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Child Psychology

by: Dr. Penelope Feest

Child Psychology PSYC 300

Dr. Penelope Feest
GPA 3.72

Gregory Reynolds

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Gregory Reynolds
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Penelope Feest on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Gregory Reynolds in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/229880/psyc-300-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
EXAM 1 Study Guide 9132010 125700 AM CHAPTER 1 Normative general principles The field of developmental psychology s primary aim is to understand both the constancy and change within the lifespan of an individual organism Not interested in groups of people ONLY individual 3 Domains of development a Physical Cognitive SocialEmotional B These three domains have a great overlap Ex New motor capabilities such as sitting crawling and walking which are physical contribute greatly to an infants understanding of their surroundings which is cognitive As babies mature parents delight which is emotionalsocial Periods of Development a Prenatal Period from conception to birth Most rapid time of change a Infancy ancl toddlerhood birth to 2 years brings dramatic changes to the body and brain a Early childhood 26 years a Middle childhood 6 11 years n Adolescence 1118 years Theories of Development 9 Describe explain predict a In psychology you will always relate back to behavior Goals of Developmental Psychology n Understanding origins of novelty something new Focusing on unique individuals while studying normative behavior in those individuals How do these kids differ from others a Reconcile universal regularity with local variability Ex Talking all around the same age but the variability is the languages spoken n Integrate developmental data across levels of analysis study many different areas so that you can get the whole pictures rather than just focusing on one Ex Brain tests EKG levels heart rate Even though an infant may be focusing on one thing they may not be actually paying attention a Generate empirical hypothesis from your theory generate predictions you can test Basic Issues of Developmental Psychology n Nomothetic of Idiographic analysis NOMOTHETIC IDIOGRAPHIC individual differences variance Focus on universal regularities norms of milestones LARGE of participants Need variability Looking for outcomes Ex Looking at different aged babies and record when they begin walking NO VIEW OF PROCESS but rules apply to everyone Nature drives development maturation Throw out outliers in a group Nature VS Nurture Get a view of the PROCESS Study outliers Ex Study the events leading up the first step Takes time and money Small of participants Most believe in this but use Nomothetic maturation is driven By nature genetic blue print drives development a Nature inborn biological givens heredity Nativists perspective 9QUANTITATIVE Continuous development a Nurture Physical and social influences from the world individual experience a What happens AFFER conception Prenatal development is important Discontinuous o Empiricists perspective QUALITATIVE 0 An extreme empiricist is a behaviorist The way you turn out is based on your own life experience It is near impossible to study these separately Systems Theory everything matters cant pull them apart There are many levels that make up the developmental system no level is more important Continuous or Discontinuous from infancy to adulthood o Continuous smooth transition change in development is QUANTITATIVE Ex Change in number such as age skills we develop Language ewe learn more and more words But as a communicator they change qualitatively From word to sentencesetc 0 Information Processing Theory Those who believe development is just continuous Break things down to a very narrow level Metaphor to a computer o Discontinuous leaps in transition QUALITATIVE change in wwhere you become a different kind of organism Ex From infant to child to adult 0 Stage Theorists we develop in stages discontinuous Many believe within a stage there is continuous change though One Course of Development 0R Many o Stage theorists maturationists purely physical One course individual experience doesn t matter much Nativists u Nomothetic o Individual context many courses Everyone follows their own UNIQUE path Contextualist 9 overall context matters Organisms and their environments are unique u Idiographic Piaget was one of the most well known developmentalists Was a stage theorist but NOT nativist Through experience you go to the next stage Historical Foundations Preformationism child as miniature adults View that we are fully formed at conception NO STAGES Protestant Reformation child depravity views Tabula Rasa children as blank slates What happens in development determines everything u Locke 9 nurture is everything Hands on approach o Noble Savages children as naturally healthy and moral 9 Rousseau u Hands off let nature take its course Rousseau was a maturationist John Watson was the father of behavior5m Arrogant man who thought he could control a group of infants and make them do what he wanted a Scientific Beginnings CHARLES DARWIN 9 species adapt to their given environments n The Normative Approach G Stanley Hall and Arnold Gessell 18005 were the original developmentalists Hal granddaddy of dev Psych Normal age when kids hit a milestone Gessellian s maturationists n FREUDS PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Oh Anna Plays Like Girls 9 primary source of pleasure at the age at each stage a kid will go through a crisis that they must get through or you ll develop a fixation M birth 1 year use mouth to explore breast feeding crisis is weaning off the breast or bottle Can turn to sarcasm smoking nail biting excessive eating later in life Anal1 3 years please from BM s crisis is potty training Happens too early can turn to Anal Retentive holding on very rigid or anal expulsive letting go Shit together or shit all over the place Phallic 36 years shift to genital Oedipus complex 9 married his own mother Male child desires mother Turns into fixation in adults Start to see father as competition Castration anxiety Gender roles begin and also learn morals for their culture Freud claims they are done with moral dev n Electra complex female desires father Latency 611 years things begin to die down Age when put into schooling Preoccupied with fitting in Genital 11 onreach mature state If they make it through all stages with no problems 9 will be healthy adults 0 Research Designs Longitudinal same participants studied repeatedly in different ages Repeated measures measure a behavior repeatedly Within subject design who is the control group in the study What the point of the control estays the same Independent variable is manipulated Control group is your comparison group Individual is their own control 0 Ex Aggression in middle school kids Measure aggression in Kindergarten and follow every month or year Does it change as time goes on Advantages get a window into the PROCESS over time Idiographic Less error due to studying the individual Disadvantage attrition rate 9 how many people drop out of study Cross Sectional Participants of differing ages all studied at the same time Ex Groups of kindergarteners 15 2nd 3rd graders studied for aggression on playground all at once Between subject design comparison between different individuals Advantages data collected quick practical less Disadvantages Nomothetic don t get a view of process Lag Seguential several similar cross sectional or longitudinal studies are conducted at varying times Ex Follow at different ages on playground closely for a week but then also throughout the years Strongest study design Microgenetic participants are presented with a novel task and their mastery is followed over a series of sessions a Dynamic systems 9 Thelen Motor development drives other development Ex Cognitive Important in early dev Baby learn to reach causes them to explore their environments o Focus on specific motor skill and study in depth over time Drawbacks of longitudinal are amplified in this a Very small of participants Lack of ability to generalize findings BEST View of process CHAPTER 2 Genetic Foundations o Phenotype physical and behavioral characteristics Product of dev how you turn out o Genotype genetic makeup quot9 Nature VS Nurture o