IntroPolitical Science POLS 102
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Aeropagus 7 Judicial Body that decides fate of Arestyze 1 Fear 2 Suffering 3 Inbetween Tyranny and Anarchy 4 Reason 5 Soulcity Furies gt Euminides 7 Kindly Ones l Passion 2 Need for Institutions 3 Persuasion 4 Progress Democritus Metaphysics underlying theoretical subjects that cover the basic principles of any area of study Philosophical Search for the rst principles of reality Ontology 7 existence or being Cosmology 7 origin and general structure of the universe Epistemology 7 nature and limits of knowledge What is permanent and what things are in constant ux Democritus logic gt Atoms are permanent always there eternal Democritus is a materialist and naturalist only thing that exist in his thoughtreality are atoms or voids Naturalist does not believe in conscious creation of the world aka no supernatural being He calls atoms that make up humans soul atoms which rejoin nature as we die How does this relate Metaphysics ideas relate directly learn later Plato Born 427 BC Early age groomed to be a politician however Socrates took him under his wing and he was forever a philosopher Socrates executed 399 BC for corrupting the minds of the youth and not believing in the city s gods Traveled around Asia and Came in Contact with a Tyrant Pythagorean and Orphic Cults had rubbed off on Plat and his philosophic ideas Tries to teach Dion II and turn him into a philosopher king but it backfires and turns him into a tyrant Returns to GreeceAthens to his Academy Most important event in Plato s life is the execution of Socrates Perfect balance of philosophy and politics Sophists Sophists 7 educators for hire who traveled to Greece Viewed as being foreigners viewed as objects of suspicion Intellectual change had rubbed off on Greece time of skepticism in Greece made Sophists who were skeptics accepted in Greek Society Interesting rise in the interest of human affairs war and other things made people start to become interested in politics and humans Sophists taught that all regimes are conventional all laws an governments were based on illusions There is always an element of error or falsity LawNature 7 relativists Sophists thought the most important thing to leam is the law of rhetoric They also taught political virtue To the Sophist if you master Rhetoric you master Politics 0 Sophists promised power through rhetoric Plato accuses Sophists of being educational opportunists they choose to teach whatever will get them money He also accuses them of being the corruption of Athens symbols of corruption Plato s Knowledge Theory The realm of reality we look at is visible the world of intelligible humans is only leaned through their mind Intelligible is the good 7 it is the ground of the form intensity that makes forms possible to experience the world Visible is the forms 7 perfected ideas of what is in reality The way we relate to the forms is through thought The way we relate the good is intellectualdialectic investigation of the truth The main Idea of Plato is the more truthful and moral your soul is the higher you can achieve in the intelligible world Virtue of prudence 7 ability to apply universal principles to everyday situations This is what makes philosophers the perfect leaders experience of bliss makes philosophers the happiest of men Aristotle Aristotle at 17 went to Athens He studied for 20 years with Plato until Plato died Aristotle then traveled to Macedonia and pursues intellectual happiness like Plato Stayed with Hermias and marries Hermias niece Travels to a place called Lespice after Hermias is assassinated Aristotle was then met by Alexander the Great Aristotle was then Alexander the Great s tutor staring when Alexander was 14 Alexander the Great did not believe in the same political vision as Aristotle 336 BC Alexander becomes King and does CanterAristotle politics Pecismas dies and Aristotle still doesn t become leader of Plato s academy Aristotle now gives up on Plato s Academy and goes on to form the Lyceum to rival Plato s Academy Aristotle tries to study the Athenian Constitution he favors the empirical way of thinking AntiMacedonian view in Athens Erupted Aristotle was caught in it for being friends with the king and being his tutor o Aristotle is charged with not believing in the Gods and Aristotle ees and refuses to stay for the trial He dies a year later in his mid 60 s He studied history and biology Writings He had two types of works Exoteric and theoretical Exoteric literary works are intended for a general audience while the theoretical treatises are meant for his disciples The exoteric work is lost in history His theoretical works are still intact through his lectures notes in philosophy astrology physics etc Three main writings Nichomachus was Aristotles son who composed his writings in Nichomachian ethics Aristotle in Book I criticizes Plato s ideas of the good and his teachings of Metaphysics Aristotle differs from Plato s teachings Aristotle differs from Plato by having a great deal of respect for common sense or the opinions of the average mannonphilosophers Has respect for knowledge based off experience Aristotle believes humans beings knowledge of ethics and politics is a mystery and can never be absolutely learned Book one Complete life needed for happiness Aristotle believes all things in the world aim at some good The good that human beings aim for is happiness Children cannot be happy or unhappy Aristotle believes the only way happiness is received is when it is accompanied with action activity Happiness is achieved by iving well Three types of human liferealm