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General Psychology

by: Dr. Penelope Feest

General Psychology PSYC 110

Dr. Penelope Feest
GPA 3.72

Jennifer Willett

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About this Document

Jennifer Willett
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Penelope Feest on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Jennifer Willett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/229879/psyc-110-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
REMINDERS Complete your online class evaluations please Last count 61 completed out of 293 Exam 4 grades will be posted next week Optional COMP Thursday December 2nd 57pm in the normal classroom 50 questions 75 points just like the other exams Cumulative over all 14 chapters Approximately 34 questions per chapter Optional COM P Review Chapters 114 Chapter 1 Human Development 1 Physical development Intellectual development Social and personal development l A Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor birth to 2 years Preoperational 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational 7 to 11 years Formal Operational 11 to adulthood LOONA Order is the same for everyone but how quickly one moves through stages varies Contact Comfort Harlow s monkeys Monkeys preferred the cloth mother even though it didn t provide any food Contact comfort the primary motivator of attachment Types of Attachment Strange Situation Test Classified into Secure 6070 Resistant 10 Avoidant 2025 Disorganized 58 Chapter 2 Research Methods The Scientific Method 2 Hypotheses Research Methods 4 Ethical Issues in Research 5 The Nature of Critical Thinking A The Scientific Method Aset of rules for gathering and analyzing data Enables you to test a hypothesis Why have such a set of rules Affects types of conclusionsthat can be made about behavior The Scientific Method Research Methods Type of hypothesis affects your research strategy Predictive hypotheses Naturalistic observations Case studies 7i Correlational research Causal hypotheses Experiments Stages of memory Shortterm memory Longterm memory Measuring memory Exceptional memory Forgetting Memory formation Improving memory Shortterm Memory Holds small amounts of information for brief periods Can be stored through images or phonetically Prevents storage of useless information Sensitive to interruption and interference Working memory where we do much of our thinking Longterm Memory Retains information that is important or meaningful Storage is unlimited Stored on the basis of meaning Dual memory Desk example Permanence LTM are only relatively permanent implicit and Exit implicit Memory at Remains outside of conscious awareness 39 Example gymnastics routine Chapter 4 Learning Noticing and ignoring I letnz hal Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning Classical Conditioning Examples of events that tend to be associated How do you change your behavior Classical conditioning technique of learning relations between events that occur outside of one s control Ivan Pavlov 18491936 Classical Conditioning Review Organisms learn to associate stimuli US with other events and respond accordingly We can condition organisms to respond to signal stimuli CS to elicit the same responses CR We can add more signaling stimuli 2nd order to get the same CR s can be generalized to other similar stimuli or organisms can learn to discriminate between stimuli CR can also be extinguished Organisms can also learn to recognize stimuli that mean a US will not occur inhibition Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning an organism learns that its own actions can lead to different outcomes Your own actions produce outcomes mmumm immon BEHAVlOR r wa RElNlDHL EME yil39 Ni la UKEL39HODD PUMSNMENT Other Operant Conditioning Terms Discriminative stimulus Positivenegative reinforcement Punishment Schedules of reinforcement Shaping Chapter 5 Biological Psychology Nervous system cells Action potential Synapses Neurotransmitters and behavior Nervous system and behavior Neurons nenous system cells that receive informational other cells thr impulses 39 ransmit it to Glia nervous system cells that insulate neurons rem0ve Vyaste materials and perfOrm other supportive functions 39 Neurons Variety of shapes depending on their purpose Neurons have 3 parts Cell body contains the nucleus Dendrites branching structures that receive transmissions from other neurons Axon long fiber with branches at the tip that transmits information to other neurons Excitatory or inhibitory impulses Action potential BehaWor Drugs and behavior Any drug that increasesdecreases activity of a receptor produces speci c effects on behavior Unusual behavior abnormal synaptic activity Parkinson s disease and Ldopa We still don t know how some drugs work 39 ADHD schizophrenia and serotonin and dopamine divisions Divisions of the Nervous System Flguie AB 7 Forebrarn I Mldmall Hindnram Central Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Spinal cord Peripheral Somatic Autonomic How does it Central nervous system made up of the brain and the spinal cord speak through e h the rest of the body which contains the L Somatic division made gup oft ev nerves that communicate with the skin and muscles and the l Autonomic division which controls heart stomach etc Chapter 6 Sensory Information Perception of 1 minimal stimuli Recognition of patterns Movement and depth Optical illusions Recognition begins by looking at component parts of a complex stimulus Feature detectors neurons in occipital cortex that respond to presence of simple features Feature detectors are specialized They also become fatigued Waterfall illusion Active in early stages of perception Gestalt Psychology Gestalt psychology an approach to psychology that seeks to explain how we perceive overall patterns Argue that perception cannot be broken down into smaller parts Subjective curves Need to know gestalt terms Chapter 7 Motivation and Emotion Motivation Hunger Primary motives Stimulus drives Learned motives Motives in perspective Emotion Physiology and emotion Expressing emotions Theories of emotion 10 Types of Motives Primary based on