Nucleus main part of cell body Stores chromosomes o Chromosomes storetransmit genetic info a Gene segment of DNA contains instructions This is the problem with the nature VS nurture debate because it is not a genetic blue print for dev like some think It is the instructions for the protein o Cell generation 9 n Mitosis cell DUPLICATE forming 2 new identical cells with 46 chrom s that are genetically identical to preceding cells n Meiosis a cell DIVIDES forming 2 gametes that have 23 chrom s 12 the genetic info of a normal cell a Sex Cells 9 n Gametes spermova Crossing over exchange of genes between chrom s during meiosis shuffling of the genes Zygote union of sperm and ovum Genetic variability ensured 23 chrom 23 chrom full cell 46 chrom s This is the single celled organism we start out as o Boy or Girl n Autosomes first 22 matching chromosomal pairs in each human cell a Sex chromosomes 23rd pair Determines the sex of the child 0 Females XX 0 Males XY Males contribution determines the sex 0 Y is much shorter than x Carries less genetic info o Multiple offspring n Identical monozygotic twins 2 individuals with same genetic makeup u Fraternal dizygotic twins no more alike than siblings a Can also split identical twins into dichorionic or monochorionic Mono will be much more similar and share a placenta Patterns of genetic inheritance u Allele 2 or more forms of a gene a Homozygous 2 identical alleles n Heterozygous 2 different alleles n Dominant recessive inheritance influence of only one allele is apparent dominant Ex Dark hair curly hair double jointed all dominant Eye color doesn t follow this dominance n Codominance both alleles expressed a X linked inheritance recessive gene carried on the X chrom o Redgreen color blindness hemophilia 0 Males more likely to get due to the y chrom n Polygenic inheritance many genes determine characteristic n Mutation sudden permanent change May lead to chromosomal abnormalities Behavioral Genetics o Heritability Estimates portion of individual differences attributable to genetics Ranges 0100 n n u Intelligence is studied a Notation is H201OO n 0 has no impact but 1 are all that matters Experience doesn t at all n Use animals because you can control their environment but might make faulty assumptions due to the gene issue o Concordance Rates TWINS D What of time do twins both show a trait n Ranges from 0100 u 100 means they will always share the same trait a portion of time one twin has a trait then the other will too Kathy Hood and Cairns bred rats for aggression to show strong genetic component Environment was found to be a big factor rather than genetics Shows both nature and nurture Reaction Range individuals respond to their environments in a unique way due to their unique genetic makeup Ex Rat experiment Ex Some people like parties some don t Siblingstwins turning out differently Equifinality different condition lead to same developmental outcome Ex Taking different routes to the top of a mountain Multipotentiality similar conditions lead to different outcomes o Ex Siblings living in the same environment but turn out diff Genetic Environment Correlations change as you age Passive correlation newborns infants and onindividua is not doing anything to cause this Ex Parents change environments Parent who likes sports will put their child in sports Evocative Correlation early dev also Something about child that evokes a response but child is unaware Ex Birth defect intelligence TEMPERAMENT Active correlation individual changes environment on purpose 0 Niche picking SCARR AND MCCARTNEY child chooses own environment sky rockets at adolescence The Epigenetic Framework Gottlieb Development emerges from bidirectional exchange between heredity and all levels of the environment o No single factor should take causal priority Must consider relationships across all levels a Distributed control control is distributed throughout the levels CHAPTER 3 Periods of Prenatal Development Overview o 1 Zygote 2 weeks 9 fertilization implantation start of placenta o 2 Embryo 6 weeks very critical 9 arms legs face organs muscles develop heart begins beating o 3 Fetus 30 weeks growth and finishing Zygote 2 weeks Implantation single cell organism Takes 30 hours for first cell duplication Mitosis for the rst time Amnion chorion placenta umbilical cord Zygote blastocyst day 4 Outer layer of cells trophoblast Inner layer of cells embryonic disk Outer layer of cells turns into amnion Inner cells turn into the organism9implantationburrows into lining of uterus at end of first week 30 don t make it make it past period of zygote As zygote is coming to an end placenta is forming The placenta nourishes and removes waste Embryo lasts 6 weeks From 28 2 weeks after conception Period of most significant and rapid changeWhen all major body parts and organs are formedDifferentiation from cells to human Embryonic disk turns into the embryo organism Last 12 of the first month separates into layers 0 Ectoderm outer nervous system and skin 0 Mesoderm middle muscular skeletal circulatory major organs 0 Endoderm inner digestive lings urinary glands 2nd month 0 neural tube forms a spinal cord and brain 0 first neuron 0 sense of touch emerges Senses tactile a vestibular a chemical taste and smellgustation and olfaction 9 auditory 9 vision at end of embryo The Very Cool Animal Vision Fetus8 weeks 9end period of growth and finishing o 3rd month systems become organized and interconnected o 2nd trimester a sex becomes apparent at 12 weeks n 18 weeks mother experiences QUICKENING 15 time mother feels fetus moving May happen earlier after you know what it feels like u Majority of neurons towards the end of 2nd trimester n Audition develops by 13 weeks 3rd trimester a finishing up n Age of viability which means the fetus can survive outside of the womb Between 2nd and 3rd 24 weeks n Circadian Rhythms JANET DIPIETRO rhythms that follow a 24 hour cycle Looked at with ultra sounds Determines temperament n DECASPER AND SPENCE babies can hear low frequencies esp moms voice Can babies learn in the womb o Seuss story proved to be preferred after birth Full term 38 weeks Fetal Monitoring Ultrasound high freq sound waves Echolocation Sonogram is the image produced Can tell if umbilical has two arteries and 1 vein sex head size a More movement earlier in pregnancies due to muscle twitches Amniocentesis needle inserted through wall Sample fluid and get DNA from fetal cells Show chrom abnormalities Only used in high risk pregnancies Chorionic villus sampling fetal cells collected from the Chorion RISKIEST Non stress test Risk free Fetal heart rate monitored Need variability in heart rate Don t want to be steady CHAPTER 4 Signs of approaching labor False labor irregular contractions Braxton hicks 9 can happen months before Lightening head drops lower in uterus Last trimester Bloody show mucous plug released a Water break amniotic sac ruptures 3 Stages of Birth 1 Dilation and Effacement o cervix opening thinning out starts few weeks before 3 cm ready 2 phases 0 1 Latent not dilated to 3 cm Lasts a few weeks 0 2 Active 47 cm Transition 910 cm crowning PEAK Labor most intense Can be 12 14 hours Less in subsequent 2 PushingDelivery 50 min long first time 20 second time 3 Delivery of Placenta detaches from wall and is dispelled 1 12 lbs Characteristics of Newborn High levels of stress hormone Avg 20 in 7 12 lb Large misshapen head Bow legged Covered with vernix caseosa Altricial species vs precocial hypothesis makes us more advanced Newborn Reflexes Newborn reflexive period Rooting mouth moves towards something to suck on disappears after 1 yr Sucking sucking when something is in mouth Voluntary at 6 mo Sucking and rooting are vegetative reflexes Swimming make swimming movements like dog paddle gone at 6 mo Palmar grasp grasp of palm very strong for their age Babinski touch foot toes fan out Moro simulate dropping arms stick out Newborn sense of touch is most mature at birth Esp on mouth palms soles genitals Sensitive to pain affects later behavior 39139 PSYCH 300 EXAM 3 1172010 63800 PM EARLY CHILDHOOD preschool years 26 1021 Physical Development in Early Childhood2 6 years n a Body Growth Slows a lot compared to infancy and toddlerhood Shape becomes more streamlined mature resembles child more than baby lost a lot of baby fat stretching out Become more coordinated with motor skills faster multitasking General growth