of the soul 1 Nutrition and growth or health 2 Sense ofperception pleasure 3 Life of contemplation reason Aristotle tries to pick the best one to achieve happiness Sense perception is shared with animals so is not uniquely human Health is not uniquely human so does not produce happiness plants Only human beings reason Concludes the life of the rational man is life of contemplation Concludes life of reason creates happiness happiness requires activity and has to be achieved Aristotle believes the way to be happy is to practice the virtues The way to achieve virtue is to master pleasure and pain through mastering your experience Good moral character and act in accordance with complete virtue Nietzesche I Views Niecha Nietzche Niecha nds modern age is useless compared to the Christian middle ages 0 We live in a time of conformity and loss of individuality De nes democracy as rule of the law over the high 0 Democracy has a commitment to equality as conformity in Niecha s mind To Niecha democracy is the offspring of Christianity Christianity first spoke of equality 0 Rule of public opinion produces conformity and changes everyone in one shape I He says in our time our morning paper comes before our morning prayer 0 He believes pacif1sm shows our laziness and willingness to not fight for what we believe in Not a fan of the modern states and growth of government as a whole He believes success is the main thing in society and shows our weakness Modern education no longer produces true individuals it only produces specialists who are ignorant in every subject but one o Believes philosophy has been a laughing stock for other people and is not appreciated 0 in order for life to thrive requires errors and illusion Uncultured society lacks more refined things in life 0 Public opinion is the rule of sloth and laziness Passage Nietzche is an atheist o In the past atheists tried to hide their atheism to the public Nietzche spoke freely and loudly about his atheism o Nietzche believed god existed simply because people believed in him now that western modern society and society as a whole has changed he cannot be believed in Christianity to Nietzche Devotes Christianity attention because the in uence of Christianity has an effect on all aspects of society in western European culture 0 Christianity provided anchor for European civilization For plato the real and apparent world after the death of god the apparent world is the only one to exist 0 The death of god is essentially the death of platonic meta physics 0 Believes Christianity changes man by making him a spiritual depth and improved man to a certain extent 0 Christianity gave man something to strive for to be better morally and as a whole Christianity has a desire for truth 0 Men discover truth and ultimately destroys god when they search so deep they realize god is a creation All moralities are challenged by chirstianity o Camel to lion camel is I shalt burdened and lion to I will 0 Lion modern man Lion is lost in a spiritual desert o Nietzche is very critical on other conservatives though he is himself Conservatism All conservatives have soething towards democracy Believes nationalism is a new construct o Nietzche doesn t believe in countries coming together but Europe as one organized type of people as a whole instead of nations coming together 0 He was a new aristocracy 0 History almost moves forward and it is not possible to go back in time o Believes conservatism is almost paired with Christianity and he wants converatism to be a private sector 0 Transvalueation of all values I He wants radical change Believes most conservatives and liberals are pitiful along with politics New goods for western civilization 0 last man is democratic egalitarian man All the last man is about is comfortable selfpreservation o The last man is a very conformitive person They want no poor or no rich 0 Last man believes time before was not Nihilism 7 nothing is good and we created happiness True everything is permitted 0 A nihilish wills nothingness destroy stuff now to creat something ebetter later A new future 0 He wants innocent and to erase guilt I Hitler was a fan of nietzche 0 New era of creativity Had a slight connection with Aryan race V Nietzche s Metaphysics The will to Power 0 In all of life there is obedience and commandent in the human and natural world I The will to overcome and master 0 We seek power for power itself because it is life I human will to power in particular is what Nietzche is focused on The most sublime form of will of power is Philosophy best form 0 Because Philosopher s create ways of thinking that changes man s way of thinking and last consequences for 1000 s of years I Project of future is superman 0 create an entire race of superman 0 love of earth creativity etc Superman is part saint part philosopher and part poet Part saint all the spiritualness and depth of Christianity created Part philosopher it will master knowledge and use intellect for goals Part poet he is creative but uses spiritual wealth and knowledge Caeser with the soul of Christ Every superman will be unique and won t live by a prescribed code will suffer much eternal pride knowledgeable creative No image and might not rule politically but in culture outside of politics I Socrates 470 BC 7 years after Greece won independence from Persia He wrote nothing down Spoke all of his works Lived to see the 27 year con ict of Athens and Sparta o 404 BC the 30 tyrants rose up after Athens war defeated by Sparta democracy was brie y overthrown I Socrates executed for impiety and corruption of youth Sources of knowledge plato Aristotle Aristophanes