World Geography GEOG 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arthur Shanahan on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/229851/geog-101-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
SUBSAHARAN AFRICA htt wwwnh39or db 1540 re ion subsaharaht quota theory in geology which states that the lithosphere of the earth is divided into a small number of plates which float on and travel independently over the mantle much of the earth s seismic activity occurs at the boundaries of these platesquot MerriamWebster definition Plate Tectonics H 395 A msz 180 90 htt eolo com an eahtm quot 39 n II tect01htm Geology matters because it directly influences the physical geography of a place which in turn affects many aspects of human culture Physical Geography of SubSaharan Africa V J MW Yr 0 39 139 Nunw w lulu Ocean I b SAHARA Haunt Suuth Klllmnllw AtInu Ocun n L a 05355 lulln Octn Lu z 11 Crosssection of SubSaharan Africa Tableland Plateau Kalahari Basin 6 In 9 3 39a 3 a a Coastal Plain Coastal Plain lwwwca Iflora netsouthafricagreatescargmenthtm The Europeans concentrated the majority of their colonial activities in the Coastal Plain area of the continent due to the difficulty of traversing the Escarpments Additional challenges arose due to the lack of deep water ports httgwwwbgrgorgghotos htt hotosi ou ocom ictures hotos 195848 A Look From the Bandiagara Escarpmenthtml Climate 8 Vegetation Zones of SubSaharan Africa 1K 0 4 Md 4 Bwrmwm htt HIAN C Di E Mwn Swims mummime Slnwlmwlim MMIWIWumu mm nmmmmmmmmi adamantly Wm M 4 M WW 3 imnwmmmm lamhwu ex lorin a i Africa s Vegetation of The Sahel suedulteacherscu lumm6ma 3 h AFRICA htt Sahel region Alimilrc Mien lnfml lblo travel htt blu heiferur odcomtravel l The Sahel is a band of arid grassland that runs east west along the southern edge of the Sahara p357 The Sahel in Arabic literally means quotthe shorequot A common type of economic herding of livestock cattl e V t Dr and Rain Season r V 2011 07 d activity practiced there is the loats hotomodernnomad67l311950814405mlanin Catt eherdin nomadsof the sahel39 in uuthtm odhtml HumanEnvironoment Interaction in SubSaharan Africa Deforestation The action or process of clearing of forests MerriamWebster 60 ofthe Rainforest in Africa is gone since the Europeans arrived in mass during the late 19th Century Deforestation Drivers in Africa I Suhslslence agriculture 54 I Logging 0 l lnrensive agriculture 35 Rewiringpasture 1 Inongabaycom using Project L39alalys 2008 dala Deserti cation A set of ecological changes that converts nondesert lands into deserts pp 335 394 Attempts to curb the effects of Deserti cation in Africa Total distance 7775 km Total area 11 662500 hectares The llGreat Green Wallquot involves constructing a tree belt 15 kilometers 9 miles wide and 7775 39 quot 4831 miles long across the southern edge of the Sahara from Senegal in the west to Djibouti Ethiopia and the Indian Ocean in the east SENEGAL lulu ETHIOPIA BUHKINA NIGERIA FASO Source Great Green wall Initiative L LI 4 Charismatic Megafauna large animals lions elephants giraffes etc who appeal to the general public for any number of reasons In the past these animals were revered in most parts of Africa However today they are being threatened because they are viewed as being a nuisance by the locals Lions kill livestock and elephants or wildebeest eat or trample crops Additionally some of these animals are murdered by poachers for certain parts ie ivory furs Human Geography of SubSaharan Africa Ethnicity The quality of belonging to a particular culture group pp86 336 Ethnic group A group of people who share a set of beliefs a way of life a technology and usually a geographic location pp 12 336 European colonies in Africa 1913 I Belgium Germany Spain i France Great Britain I Italy I Portugal Independent hltn39lwww7 n Iweh 39 39 39 3 3an Berlin Conference 188485 A meeting in Berlin Germany that regulated European colonization of Africa political divisions amp trade sewn munmu u wrimn nltmtn New iwmmmwm mam r IN T llllIlll ilrllLS m I V W L i 39 Edi him M in nu awquot fr th y g x i bguu V These three images can be found on httpMwwwikigediaorg Scramble for