trend if you look across development from birth to adulthood there is a typical tend our body follows in the way that we grow Grows rapidly ti toddlerhood slows down stays consistent through childhood then rapid growth during puberty then levels off again Asynchronies exceptions to this growth trend Brain closest to adult size at birth Levels off at 4 6 years of age Lymph nodes very rapid up to 12 years of age then level off Immune system why young children have very immature immune systems compared to older individuals Genitals not much growth until puberty then skyrockets Early childhood is where memories begin Brain Development in Early Childhood a Brain metabolism peaks around 4 years Twice as high as in adulthood Chugani Brain requires much more energy because they are processing new things cognitive effort Refining the connections between neurons and synapses 4 10 years synaptic pruning leads to Functional improvements Less plasticity Brain becomes more lateralized Left very active from 3 6 years Language Skills are expanding rapidly left hemisphere More common for left hander s to use both sides of the brain This is why mostly right handed people are used in experiments and left handed are thrown out Right active from 8 10 years Starting to learn math which is a spatial function For rig ht hander s this is lateralized to the rig ht Age 5 90 show hand preference Turkewitz developed an idea as to why people become rig ht handed He says that it is related to fetal positioning in late stages of pregnancy Most children get scrunched to the left and the right has much more movement Lickliter what did he do n More myelinization is occurring 9 u Cerebellum balance and body movement Key in motor skills development Professional athletes cerebellums are structured differently Also plays a key role in memory and how you manage yourself throughout the day Transitioning from one situation to another a Reticular Formation part of the brain stem arousal alertness consciousness Decorticate cat Plays a key role in consciousness Cat had brain stems severed in different locations If you severed below reticular formation cat remained conscious If you sever right above the RF then the cat loses all consciousness u Corpus Callosum largest commisure in brain a Visual Areas Visual cortex and frontal eye fields continue to myelinate Develop ability to scan from left to right READING Smooth pursuit improves greatly u Increased hand eye coordination Myelination of visual areas Faster connections Able to respond quicker Improved communication bw hemispheres Motor Skill Development a Gross Motor Skills Walking running smoother Catching throwing swinging riding a Fine motor Skills Self help dressing eating Drawing Progression of Drawing Skills u Scribbles during second year a First representational forms Label already made drawings around age 3 Draw boundaries and people from 3 4 years n More realistic drawings preschool to school age a Early printing ages 3 5 1026 Chapter 9 Piaget s Preoperational Stage Second stage n Ages 2 to 7 out toddlerhood into childhood u Gains in mental representation form of thinking that kicks the child into the preoperational stage Semiotic function use one thing to represent something else Can take two forms 9 Symbols reflect object that they represent Perceptual similarity EX Slippery when wet men s room symbol Drawings Children will use these way before signs Signs arbitrary pairing Sign isn t actually perceptually similar to what it represents EX Men s room that spells it out LANGUAGE Early Child hood Development of Make Believe a With age make believe gradually becomes More detached from real life conditions More complex sociodramatic play Act out with other people EX Playing doctor Limitations of Preoperational Stage a Cannot perform Mental Operations mental actions that obey logical rules Conservation Hierarchical Classification a Thought it characterized by Egocentrism Animistic Thinking Egocentrism inability to distinguish viewpoints of others from ones own a Three mountains problem successful around 6 7 years 3 mountains perspectives Establish another individual with a different view They can pick out what they saw but cannot pick out the other individuals view Typically pick out their own view Possibly too difficult 9 child can be more accurate if it is easier Animistic Thinking inanimate objects have lifelike qualities u 1 Equate life with activity a 2 Equate life with movement 6 8 years EX A battery powered doll u 3 Equate life with self locomotion after 8 Limits on Conservation physical appearance may change but properties do not Test with liquid pour water in different shaped containers it s the same Weight ex u Centration focus on one aspect and neglect others a Irreversibility cannot mentally reserve a set of steps Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem hierarchical classification when you classify things within subclasses Show child flowers blue and yellow Can identify that there are more yellow but if you ask if there are more yellow flowers than flowers they will say yes a Propositional thought step back and evaluate the logic of someone else s statements Doesn t really develop until middle childhood Educational Principles Derived from Piaget s Theory m Discovery learning a Sensitivity to children s readiness to learn Developmentally appropriate practice a Acceptance of individual differences Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory and Early Child hood u 39239 1028 a a Private Speech Helps guide behavior Gradually becomes more silent Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding supports children s learning Assisted discovery and peer collaboration also help children learn Characteristics of effective social interaction in u Intersubjectivity Begin interaction with different understandings and arrive at shared u ndersta nd ing Scaffolding Change amount of support given to child as child becomes more competent Ex Teaching a dog to shake Successive approximations WHAT IS IT Information Processing Theory Piaget and Vygotsky use this n Attention Becomes more selective Still highly distractible Becomes more efficient Gains in executive attention planning Using your attention to guide your behavior Starts showing up at the end of toddlerhood Frontal lobe development is huge for executive development Key for inhibition Stevensen incidental learning when you learn material irrelevant to the tasks your engaging in Development of Theory of Mind in u u u u u Metacognition thinking about thought 25 years will talk about thoughts or memories Have evidence of Metacognition 3 4 years realize beliefs and motivation determine behavior Key in this theory of mind Begin attempting to alter others beliefs Determines how they behave Deception deceiving False belief tasks Many people believe that only humans possess theory of mind but some believe other animals are capable of this Call did testing with primates in holding areas Subordinate will not eat the food because they can see the dominate monkey If you put a screen up the subordinate will eat it Things that foster TOM Language cognitive abilities make believe play social interaction Language Development u Vocabulary 10000 words at 6 Fast Mapping mapping a word to what it represents in a quick efficient manner Once you develop this ability it sticks with you for life Naming explosion u Grammar overregularization Analogous to overextension of a word Ex Past tense Adding an ed onto every word This show is the bestest Ieated my breakfast CHAPTER 10 Social and emotional development in early childhood Erikson s Theory Initiative vs Guilt Initiative Guilt Eagerness to try new tasks join activities Overly strict superego or conscience causing with peers too much guilt Mode intrusion Related to excessive threats criticism Ego strength sense of purpose punishment from adults Brain divided into ego superego and id Id is present at birth animal like instincts Ego develops at infancy Superego is across early childhood our sense of right and wrong Superego is our basis for morality Mode under initiative child is constantly invading peoples space in one way or another They do not have a good concept of personal space a Also mental intrusion constant questioning If they are intruding on your space this is taking initiative taking active behaviors Emotional Development in Early Childhood u