biological needs that must be met for survival Stimulus innate needs for stimulation and information not necessary for survival Secondary motives based on learned needs drives and goals YerkesDodson Law Inverted U Function Ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task Simple task higher arousal Complex task lower arousal PERFORMANCE AROUSAL Theories of Emotion JamesLange It 11 Paying attention Levels of Sleep Dreams Hypnosis and Psychoactive drugs Chapter 8 Consciousness consciousness meditation Levels of Consciousness Preconscious Subconscious Altered consciousness NREM Sleep Nonrapid eye movement Stage 1 transitional between wakefulness and sleep Stage 2 sleep spindles and K compexes muscle tension is lower Stage 3 2050 delta waves deep sleep Stage 4 gt 50 delta waves deep sleep 12 REM Sleep Rapid eye movement Stage 5 frequently associated with dreams that we can remember Begins an hour after stage 1 EEG patterns are active resembles those of an awake a39n Paradoxical sleepquot We have dreams every night Why do we dream Freud expresses our unconscious wishes Foulkes everyday concerns Crick amp Mitchison no meaning mental housekeeping Cartwright problem solving Chapter 9 Cognition and Language Cognitive psychology Categorization Crosscultural studies Attention Attention limits Problem solving Language Attentional Processes Preattentive processes Selective attention Mindfulness Language and the Brain Brocn39s are Wemlcke39s area 7 Broca s Area frontal cortex Broca s aphasia inarticulate speech and difficulties using and understanding grammar Wernicke s Area temporal cortex Wernicke s aphasia difficulty recalling the names of objects and impaired comprehension of language language is nonsensical even if it follow grammatical rules However the whole human brain is involved in using and recognizing language 3 months random vocaliza ions 6 months distinct babbling 1 year babbling that resembles typical language language comprehension better 1 12 years can say about 50 words few or no phrases 2 years 2word phrases 2 12 years longer phrases and short sentences can understand more 3 years vocabulary includes 1000 words longer sentences with fewer errors 4 years close to the level of adult speech 14 Chapter 10 Intelligence Conceptualizing intelligence Measuring individual differences Discovering the sources of intelligence Charles Spearman 18631945 Developed factor analysis statistical procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing correlations among test scores Factor 9 general intelligence Important to take speci c abilities into account factors specific intelligence Interaction of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid the capacity that you are born with Crystallized performance depends on what you ve learned from experience Helps explain how mental abilities change with age and across cultures 15 Gardner s Multiple Intelligences Case study approach Identified 8 distinct kinds of intelligence Musical Bodilykinesthetic Logical mathematical Linguistic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist IQ Intelligence Quotient Intelligence quotient mental age divided by chronological age X 100 Historical context to develop a test that would accurately measure Individual differences in future academic performance Chapter 11 Personality Traits and states Broad personality traits Big Five Model of personality Origins of personality Personality assessment The Big Five Model Openness to new experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Abbreviated as MMPI now MMPl2R TrueFalse Measures certain personality characteristics and clinical conditions Empiricaly based Based on EVIDENCE rather than THEORY HovW Tested on diagnosed populations What are psychological Anxiety disorders Dissociative disorders Somatoform disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenia Personality disorders Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders disorders 17 N FNPPquot What indicates a mental disorder Unusual Faulty interpretation of reality Personal distress Selfdefeating Dangerous Behavior is socially unacceptable Classification Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 7 A 4th edition 3 SMlllR DSMlVTR 1 399 Diagnosis and overall functioning based on observable behavior l r Types of Anxiety Disorders Phobias Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety 39 Disorder GAD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder OCD Stress Disorders 18 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders disorders in which there are sudden temporary changes in consciousness or self identity Types Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder DID Schizophrenia Characterized by disturbances in thought and language perception and attention motor activity mood and withdrawal into fantasy Delusions false persistent beliefs that are unsupported by sensory or objective evidence Types Paranoid Disorganized Catatonic 19 Personality Disorders Enduring patterns of maladaptive behaviorthat are distressing to the individual andor others around them Types Paranoid Schizotypal Schizoid Borderline Antisocial Avoidant Chapter 13 Methods of Therapy Psychodynamic therapies Humanistictherapies Behaviortherapy Cognitivetherapies Group therapies Does psychotherapy work Biological therapies 7 nu ma mm your quotIn llI Psychodynamic Therapies Originated with the theories of Sigmund Freud Early childhood experiences and internal conflicts 39 ld ego and superego 20 ClientCentered Therapy Developed by Carl Rogers Freedom of choice Obstacles to selfactualization Provides insight into parts of us that we have disowned Emphasis is on warm therapeutic atmosphere Selfexploration and expression Behavior Therapy Applies learning theory to promote desired behavioral changes in clients Conditioning and observational learning Highly directive Empiricallysupported treatments What are some fearreduction methods Cognitive Therapies Focuses on changing the beliefs attitudes and automatic types of thinking that create and compound their clients problems Fosters insight into cognitions Types Cognitive therapy 21


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