation gradients o Nocturnal activity and resting in a water conserving position 0 Are prey for snakes birds and small mammals 39 39 LEAP o Landuse Effects on Amphibian Populations 0 Study sites in Missouri South Carolina and Maine Missouri LEAP 0 Daniel Boone Conservation Area DBCA in Warren County Missouri 0 3500acre Conservation Area 0 Missouri Dept of Conservation owns and manages o Oakhickory forest with 35 ponds Species of Concern 0 Wood frogs Rana sylvatica o Ringed salamanders Ambystoma annulatum Target Species 0 Wood Frog Rana sylvatica o Spotted Salamander Ambystoma maculatum 0 American Toad Bufo americanus Experimental Forest Management Treatments 0 Completed from MayDecember 2004 o 1 Control treatment 0 maintained in the original condition ofthe forest with only minor disturbance from skidders o 2 Clearcut with CWD retained treatment 0 all trees greater than 10 inches dbh were removed by loggers the remaining were cut to lt6 feet to facilitate contact wit the ground 0 3 Clearcut with CWD removal treatment 0 Same as other clearcut plus quadrants will be burned in January 2007 to remove woody debris o 4 Partial cut treatment 0 quotthinnedquot quadrant to 50 stocking density by girdling unwanted species and mumnamiriu hnnwi defective trees each array 1 was inventoried so that the target stocking density was achieved accurately Drift Fence and Pitfall Trap Schematics 0 Figure 3 0 Each ofthe 4treatments has 6 fences set at 50m 100m and 150m to monitor amphibian movement in the terrestrial habitat A set of3 fences have been added to the edges ofthe control treatment to monitor lateral movement into and out of the unaltered forest control quadrant 0 Figure 4 o A Son drift fence with pitfall traps Each length offence has 3 pairs of buckets per side for amphibian captur mp wwle p missnun eduMnLEAPMnsne m Experimental Terrestrial Pens o 64 pens will be used to assess metamorph survival under each of the 4 forestry treatments Four 3x3m pens will be built in each quadrant In the spring 32 pens will be quotIF quot stocked with wood frogs and 32 with quot American toad metamorphs Pens will be stocked with spotted salamndermetamorphs the following spring 5 Pen construction began in November 1 2004 and is scheduled to be nished by midMarch 2005 l I W law any mlssnlm eduMnLEAPMDSleh Publications Rothermel 88 and RD Semlitsch 2006 Consequences of forest fragmentation forjuvenile survival in the salamanders Ambystoma maculatum and A opacum Canadian J Zoology 84 807 Rittenhouse TAG M Doyle R Mank BB Rothermel and RDSemlitsch 2004 Substrate cues in uence habitat selection by spotted salamanders Journal of VWdlife Management 681 1511 158 Rothermel 88 and RD Semlitsch 2002 An experimental investigation of landscape resistance of forest versus oldfield habitats to emigrating juvenile amphibians Conservation Biology 161324 1332 h pwwwleapmissourieduMOLEAPMOpublicationsh m Research Paper 0 Following research comes fr 0 Effects of seven silvicultural treatments on terrestrial salamanders 0 Douglas N Harpole and Carola A Haas Research Clearcutting 0 Removed all merchantable trees and stems down to 5 cm during a single harvest Some mast snag and cull trees are left forwildlife o Clearcutting increases the surface temperature and leads to drying of the litter layer limiting salamander surface activity 0 Studies have shown that populations decline by 7580 after clearcut timber harvesting p0001 Research Herbicide o Intended to remove nondesirable understory woody vegetation to reduce competition to promote the growth of desirable species for timber products 0 No effect on salamanders N or anuran populations p 0862 Research Group selection 0 Removal of a group of trees in the same manner as clearcutting generally on harvested on a 20 year cutting cycle 0 Significant decline in salamander and anuran population p 0005 Research Single harvest 0 Overstory is removed which creats a gap in the canopy simulating the death of an oldgrowth tree 0 Significant decline in salamander and 39 r V i