Xenophon Cicero says Socrates is the first to bring philosophy from the leaders socratic problem raises question where does Socrates stop speaking and plato begin 0 Inductive argumentation I Philosophy is the highest way of life 11 Apology Accusers are people who spread rumors about him and the court and the officials of code Finds out three claims of knowledge were fake Many young aspiring politicians who emulated and followed Socrates Meletus speaksaccuses on behalf of the poets Anytus for craftsman and merchants Lycon 7 oraters Socrates hated so much because he constantly tested other people s intelligence instead of accepting they could be wise 0 They give him a chance to have an alternative to death I Free meals and pays court for alternative Death is a winwin o Afterlife or an endless leep He can engage nole heroes in philosophy Con icts in the orestia Diamond 7 a god introduced by Socrates which con icts with the greek gods City is con lsed on what to do with Socrates o No reconciliation with the cosmos and newly introduced god Socrates withstands pressure and achieves reconciliation with his soul Crito Socrates asks why Crito is at the prison so early 0 He heard a ship embarked from cret and no one could be executed before it was back from its sacred mission 0 Crito now believed Socrates would be executed tomorrow Socrates sees a women dressed in white and believes he will die in 3 days 0 Crito is concerned with public opinion Crito says Socrates should escape from prison because for one its easy to settle him abroad and secondly if he doesn t ee he will be basically committing suicide 3rd he will be abandoning his sons 0 They should only care about the opinions of the wise man and care about the god moral life 0 It would be an act of injustice if he abandons his contrac with the city of Athens 0 Educational laws made Socrates who he was marital laws and child urturing laws If you remain in your regime your basically accepting their laws and regulations 0 Thebes and menhra are good moral cities and they wouldn t respect him and look down upon him Thessali he would be disrespected as well and be comically disrespected 0 social contract government is part of agreement with people View of the Sciences Theoretical unchanging principlesknowledge beyond control of humans eX math physics and philosophy 0 Productive skills rafts and arts whenever something is created 0 Practical o Focused on doing well ethics and politics are practical sciences Justice Most people connect justice with equality 0 Democratic justice entells every free citizen has an equal right to everything 0 Oligarchichal a person who is wealthier is higher and should rule 0 Someone who loves wealth o The ideal city needs both or middle ground of both ides Justice to Aristotle Justice pleas Empirical dimensions of politics Empiricism 7 idea that all knowledge is derived from sense experience 0 The mind is not furnished with some concepts 0 These concepts are products of human experience Plato is not an empiricist Plato very much distrusted the senses 0 They were sources of confusion Aristotle is an empiricist First empiricist in western political science Different from modern empiricism Aristotle vs Plato 7 very complex relationship One could argue Aristotle is the first political scientist whereas Plato is the first political philosopher o Aristotle as a political scientist I Modern political science is based on empiricism 0 Based on proven facts I Aristotle also looks at values and opinions of people I Aristotle is much more neutral when investigating different politics I Aristotle has preferences in political values 0 Distinguishes a perverted constitution and a correct constitution o Perverted constitution 7tyranny 0 Correct constitution 7 royalty monarchy I Aristotle approaches politics in a way that Plato does not 0 Plato is always connecting the political realm with things outside politics 0 Aristotle focuses on the political realm o Plato s Republic 7 one true form of perfection philosopher o Aristotle draws a rigid distinction between the political realm and outside philosopherSpoudaiosexcellent politician two versions of excellence Politicians have their own distinct virtues O Philosophers specialize in school I Focuses on theory I Intellectual virtues o Spoudaios specialize in the city excels in the city and politics I Focuses on practice I Moral virtues o Spoudaios 7 limited knowledge Philosophers 7 unlimited knowledge 0 In order to excel in politics you don t need to be full blown philosopher Book III Aristotle starts with fundamental definitions One of the major failures of Aristotle s political philosophies is that he focuses too much on Greek citystates and that it doesn t apply to modern times Six different types of regimes o Distinguished by 2 factors I Quantitative 000000000 0 o Ruled by l o Ruled by a few 0 Ruled by the many I Qualitative 0 Correct regime o Perverted regime Monarch correct rule by one Tyranny perverted rule by one Aristotle correct rule by a few best citizens Oligarchy perverted rule by a few rich in their own interest Polity correct rule by many Democracy perverted rule by many 7 rule by the poor Most important concern is whether a society is correct or perverted Concludes that none of the siX regimes are ideal rule of law I The rule of god and reason I The human element introduces the element of the beast I The rule of law is much more stable I Reason free from all passion Polity is the best in most situations I A polity has a large middle class I Large middle class provides stability I Midpoint between oligarchy and democracy I rule of law is very pronounced