Understanding of others emotions increasingly accurate As they develop theory of mind and become less egocentric then they understand other peoples minds better a Emotional self regulation improves n More self conscious emotions a Don t understand mixed emotions 112 Parten s Sequence of Social Development a Nonsocial Activity Unoccupied onlooker behavior Solitary play a Parallel Play Plays new other children with similar toys but does not try to influence them a Social Interaction Associative play Cooperative Play Perspectives on Moral Development Overview u Psychoanalytic Freud superego and guilt a Social Learning Modeling moral behavior a Behaviorist Rewards and punishment u Cognitive Developmental Children as active thinkers about social rules Psychoanalytic Perspective u Morality develops due to oedipalElectra complexes u Superego develops as child indentifies with same sex parents Superego is the third component of the mind The other two are the idanima withininstincts and egorationa conscience mind thinking to yourself during infancy Superego is last Learning about right and wrong Source of our moral beliefs Superego split up into two parts Conscience what is right or wrong Ego Ideal what life would be like if it was perfect a Fear of castrationpunishment driving force behind moral development At the end of this stage Freud believes children are fully morally developed 5 and 6 years olds have a bit further to go though morally Behaviorist Perspective Neo Behaviorism view allow for some interpretation as to what is going on in a cognitive sense what is going on in the child s mind that you cannot observe a Operant conditioning reward good behavior punish bad Learning through consequences u Bandura Modeling is a necessary component for moral development First to talk about vicarious reinforcement learning through watching someone else s behaviors that you will be reinforced for that Ex My older brother said thank you and was rewarded I ll do that next time Exposed to Bobo doll and parents was aggressive or non aggressive Exhibits same actions as parent does a Modeling prosocial behavior has greatest effects in early child hood Characteristics of Good Models Children will more likely imitate you 9 u Warmth and responsiveness u Competence and power a Consistency between words and behavior Practicing what you preach Cognitive developmental Perspective a Thought processes are key to moral development a Moral judgments about right and wrong are made based on mental concepts Fair vs Unfair Mean vs Nice Types of Aggression u Instrumental meant to help child get something he or she wants Need this aggression in life or you will not make much of yourself Working towards a goal Positive Increases throughout childhood Low as a toddler show more later on u Hostile Mean to hurt someone else directly or indirectly Physical pushing harming physically Verbal words calling names direct or indirect talking behind peoples backs Relational harming other peoples relationships Males have a higher rate of overall aggression than females More direct and physical Females have higher relational aggression than males Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Development a Proceeds through 3 levels and each stage splits into two Preconventional Conventional Post conventional The Preconventional Level D Obedience and Punishment Orientation u Individualism and exchange orientation each person is their own individual but then have interactions n In both of these stages moral rules are separate from themselves They haven t internalized them yet They are handed down by somebody else at this stage Once they internalize they move up to the conventional level Parallel play 114 Test is covering 8910 Temperament Theory and Research Thomas and Chess Temperament Theory u Dimensions u Behavior Disorders u Conclusions Rothbart s Temperament Theory u Definition D Infancy Childhood u Conclusions THOMAS AND CHESS Temperament Theory Identified 9 dimensions Review slide a Activity level Rhythmicity approachwithdrawal adaptability Intensity of reaction threshold of responsibility quality of mood distractibility attention span and persistence Don t memorize these for test Externalizing Active behavior disorders a Higher in activity level across the board a Lower in adaptability and persistence Threshold of sensitivity increases relative to others with age Ex Disruptive to class speak out when not supposed to running around annoy others Active behaviors Internalizing passive behavior disorders Kids are withdrawing Lack of normal behavior a Lower in activity level n More negative in quality of mood u Become less rhythmic with age relative others Normal children would become more rhythmic with age but these children do not a Display more withdrawal with age relative to others a Its normal to be shy but this is extreme case Goodness of Fit one of the most important points for Thomas and Chess Child and environment influence each other in bidirectional manner a Childs behavior influences others responsiveness to them a Parents need to be sensitive to child s temperament and modify behavior accordingly Developmental outcomes are not predetermined by temperament u Difficult temperament is not necessarily bad easy not always best a Can change across infancy u u ROTH BART S Temperament Model Individual differences in reactivity and self regulation assumed to have a constitutional basis Constitutional enduring biological makeup of the organism u Influences heredity and experiences Heredity is the constitutional basis the package you were given at birth Experience is what happens in early development a Temperament is not stable until after 2 years of age Temperament is not something you are born with it develops over time Temperament in infancy u Interested in Attention Affect emotional expression and Action AAA u Infants are not born with full complement of temperament characteristics a What to measure Fear angerfrustration positive affectapproach activity level attentional persistence perceptual sensitivity and soothability Utilized parent report home observation and lab assessments 3 Factors in Childhood must measure differently because the child is more developed Extraversionsurgency PSYCH 300 EXAM 2 NOTES Bring Scantron PM Infancy and 39Emlclieahom f 3 921 V Infancy is birth 1 year r s i 7 Toddler is 12 years of age at 3 you are early childhood w r 72 Body Growth 0 Gain 50 in height from birth to age 1 75 by age 2 Typical to be about 30 inches at 1 year 0 Grow a massive amount in these years Gaining of weight is 300 in the first year From 7bs to about 21 The gaining of weight is much bigger than height 0 Grow in spurts Will have a massive growth spurt and the infant will be highly fussy Rough period of time with lack of sleep and then when they sleep a massive amount is when they are hitting that growth spurt Can grow up to 12 in 0 Girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys 0 One of the things that changes drastically is the baby s face and alertness Growth Trends 0 Cephalocaudal a Head to Tailquot D Lower part of body grows later than the head a The head is closest to adult size at birth so the rest of the body is playing catch up This really doesn t occur until adolescence u The baby must be able to support their head and develop posture before they are able to develop other skills such as reaching 0 Proximodistal u Near to farquot a Extremities grow later than the head look this up Neuronal Development our nervous system works through electrochemical conduction Start as electro and then end in chemical signals 0 Synapses where the communication between cells splits o Neurotransmitters float around in the synapse Chemical part of the signal Released in the brain a Neurons are less selective in early development rather than later on In babies the neurons will be excited by many different neurotransmitters As you age they become more selective o Synaptic pruning leads to us becoming more functional by losing cortical plasticity Getting rid of the neurons you do not need Ex Pruning a hedge to make a plant look better and healthier Use it or lose it principal The synapses you lose regularly become more functional the ones you do not use will die off 0 Synaptogenesis early on characterization Early formation of new synapses New connections with other neurons around them Dendrites forming and branching out Early