General Chemistry CHEM 027
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stanton Kerluke I on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 027 at University of the Pacific taught by Liang Xue in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/229914/chem-027-university-of-the-pacific in Chemistry at University of the Pacific.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 13 Chemical bond Holds atoms together 0 Bond energy Energy required to break bond Ionic bond Electrons are transferred from one atom to another Occurs between a metal and nonmetal o The nonmetal completes its valence orbital shell while the metal loses electrons Both achieve noble gas configurations o A cation is smaller than its parent atom because an electron is removed 0 An anion is significantly larger than its parent atom Coloumb s Law Energy ofinteraction between a pair of ions V 231 E19nmQ1Q2r 0 Negative sign indicates an attractive force which means the ion pair has a lower energy than separated ions Ion size depends on of electrons and of protons o Isoelectronic ions have the same number of electrons so just look at the number ofprotons ion size varies inversely with proton Covalent bonds Electrons are shared 0 Polar Covalent means that the electrons are not shared equally which is due to the electronegativity o Electronegativity ability to attract shared electrons to itself Bond polarity can be measured using dipole moments Dipole moment a QR Molecules can have polar bonds but no dipole moments ABA Linear ABltAA or tetrahedral Electrostatic potential diagram Red indicates region with most electrons blue is the opposite Lewis Structures Determine the total ofvalence electrons identify central and terminal atoms write skeletal structure with one bond then add double bonds as necessary to complete octet ampvalence orbitals Resonance structures When more than one valid Lewis structure can be written 0 The true structure is an average between them 0 To find out which is most correct use Formal charge 0 FC of electrons in free atom oflone pair electrons 12 ofbond pair electrons
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