anuran population Fomi Research Sheltenivoods 0 Remove trees in a series of three harvests o 1 Preparatory out o 2 Establishment out o 3 Removal out o Alters understory environmental conditions 0 sunlight temperature and moisture 0 Significant decline in salamander and anuran population 0 p0007 Research Unharvested o No silvicultural treatment applied to the forest 0 No effect on salamanders or anurans p 0788 Analyzing the Research 0 When overstory is removed or altered there is a decline 0 Temperature increase 0 Moisture decrease 0 When understory is removed but overstory remains intact no change is seen 0 microhabitat and microclimate conditions are not altered Correlations to Environment 0 Amphibians are positively correlated with 0 Quantity of coarse woody debris 0 Quality of coarse woody debris o Litter depth and moisture o Understory vegetation density 0 Overstory canopy closure Salamanders vs Anurans o Salamanders are more sensitive to clearcutting and associated edge effects than anurans Rtmm39ims at lo we kno about tl anlpllibi n pathogen en erging Institute of Agriculture Center fur life Hmltll Outline EIDs and Ampllilyian Declines Rana Character tics c Mecllani for Emergence 111 Tennessee Results IV Pas lyle Conservation Strategi Amphibian Declines and Emerging infectious Diseases 52quot mmmim EI D smsm Chy r d Fungus Izochy m dendrolu m cm W viquot 5 M n Hm mm mpical 2 High Ekvz uns 39eslu39n mum Suns 39Snme Queries Iguyl z lu39lnl Reported Amph h North Am ericw an Dieoffs I39m a Ranavirus 12 us a 12 s mam 3 ssz 823 s Chynr39d Rmmvims in T nnessee Previous Documentation an 5 mm mva m 19 1 an mm mm m 1man humid mm any n 1 mm 2n mm Annnunth l umhrxxndnum Chamwtemstms bmnn 39 er a1 0555 Raff 196quot Janrn d E L 997 nrllerty Hal amp gt lsDNA 1507280K bp y 39 20 300 nm in diameter 39 maller Illan bacterial 431 7 cosahedi al Shape 120 E FanlilV39 Irilovn 1lae Ranm39irus amp Secie FV3 l Phylogeny lmlgvstuma grinumvim AT Iliadac 39lux Venezuelan unis Main 3 20 39 x 1ZIR Z 51 ain ll 39qu el 21 mm m enumn a 39 m Gmss signs Ei39yiimna in Ben n Slglls can be A souatetl with Other Pathogens Ammamu Ig39lll llh ll IIIalli on illcool tliIIa on ullacia on H smpmhn ng m Signs 3 Primal Organs Kidney Liver and Spleen mm c hincharl hinchar el al mm o o Kinney Degeneration Viral Inclusions n Faiiu 39e Tnxitnsis Alleluia Route 15 naval1mmlemmalamina a mummy Hur39mmlzlvs mm IOIIIyHurimmal 39nnsm39ss39nnDennnslnlzd mm 1 2m 39emdirmmhnswuld Reservoirs and Env mnm mm Persistence mam am an mm 01mm hawks any n 1 2mm w m lobm zl mm Jmurlh 1 2001 ATV an mm mm mmhmmaia uuluO quot nv n amp mmamla m m 7 mm Eimmmmm Envirnnnmmzl P mg AT392zdw 5 wzlu39hzlhhslinlicwhusczyzh ilv mm 39 1mm 3 1 mm days 39Drysurlaus mump lmgdmn Futon s Cmm butting t0 Emergence An n39npnguLirSh39essnr a acumwmmanm IH h idumnn39ne wxmq m y39 r diner g Mum humanm Use WP alum 7 IS hndputhumumh omrmm sum P 5ampFzmhzztsm 1v Thmnaanlln 1 szrz srmsm I zlu Tunpenlun 2Devdupmenl 3Pupuhw39nnDuIsil mmmp 5 mm mm mum Mm L M 5 mm mm Results Cattle Land Use 393 mmmw cumm m 11 m Mn 9mm n mm m n mam a g Posv mmamowhic Green Frogs gummy1 H313 mu m Kansm um n5 n5 L 39Danmeinel amp 9mm um mlviril 145 Results 1 Seasonal Effects may an mm 5 sumo n mua m 23 Dena in a mains 0an quotmega Hummus n mum with hlmililuanin Gunu xt p wass l o N echanml ms Driving Trends ter Temperature low temperature in m Mnniern and Car 39 119939 Rnffel et al 6 Rojas et al 2039 vch and temperature urviral and temperature De elopmental Stages Tadpole immunity increases throng development in Xmupm er Rollins lnitll 1393 e anrn39m 12 nrly Development Metm l sis Inn P Erunneret 22III4I canness et 2 2III31 gt2 2 IiLanize 39 A ReduceF overs B Aerial Application on Calm Days 1quot n v 439 7 Honeydew mucmm o mamglles onlnent Caveat None of these recommendations have I een tested 3 ForC l e l Reduce DensitV gt 1 39I head 9 ha 9 month 4439 kg 1 1391 lbs 9 1 Water Qualin 39I 5 m L NO B Flow Fresh 03 genated Water
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