on we build up a lot of extra connections that are not functional Relates to high levels of plasticity Cortical plasticity in the brain 9 means your brain is flexible If you suffer brain trauma early on these extra connections will come in handy Glial cells glue of our central nervous systems Surround neurons and provide with nourishment Play a key role in myelinization Myelinizationmyelin sheath is formed around the axon of the neuron Insulated fatty sheaths Ex Insulated wire Much more efficient when insulated by this myelin sheath Signals pass quickly between them a Significant changes in behavior when areas become myelinated Ex Vision Surround the cell body are dendrites branch out and end adjacent to the terminal buttonspresynaptic terminals of other neurons The electrical signal passes through the axon Once it gets down to the bottom it releases the chemical signal Matter in the brain 9terms used with stain slices of the brain and MRIs White Matter connections within the brain Myelin Gray Matter cell bodies Glial cells 0 As kids age you can tell the difference in their myelinization As a newborn the MRI of the brain is very dark barely any white Increasingly becomes whiter into adulthood Major difference between 10 year old and adult the frontal lobe is the slowest to develop The frontal lobe is responsible for our most complex behaviors The adult has much more white in the adults brain Continues to develop well into our 30s Regions of the Cerebral Cortex Figure in book Cortex outer layer of our brain Also responsible for our complex thought and behavior a Temporal lobe hearing auditory cortex Language Memory u Occipital lobe vision a Parietal lobe association cortex Key in pulling together information from the different senses Ex Hearing and seeing something at the same time Integrate what you perceive and see and producing and actionresponse to that Frontal lobe complex thought and behavior Key role in inhibition Inhibit a certain response so that you can engage in certain behaviors 9 This is why children do inappropriate things They are not capable of inhibition like older people Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems Theen and Smith Motor development drives the rest of the body Increasingly complex systems of action with each skill With each new skill you develop you become an increasingly complex system You begin as a newborn that is not complex then you build upon each new skill you learn Ex Posture 9 Reaching 9 Explore the world 4 Factors in each new skill u 1 CNS development brain must be ready to support the skills before it will develop Before a child can accurately reach for something they must be able to see it well Newborns cannot see very well must develop that u 2 Body39s movement capacity as humans you can only engage in behaviors that your body will support Ex You cannot fly You can do something better based on your body size Ex A short man cannot dunk but a tall one can This can be individual or entire species related Ex Reaching on the movie young baby was reaching butjust could not grab it at that young age a 3 Childs goals Relates to motivation Motivation is key in developing skills Infants have a great drive to develop new skills u 4 Environmental supportsmust set up an environment that supports the child When the child is 6 mo Of age and ready to crawl you do not want to keep the child in a crib If you constrain the child you are not setting it up for them to build the skills for motor development Steps in Reaching and Grasping o Prereaching newborns will reach out with their limbs and hands but unsuccessful in grabbing Cannot make contact either 0 Reaching 34 mo Start to make successful reaches Make contact and grab a With two hands and then one o Ulnar Grasp From 35 mo u Adjust grip to object a Von Hofsten baby will adjust their hand grasp before reaching the object Ex See a large ball will position their hand wide Small object will close their hand more Integration of perception and action a Move objects from hand to hand Pincer Grasp ultimate outcome of reaching development a Shows up at around 9 mo Of age a Ex Writing with a pencil a Very precise movement Developments in Hearing 0 Birth 1 year Audition becomes more organized o 6 months screen out sounds from nonnative languages 0 7 9 mo Recognize familiar words natural phrasing in native language 0 11 mo lose ability to discriminate subtle differences in nonnative phonemesbah and dah Lose some sensitivity with development but with that becoming more specialized o Werker and Tees 1982 exposed to different phonemes in different languages Dah dahMust be raised continuously with the Hindi phonemes o Perceptual Narrowing perception is narrowing in on what you need to focus on in regards to your own environment such as your own native language This does not mean you cannot learn a different language when you are older it just means that it will become increasingly difficult as you age Improvements in Vision brain development helps infants reach near adult levels of vision skills 0 23 mo Focus Muscles around lens getting stronger o 4 mo Color vision close to adult levels Broader range of colors 0 6 mo Acuity scanning and tracking Scanning and tracking relates to the ability to control eye movements Reach mature levels of scanningtracking at 67 years of age a Scanning is when you look at an individual object and you move your eyes around to look at the different features of that object Tracking moving your eyes to look from one stationary object to the next Saccade shift from one stationary object to another stationary object Not very smooth Jerky eye movement Smooth pursuit use to track a moving object Following a finger o 67 mo Depth perception Relates to visual cliff Sticky Fixation child is stuck on an object Up to 3 mo Of age this occurs Blank stare From 36 mo Will start to shift from this 923 Depth Perception o The Visual Cliff Eleanor Gibson ampWalk experiment where there is a glass only deep side and a glass over a patterned surface Has the baby developed depth perception yet Does a baby show a sign that they are scared of the sudden drop off 0 Gibson is credited with creating the visual cliff 1970 0 Can pick up most depth by 45 months of age 0 Fear on the deep side is shown at 78 months of age The problem is that it is notjust a maturational thing You don tjust get to a certain age and become scared Kids need experience of self locomotion in order to get to this point Takes about a month after beginning to crawl May be related to peripheral vision 0 Anderson amp Campos put them in a wagon that they could move with a joystick Proved that if you can control yourself then you will start to understand depth 0 Combination of the visual system maturing 0 Can tell if a baby is scared by heart rate Will go up if they start to show signs of fear Precocial vs Altricial Species o How fast they mature o Altricial humans mature slowly o Precocial advanced mature quickly Relatively self sufficient at birth Show signs of fear of the deep side in the visual cliff almost instantly 0 Fear of depth may be innate Karen Adolph 19972000 walkway and risky gap experiment Platforms that can be pulled apart from each otherVery easy to manipulate o If they are new to sitting up they will reach and fall over Their judgments are not accurate yet 0 When they begin crawling they must adjust once again Not used to that position and will just cruise right into the drop off 0 Must transition again with walking 0 Amount of decline they can handle with each method of moving Reaching crawling cruising walking Intermodal Perception o Perception that combines information from 2 or more senses 0 Integration Theory newborns do not have intermodal perception must develop ability to integrate separate senses into a whole a Classic view of how intermodal perception develops a At birth we are not capable of intermodal perception Must be able to integrate different perceptions to form the intermodal n This means that a newborn doesn t link together hearing and vision Face and voice of mother are not linked together Treisman amp Piaget both believed in the integration theory Now research supports that most newborns have multimodal perception 9 Gibson 0 Differentiation Theory newborn perception is more holistic than adults must learn to pick out fine details Eleanor Gibson was married to James Gibson He developed the differentiation