AT ca he B Confe ence In summary the European powers divided up Africa for their own economic benefit The borders that they drew on the map were completely arbitrary The y DID NOT take into account or care what this would mean forthe African people who were already living there Thus some ethnic groups are divided across multiple nation states Colonialism The practice of establishing political dominance over another people for economic political and territorial gain Kaplan 2008 Utilized primarily by European nationstates to benefit from the extraction of raw materials or tradable goods minerals agriculture people labor etc Neocolonialism Modern efforts by dominant countries to control economic and political affairs in other countries to further their own aims pp 137 355 It can also refer to the remnants of the past colonization language borders culture economic or political systems etc A social or political construct based on apparent characteristics such as skin color hair texture and Race face and body shape but of no biological significance p 19 The negative assessment of people often those who look different primarily on the basis of skin Racism color and other physical features p 20 Rascism was a major justification for the colonization of Africa Europeans often employed the divide amp rule tactic of governance in Africa in which they would favor one ethnic group over the other or in the case of Rwanda create them out of thin air Hutu amp Tutsis During the slave trade they would employ one group to go and capture a second group who would then be sent primarily to the Western Hemisphere to be used for slave labor iIDIIIII Language Distribution Religious Distribution Afrikaans Fuenah 0 Arabic English lsam Am 1quot am 31 Traditional 1 a on rellglons Swahili Hinduism Portuguese Sp nish nrm distribution a 39ica crop 1Dna Lingua Franca a common language used to communicate by people who do not speak one another s native languages often a language of trade pp 16 392 Globalization The growth of interregional and worldwide linkages and the changes they are bringing about p 10 The 1St global commodity were African Slaves 1 l AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE 150071870 ll 5 I 7 I 8 A N imam A J 5 5 m EUROPE NQRTH r AMERICA 39mm 39 I t 39W fun mm L B W r B 39 smr iimxm n r l N mm mm c MEXICO mag y k c 9 mm 3 quot 7 quotmi nDMlNcu M 39 mm lmse W v L A l r n39 quot M m smegma MW mm mm WWW wanimumm AFRICA D 5mm MAIN nalEgg mmIDyV gnu D yawn Nam memo an onm Mm BAKONEO mam mm FlLlllL aim E m l xl v mm E WW WW I m UI39VTlOVL NW MOZAMBIQUE nowx n mw mkoch Immlv F a l39onuwu a F El hm mumw or M 1m m H mm m mm Wm unqu mum aw quotmic liullc quotallquot I lll slf r G G W milw mlmn mm mm 41 mun 1W m F 1 2 j a J 4 5 l s l 7 8 1 1an marl rnm Afriran 205lave 20tradElDE Global Scales Macroregional European Union African Union ASEAN etc The African Union is a supranational organization a political organization consisting of all the countries on the African continent and some nearby islands promoting economic cooperation and social welfarequot p 378 httpwwwicnlorgknowledgengolawmonitorimagesaugif After Herod 2011 Gross Domestic Product GDP The market value of all goods and services produced by workers and capital within a particular country s borders and within a given year p 31 GDP measures the Formal Economy only what s on the books The Informal Economy off the books is not measurable GDP per capita The market value of all goods and services produced by workers and capital within a particular country s borders and within a given year divided by the number of people in the country p 33 Purchasing power parity PPP The amount that the local currency equivalent of US 1 will purchase in a given country Commodity An article of trade or commerce especially a product as distinguished from a service something of use advantage or value referencecom NIGERIA MALI fl Zaria y Kaduna BENIN Jus 397 Ilcurin 1 ABUJA Yo39a 39ngomosbl H Val ulakurdl C Imaddr w G 12 Iiquot 1quot G uh was L J u 1m 200 km mummile quot I I u I u mIINEA 0 100 200 ml Imagesfrom ClAiThe World Factbook on Nigeria
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