Exam 3 Notes: Set Five
Exam 3 Notes: Set Five Bio 1144
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Exam 3 Notes: Set Five The Muscular System • Tissue Types o Skeletal Muscle – striated, voluntary, multinucleated, mostly associated with skeleton, fiber cell type § Structure: • Muscle fascicles – a collection of skeletal muscle fibers bounded by connective tissue • Inside each fascicle are skeletal muscle cells called fibers • Each fiber is composed of myofibrils – a series of filaments • Myofilaments compose each filament; can be thin or thick o Contractile proteins are Actin (thin filaments) and Myosin (thick filaments) o Overlap of thick and thin filaments produces striations • Sarcomere – functional unit of skeletal muscle cells; the distance from one Z-line to the next; shortens during skeletal muscle contraction o Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of sarcomere o Sarcoplasmic Reticulum – specialized endoplasmic reticulum that stores and releases calcium ions which are required for muscle contraction o Transverse Tubules – transverse invaginations of the sarcolemma that allow for rapid propagation of muscle action potential (faster muscle movement) § Function: Contraction to produce movement of the body • Contraction – the shortening of the sarcomere; “sliding filament” model • Muscle cells are relaxed most of the time • Myosin heads attached to actin filaments pull together (or slide together) to create a contraction. rd • Energy required à the high energy bond of the 3 phosphate of ATP à applied to sarcomere for contraction (a very quick exchange) • Muscle cells contain MANY mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, which produce ATP • Requires oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System • Blood is a type of connective tissue transported through the body to carry oxygen, nutrients, and waste. o Plasma – 55% of blood volume § 90% of plasma is water § 10% of plasma is amino acids, glucose, gases, enzymes, hormones, and all things being transported through blood stream o Intracellular Fluids – fluids that are inside the cell o Extracellular Fluids – fluids that are outside the cell (ex: plasma) o Interstitial Fluid – fluid between cells o Formed Elements (cells) § Platelets – cell fragments or pieces that retain chemicals for blood clotting § Leukocytes – white blood cells; distinct large nuclei; associated with immune system; 7000 per cubic centimeter • Nuetrophils – phagocytic cells; usually the 1 leukocytes into an inflamed area to clean up debris • Lymphocytes – B-cells (produced in bone marrow) and T-cells (produced in thymus gland) known as “killer cells” that attack virus affected cells and cancer cells • Monocytes – phagocytic cells that clean up extra red blood cells or anything problematic • Eosinophils and Basophils – limit inflammatory response § Erythrocytes – red blood cells • Mammals have no nucleated red blood cells (perhaps allows for more hemoglobin, but no one knows the reason) • Transport oxygen • Mostly produced in red bone marrow, but also produced in the spleen • Lifespan is about 120 days • 5 million per cubic centimeter • Contains hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein (makes blood red) • Hemoglobin binds to oxygen to transport it • 200,000 hemoglobin molecules per red blood cells • Biconcave cells (wide on ends and narrow in middle) • Blood Vessels – tubes that carry the blood o Lined with simple squamous epithelium o Arteries (and Arterioles) § Arterioles are just small arteries § Carry blood away from the heart § Smooth muscle layer in wall of artery is thicker than in the veins o Capillaries § Smallest in diameter § Arranged in clusters or capillary beds § Thin walled; 1 cell thick § Function as the gas exchange site between blood and organs and tissues of the body § Oxygen diffuses out of vessel and carbon dioxide diffuses in o Veins (and Venules) § Venules are smaller veins § Carry blood toward heart § Thinner smooth muscle layer because they are lower pressure vessels § Some veins have valves that prevent black flow of blood o Cross Section of Vessels
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