theory In early development perception is not very detailed Blurry vision metaphor Must be able to pick out the fine details and relevant information needed Synethesia strange phenomena in mature people Ex Seeing the letter C in yellow Blending of the senses that is not normal Much more common in young child but as you age it becomes less common Can lose it as you age Provides indirect support that early development perception is holistic o Intersensory intermodal multimodal All mean the same thing Differentiation Theory of Infant Perception 0 Infants actively search for invariant unchanging features of the environment Borders of stimuli faces Immediately after birth the infant is seen as active Always engaging in some sort of activity Have motivation to make sense of the world around us The ground and horizon stay constant Talks about the horizon and other things around you that you can use to pick up distance 0 Affordances opportunities for action in environment Other people are the main affordances Mom Giving cues to mom for what they need Ex When we walk into a class room find a seat to sit in What do we need Affordances change as you age A 3 year old would see the floor as a better seat than an actual seat 0 Perception gets more and more sensitive 9 differentiation 0 Attention is the ability to pick up affordances 0 Also called ecological view of perception CHAPTER 6 Cogn ive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Using Habituation to Study infants 0 Most widely used approach 0 Study looking behaviors o Capitalizing on the natural tendency to prefer new things vs old This was established by Robert Fantz Late SOsearly 60s When you see something for the first time you look for a longer period of time Shorter and shorter the more you see it This is the process of habituation Criteria for Habituation looking becomes 50 of the longest looks Ex First look was 10 seconds when you reach 5 you have turned into habituation Once you reach habituation you turn to Phase 2 Change pictures from what you originally saw In some instances the baby cannot tell the difference between the babies face and the new picture of the mans face If they cannot recognize the difference they will continue to show the short looks If they can recognize the looks will be significantly longer than the previous Must pair sound tests with visuals 0 Contrast Sensitivity at 2 months figure in book shows what checkerboards look like to infants vs adults 0 Dishabituation also termed recovery of looking When the infant begins looking at the object for a long period of time again after you institute a change The Paired Comparison Task look at habituation and preferences 0 Phase 1 familiarize infant with a single stimulus u fixedexposure u accumulated looking 0 Phase 2 simultaneous comparison of familiar vs novel stimulus See both at the same time Measure how much they look to the left vs the right v A d u If they look at the novel stimulus longer 9 novelty preference lt D u Familiarity preference Vs D V A u Null Preference what you should see if they39ve never seen either stimuli before Should look equally Ex Showing two strangers faces 0 Infant controlled procedure when the infant is controlling what is happening Null Preference if both stimuli are new to an infant They should show this null preference If you start to show one to them repeatedly they will shift to showing Null Preference amp Familiar Preference amp Novelty Preference A typical infant before 4 V2 mo Needs at least 30 seconds to shift after fully processing A 6 mo Old only needs about 20 seconds 928 Baby Human Movie To Think Face Recognitionquot Daphne Mourer The baby is presented with two different images One that resembles a face and one that doesn39t 0 They are attracted to the light and shadow contrast of the human face They don t necessarily know what they mean but that is what they are attracted to Object Permanencequot Andrea Aguiar Out of sight out of existence experiment Does the baby keep the object in mind even when it is out of their sight This shows that the baby knows they do exist Object permanence and Tall amp Shortquot Name same as above but the object becomes taller When the object emerges taller the baby can tell the difference 0 They know that taller objects cannot hide behind shorter ones 0 Understanding object permanence Baillargeon Violation of Expectationsquot all of these experiments somewhat relate back to this violation of expectations Hidden Objectquot Aguiar cover toy with a cloth will the baby still keep in mind an image of something that is in view The Searchquot Aguiar When does the ability to search appear Although it may be in their reach the baby cannot see it Object Permanencequot Meltzoff Hid both the object and action Shows that a baby must be older to understand that the object is still their even if it is hidden and the action is changed o Like understanding that a magic trick is not real Object PropertiesquotAguiar Green ball goes behind the wall and turns into a cylinder The cylinder was skinny at first then wide 0 Width is different than height is what they must learn They understand properties of objects As a baby learns about the physical world they learn each category one at a time Such as under over Double Occlusionquot Keen What happens when they are faced with two categories of the physical world at the same time 0 They are first able to track the ball rolling behind a screen 0 They then can tell that a green wall will stop the ball 0 When these are put together it confuses them They see the green wall behind the screen but still expect to see the ball roll out from the other side At 9 months they cannot put these two together Addition and Subtractionquot Wynn Shown one toy then two toys What happens when she is shown that one disappears behind a screen and a second is added then the screen drops and there is one again As the scenes go from possible to impossible she focuses on the impossible The Blanket Pullquot Amanda WoodwardWill the baby be able to understand that they can use a blanket to pull a toy towards them 0 What age will they realize it can be a tool to their advantage 0 If they are demonstrated this the baby will observe and catch on at an earlier age The Spoonquot Keen changed orientation of the spoon right to left If the spoon is flipped the baby still picks it up with their dominate hand 0 Shows that at an older age the baby will use whatever hand the spoon handle is presented to The Handle Railquot Adolph Does a toddler know if they need the support of a hand rail As the bridge narrowed toddler became cautious When the hard railing was put in place at the narrow part the toddler used it to hold on 0 They then put in place a bendy rubber railing Does the baby know if it will support their weight or not Yes they do Intentions Woodward Two toys on different colored cloths the researcher puts hand on one toy signaling that39s what she wants The baby understands the persons intentions by their actions Other Peoples Mindsquot Meltzoff people differ in thoughts tastes and opinions 0 Baby chooses crackers researcher shows she likes broccoli better than crackers o The older baby will understand the preference of others Notes From 930 DEVELOPMENT OF A39l39l39ENTION 12 months Reflexive System 0 Subcortical areas and visual cortex 0 Sticky fixation 0 Focus on borders motion 0 Salience is key factor 0 Arousal strongly influences attention 0 Face scanning 1 2 mo Or 36 mo focus 36 Months ability to voluntarily shift attention focus on object features Posterior attention system 0 Occipital and parietal lobes frontal eye fields 0 Novelty and familiarity preferences 0 Mom vs stranger 0 Look shorter at things 624 months higher level attention begins to develop 0 Anterior attention system frontal lobes 0 Focus on complex dynamic stimuli o More sustained attention when called for Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory 0 Knowledge gained through direct action 0 Infants actively explore world 0 Attempt to construct mental representations that accurately reflect reality 0 Schemes organized way of making sense of experiences 0 Construction building mental processes Building Schemes o Adaptation building schemes 0 Assimilation using existing schemes to interpret external world 0 Accommodation adjusting old schemes and creating new schemes to better fit environment 0 Equilibration