New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Treva Veum V

Biodiversity BIOL 130

Treva Veum V
GPA 3.74

Elisabeth Schussler

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Elisabeth Schussler
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Treva Veum V on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elisabeth Schussler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/229865/biol-130-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


Reviews for Biodiversity


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/26/15
Review Sheet 7 Information for Exam 4 40 points of Final Exam Animals Deuterostomes 1 Why do we associate animals with this group even though they are not very speciesrich Because they are the largest animals 2 Knowthe features of deuterostomes in general coelem etc Triploblastic coelomate animals with internal skeletons Coelomate means 3 layers which allows better bottom movement for the organism 3 What features of echinoderms make them seem less advanced than other deuterostomes No head or brain reversion in form 4 Do they have a skeleton Yes an endoskeleton of hard plates beneath skin with muscle 5 What system pushes against their muscles so they can move What else does this system do Water vascular system fluid filled canals for movement gas exchange and feeding 6 What are some examples of echinoderms Sea stars sea lilies sea urchins 7 What are four traits that unify the chordates As an embryo they have pharyngeal pouches hollow dorsal nerve chord postanal tail notochord 8 Do chordates retain all these features throughout their lives What happens to them in humans No the pharyngeal pouches become tonsils and ear parts Hollow dorsal nerve chordsbecomes brain and spinal cord in humans Postanal tail disappears is only there as an embryo Notochord becomes vertebral column 9 Knowthe two examples of chordates that are not vertebrates Tunicates and lancelets 10 What groups constitute the vertebrates Tetrapods Amphibians reptiles Birds Mammals 11 How are vertebrates different from chordates 4 features Vertebrates have a vertical column head with skull heart with advanced circulatory and endoskeleton of bone or cartilage 12 How do these traits affect size in this group The vertebrates are bigger 13 What is the most speciesrich group of vertebrates Fish 14 What are four types of fishes and how are they different from each other Knowthe advancements in each group particularly jaws and teeth fins swim bladder cartilage vs bone scales operculum Hagfish and lampreys Jawless no appendages Scavengers or parasites cartilage small brains Jawed fish jaws and teeth form gills paired fins swim bladder calcified cartilage uncovered gills Ex Sharks skates rays Rayfinned fish Skeleton of bone seales gills covered by operculum allows stationary breathing ectothermic temp derived from the external environment 15 What is a tetrapod and what animals are considered to be tetrapods 4 legs the vertebrates 16 What did tetrapods need to transition to land Jointed limbs and interlocked vertebrates Away of locomotion 4limbs detached neck 17 What group of organisms are tetrapods thought to have evolved from and when From sarcopterygians fish lobed finned fishes 400 million years ago 18 What other skeleton changes had to occur besides the limb changes Pectoral and pelvic fins became limbs interlocking vertebrae tail fin disappears bones connected head to shoulder disappears snout elongated bones covering gills and throat lost 19 What is a living fossil What are some examples When a fossil form and modern form look similar ex Shark horseshoe crab and lampreys 20 Why do scientists think living fossils occur Not because of limited genetic variability More likely to be stabilizing selection low competition no change in environment no pressure to change 21 Look at the Great Moments in Evolutionquot list for tetrapods and use the notes posted in Blackboard to identify which tetrapod group first had each innovation amphibians reptiles birds or mammals Mammals 22 What makes humans different from the primates they evolved from Bipedal locomotion brain gets bigger as jaw gets smaller development of culture and language 23 What is the timeframe of evolution of human compared to other terapods The time frame ranges from 500 million years ago to present Seed Plants 24 What are the five major derived traits for seed plants Multicellularity eggs absorptive heterotrophy parasitism 25 What is heterospory and how does this affect the gametophyte generation Heterospory means it has two different sizes megaspore femal and microspore male creates more gametophytes 26 What are the pros and cons of heterospory Pros No longer need waterto reproduce allowed greater growth in height through the development of wood Con Reproduction is on chance 27 Where does the male and female gametophyte develop in seed plants Compare this to the life cycle of a fern Microspore produces the male gametophyte pollen in the sporophyte Megaspore produces female gametophyte 28 What is the purpose of an ovule To protect the megaspore 29 Where is the egg produced in a seed plant In the megaspore which inside the ovule 30 What is the male gametophyte called in a seed plant Pollen 31 When does the male gametophyte release its sperm go through the process of pollination and fertilization in flowering plants for this Pollen releases with the wind or by means of other animals such as insects or humming birds 32 What coats the outside of pollen in plants Sporopollenin coats spores and pollen 33 What is the evolutionary outcome of seed plants having pollen Flowering plants through the modification of leaves 34 What does a seed contain Ovule turns into the seed afterfertilization The seed is made up of an embryo young sporophyte food and seat coat 35 What is the advantage of having a seed versus just retaining the embryo It is a multicellular protective stage Meaning it can lay dormant until it chooses that the time is right 36 Compare gymnosperms to angiosperms what traits are added in the flowering plants Gymnosperms Heterospory ovule pollen seed Angiosperm Heterospory ovule and ovary fruit pollen and flower seed and endosperm food for seed 37 What is the difference in species richness between the two groups 850 species Conifers 250000 species flowering plants 38 What do scientists think was the original of flowers Leaves flowers are modified leaves 39 Pollination in gymnosperms is via the wind and there is no stigma or style in these plants In flowering plants pollination can be via wind OR it can be assisted by animals When it is assisted by animals flowers are often modified to attract specific flowers and often also have an enticement like pollen or nectar 40 Seeds are naked in gymnosperms but are coated in fruits in angiosperms The fruit can be modified to move the seed away from the parent via wind or via enticing an animal to take the fruit and bury it or eat it 41 Why are gymnosperms so prevalent in harsh and cold environments or nutrient poor ones like in the sand hills of the Southeast Much better adapted to dry conditions thinner leaves Loss of Biodiversity BD 42 What evidence do scientists have that we are entering a sixth major extinction phase on the planet The rates of extinction is 12000 spyear which is a faster rate than previous years 43 Does this mean that every organism on the planet will perish In what ways are the extinctions specific only to certain place or animals No species will go extinct but not all Largest animals will be first because of food sources or land Extinctions will happen where we are putting the most pressure 44 What is hypothesized to be the principle cause of this mass extinction Humans first mass extinction ceased by another species 45 How do scientists estimate the number of extinctions on the planet Estimate by the number of new species every day month and year Also by how many we are losing and how much land we are losing 46 What is the only real extinction number we have 1000 plants and animals since 1600 47 Briefly explain the 5 major causes of this current extinction and explain humans involvement in each Link these to ideas we have discussed in the course such as competition predation carry capacity speciesarea nutrient cycling on planet biogeographic regions Habitat destinationdegradation Humans destroy habitats as we expand Competition predation carry capacity Climate Change Biogeographic regions because this will change the way animals move Biological lnvasions Changes competition structure we move animals around the planet Environmental Toxification nutrient cycling we litter Over exploitation Messes with the carrying capacity 49 Briefly outline the 7 major solutions that we can contribute to this crisis Decrease impacts Stabilize pop Size live with less localize use technology to be more sustainable


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.