comfortable in own environment they have figured it out Using Assimilation and Accommodation 0 Organization internal rearranging and linking schemes 105 continued chapter 6 Sensorimotor Stage first stage out of 4 of cognitive development that Piaget believed in 0 Birth to 2 years Overlaps with infancy and toddlerhood 0 Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration 0 Circular reactions key for development in this stage Very basic behaviors that are repetitive Simple motor habits 0 Names reflect way the child is thinking in each stage or mental deficiency o Sensorimotor what the child thinks about is tied to what they are sensing and what they are interacting with What they are doing in the here and now 0 In this sense they are similar to other species Within the Sensorimotor stage you have 6 sub stages 9 o Reflexive Schemes Birth 1 months newborn reflexes Innate reflexes they are born with Not really engaged in voluntary behavior Development will build on these become cumulative 0 Primary Circular Reactions 14 months simple motor habits centered around own body Specifically refers to the primary 0 Ex Playing with toes Sucking thumb Do not have the sucking thumb ability right at birth but when they get it down they ll do it over and over 0 Secondary Circular Reactions 48 months repeat interesting effects in soundings Figure out that they can engage in behaviors that ll effect something outside of their body Impact their environment Once they figure it out they ll repeat it over and over again 0 Ex Learning about physical properties in their environment 9 dropping objects off highchair and watching it hit the ground Potentially learning about gravity and the properties of objects and how they fall Also learning about parents behavior to their actions Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 812 months intentional goal directed behavior object permanence o 0 Means end sequence the way that Piaget and others have tested for object permanence Hide a toy under a blanket or towel and see if the child will move it or show interest in the toy when it is covered Most will not show interest when it is covered until 8 months of age according to Piaget They do not realize the out of sight out of mind concept Most others say it happens earlier than 8 months Goal directed behavior child39s actions have a reason Tertiary Circular Reactions 1218 months Explore properties of objects through novel actions Child becomes a little scientist More exploratory than earlier stages Before they just discover things spontaneouslyaccidently now they actively explore and discover new things about their environment 0 Importance of physical actions for cognitive development Mental Representations 18 months 2 years building internal depictions of objects or events deferred imitation o o o 0 Huge for our species cognitive ability because it allows the individual to adapt to the environment more efficiently Makes us more adaptive Allows you to plan ahead Start thinking about the future Frees child of their immediate environment what is right in front of them Language Forms the basis that we use to think of words and learn language A lot of our thinking involves language We wouldn t be able to think about most things without language Begin speaking in sentences Piaget believed learning through experience Not Stages Building things up When you accommodate you are not in balance You are a newborn As you move towards the end of each stage you assimilate more and more to accommodate As you assimilate you become more in balance but then you have new thoughts and perceive things differently than before Evaluation of Sensorimotor Stage Underestimated abilities of infants and toddlers Many abilities appear to happen sooner than Piaget thought object permanence and deferred imitation Main Critic of Object Permanence Baillargeon said that Piaget tested children in too complicated way Drawbridge Method at 90 degrees the child cannot see Screen is rotated until they decrease interesthabituation 2 events happen after habituation 0 Possible event contact with block and stop if they baby understands object permanence Should dishabituate to the possible event Impossible event the screen keeps rotating even when it shouldn39t They trick the infant If they have a concept of object permanence then this should shock and surprise them Found that 4 V2 mo Old dishabituated On average by 4 V2 mo Of age you will understand object permanence If you habituate earlier you will understand this concept sooner Shinskey what Baillargeon was testing is familiarity Infants in the habituation phase lengthened Increased amount of exposure 0 Found longer looking in the impossible event for the ones exposed only for 20 seconds o If they had more exposure they would look at the possible event Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Theory How important is your culture and interaction with people 0 Contextualist child in context as smallest unit of study 0 Development is socially mediated Based on culture 0 Child 9 other person 9 culture 0 CultureasMedium broader view Culture drives everything in development Accounts for similarities and differences Ex Languages You develop language because you are in a culture regardless of the difference in languages you learn A similarity is the view that incest is wrong across most cultures 0 Vs cultureasdifference how people develop in different cultures across the world Culture drives us to develop different than each other Such as speaking different languages and eating different food Culture causes differences in different areas Narrow view 0 Must study the whole Not just the child Do not isolate certain elements Vygotsky s key ideas amp Zone of proximal development tasks that a child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help from somebody else 0 Doesn39t have to be an adult can be a child that helps Don39t realize how to set up Once you teach they A foundation Will fall down Grasp quickly D D Intermental between minds becomes intramental within mind 0 Speech and thought initially independent 0 Merge at 2 o Naming explosion When is this 0 At 3 speech splits into 0 Communicative speech 0 Private speech where child talks out loud Not for purpose of communicating with someone else 0 7 to 8 years private speech becomes inner speech 0 Vygotsky and Piaget disagreed on this 0 Vygotsky Private speech was the child thinking out loud Working out ideas in their head At 7 to 8 they internalize this thoughtful speech 0 Piaget just thought it was the immaturity of the child Egocentric speech Self absorbed and do not consider other people Basic Language Development First word produced around 1 year Combine 2 words around 15 to 2 years 0 Telegraphic speech fragmented speech Incomplete sentences that get the message across Vocabulary of 10000 words by age 6 Only 5 years later from the first word Massive process that is very quick Babies can understand more words than they can produce Understanding is larger than vocabulary Getting Ready to Talk First Speech sounds o Cooing at 2 mo End of the infancy stage The cooing is vowel sounds Ooh ahh eee o Babbling at 4 mo Mixing consonant and vowel sounds Mama dada Gagagoogoo Will take on the form of their native tongue Becoming a communicator 0 Joint attention critical for language development at 11 months of age Share the focus of attention with somebody else Helps to form the first word Then build upon that 0 Kids with autism are deficient in this Delayed language development 0 Give and take 0 Preverbal gestures Starting to talk 0 First words underextension and overextension with first words 0 Underextension girl just represents one person 0 Overextension applying one persons name to everyone 0 Two word Utterances o Telegraphic speech 107 Fall Break 1012Chapter 7 Emotional and Social Development Albert Experiment by Watson expose child to mouse to see if he fears it Then pair it with loud noises etc Psychosocial Stages Age Erikson39s Freud39s First yr Basic Trust vs Mistrust Oral Second Year utonomy vs Shame and Doubt Anal Erikson influenced by Freud He modified Freud s early stages into his own psychosocial stages He believed that Freud was too focused on sex His stages are cumulative so if a child is successful in one then they ll probably be in the next stages a He shifted his focus to social interaction and social crisis a In the first year the child must develop a basic sense of trust and mistrust He did not view these things as mutually exclusive just two ends of the spectrum Trust comes from the interaction with primary caregiver Mother father Needs to be reliable and predictable Child needs someone they can depend on to develop trust World becomes safe If the parent is not reliable and focuses on their own needs this is where mistrust comes from a Crisis for oral stage is weaning Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt good example on how these stages are cumulative Most children are beginning to walk at the start of this stage The child must develop a sense of autonomy separate from the help of others Process of moving on your own and exploring the environment is critical Parent must still hold onquot and watch closely but must balance this with letting go Should not always be on top of the child Step back You do not necessarily have to be successful in one stage to be successful in the other Emotional SelfRegulation 0 Strategies used to control or manage emotions o Maternal regulation first few months newborn period 0 The child is completely dependent on parent to regulate for them They cannot regulate at all Baby is just crying and cannot meet their own needs 0 Aka Other regulation Because someone OTHER than themselves is regulating them 0 Mutual regulation 612 months 0 Child is becoming a better communicator o Engage in controllingfocusing their attention 0 Infant learns how to regulate from the parent by the way the parent talks and handles situations 0 Self regulation 2 d year Structure of Temperament Stable individual differences in reactivity and self regulation 9 ROTHBART definition Thomas and Chess define it as your way of being THOMAS AND CHESS dimensions New York Longitudinal Study 9 Studied children starting at birth into early adulthood Can you observe a child39s interactions at infancy and determine if these patterns will stay with them throughout adulthood Activity level Rhythmicity biological rhythms circadian Approachwithdrawal Do you approach new situations and new people or withdrawal Adaptability How do you deal with novelty Intensity of reaction When baby gets upset do they scream and settle down or laid back Threshold of responsiveness How much change in environment is required for rxn Quality of mood Happy or negative Distractibility attention Attention span and persistence THOMAS And CHESS classifications Easy 40 Generally happy easy kids Adaptable Easy to take in public Difficult 10 opposite spectrum of the easy kids Negative upset easily Highly reactive Very irregular in their rhythms Slow to warm up 15 in between easy and difficult In novel situations they are difficult but they settle down in a reasonable amount of time Start to resemble the easy child u Unclassified 35don39t fall into any category Question this framework when there is such a large population in this unclassified section ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORS relationships with other people refers to a situation where you form a positive emotional bond Key man JOHN BOWLBY Newborn Reflexes Palmar grasp moro reflex rooting Imprinting work on animal behavior The man who had the biggest impact on Bowlby was Lorenz u Lorenz discovered imprinting with the geese When the eggs hatch they see the mother goose and then follow the mother around Automatic process Geese imprinted on him a Attachment early on is analogous to the geese Signaling behaviors mechanisms leads parent to respond in a certain way a crying babbling smiling Maternal instinct and mutual responsiveness 1014 Bowlby looked at what is analogous to imprinting in animals process that evolves in our species Start involuntary and then become voluntary with the attachment bond between the parent and child He believes at birth the newborn is not attached to the parent yet and the parent is not either Bowlby39s Research a Based on films James Robertson of institutionalized children 23 years n Began during World War II n Capitalized his focus on many orphans from the war a Looked for evidence of attachment that showed up during separation If you are separated he believed that they would show certain behaviors There were 3 phases but time spent in phases was dependent upon the child 1 Protest when first separated from parents Active protest screaming and crying Trying to escape and go back home to find mother or father High period of stress No one else can satisfy them or comfort them no signs of joy 2 Despair Move out of the active protest just show signs of depression Withdrawing from society Start to accept comfort from other people but not moving on yet Hope for their parents coming back Ex Opening door and thinking its their mother 3 Detachment moving on If the parents that were still alive and came back to pick them up from the institution the children will not readily accept them back into their life Bond must be formed all over again Bowlby s Ethological Theory of attachment u 1 Preattachment phase Birth to 6 weeks signaling mechanisms such as cries to pull mom to them Babble and smile Attachment in the making phase 6 weeks to 8 mo child starts to show clear preference for mother vs a stranger Stranger anxiety shows up towards end of this stage 9 Peeks at 11 mo Phase of clear cut attachment 818 mo child is now a communicator and solidifying relationship Separation anxiety forms around 8 mo this is a display of clear attachment Child will cry when mother leaves Separation anxiety may also show because of object permanence concept understanding Baby knows that mother still exists once the mother leaves the room u Formation of a reciprocal relationship what you will have for the rest of your relationships in life and as you age Model you will always use Internal working model If it s a screwed up relationship you might repeat that cycle with romantic relationships or maybe even your offspring Unhealthy attachments Can be a repetitive cycle The Strange Situation AINSWORTH Bowlby s student Putting child in strange situations and then bringing back the parent Will the child leave mom and go explore on their own are they showing no signs of caring that they are leaving their mom or are they clingy It is a different stranger each time Does child get really upset when mother leaves them How long are they upset Does mother coming back calm them down Some children do not care when mom comes back 0 Episode 1 Mom child and experimenter 0 Episode 2 Mom and child 0 Episode 3 Stranger Enters 0 Episode 4Stranger and child 0 Episode 5Reunion with mom 0 Episode 6Child along 0 Episode 7Stranger enters again 0 Episode 8Reunion with mom From this strange situation Ainsworth has come up with different types of attachment children can form AINSWORTH S Measurement of Attachment 0 Secure 65 will typically check back in with the parent Parent is important but the child is still independent and will go play Depends on the child Good relationship Trusts parent to come back and knows they are there 0 Insecure Avoidant 20 Unhealthy relationship Avoid parent When they are in the room they will go play and never check back with the parent When parent leaves they aren39t upset and when parent comes back don t readily go to them Parents are typically very intrusive or harsh with children always on the child39s back Need own space from parent every chance they get Child needs to develop autonomy Adaptive behavior 0 Resistant or Insecure Ambivalent 10 Mixed emotions and responses Tend to be clingy Less likely to leave parent and go to play Insecure with parents relationship When parent leaves the child becomes extremely upset Don t trust the parent to come back in a permanent sense When parent comes back they go to the parent but show mixed signs May run to parent and show signs of relief but will not calm down Upset with parent for leaving 0 Disorganizedidisoriented 510Least common Kids show odd behavior Show signs that they are just in their own world Associated with the worst of developmental outcomes Abuse and neglect in early life Extreme situations cause children to be in this class Not necessarily abused but can be Factors that Affect Attachment Security 0 Opportunity for attachment parent must be around in order to form a bond If they are never around you wont form a bond 0 Quality of care giving


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