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Biology Lecture 11 B - Exam 3

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by: Devin Mart

Biology Lecture 11 B - Exam 3 BIO 121 A

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Biology > BIO 121 A > Biology Lecture 11 B Exam 3
Devin Mart
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The Endomembrane System
General Biology
Dr. Durham
Class Notes
Biology 120 - General Biology
25 ?




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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Devin for help in class!"
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devin Mart on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Devin for help in class!

-Josie Dickens


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Date Created: 03/25/16
  Mart 1  Lecture 11B: The Endomembrane System    ● The ​ endoplasmic reticulumis a network of membranes tubules within the cytoplasm of a  eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane.  ○ The ​ smooth ER lacks ribosomes and primarily deals with the synthesis of lipids  and the mobilization of glucose from stored glycogen.  ○ The ​ rough ER is the site of protein synthesis (the binding of ribosomes)  ■ These are abundant in cells that secrete proteins.  ■ Glycoproteins ​are any of a class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups  attached to the polypeptide chain.  ■ Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations in the cell (i.e.  proteins from the rough ER to the golgi apparatus).  ● The ​ golgi apparatusis a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm  of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.  ○ This is the center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping in the  cells (finishes, sorts, and ships cell products).  ○ The cis side receives material, the trans side buds off vesicles.   ● Lysosomes ​ are organelles in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative  enzymes enclosed in a membrane.  ○ These cells are membrane­bounded sacs of hydrolytic enzymes that digest  macromolecules, a leakage from lysosomes can destroy a cell by autodigestion.  ○ The lysosome creates a space where the cell can digest macromolecules safely.  ○ Phagocytosis ​is the digestion of foreign material.  ○ Autophagy i ​s the recycling of organelles.  ● Vacuoles ​ are a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane  and typically containing fluid.  ○ Food vacuoles​  are vacuoles with a digestive function in the protoplasm of a  protozoan.  ○ Contractile vacuoles are vacuoles in some protozoans that expel excess liquid on  contraction.  ○ Central vacuoles a​re found in many mature plant cells.  ○ Tonoplast ​is a membrane that binds the chief vacuole of a plant cell.  ● Mitochondria ​ are an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the  biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.  ○ The number of mitochondria correlates with the aerobic metabolic activity an  individual has.  ○ Cristae ​(membranes) are each of the partial partitions in a mitochondria formed  by the infolding of the inner membrane, the site of ATP synthesis.    Mart 2  ○ Mitochondrial matrix ​is the substance occupying the space enclosed by the inner  membrane of a mitochondria.   ● A ​ plastiis any of a class of small organelles, such as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of  plant cells, containing pigment or food.  ○ Chloroplasts ​are a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis  takes place (found in green plant cells).  ○ Amyloplasts ​store starch in roots and tubers, think potatoes.  ○ Chromoplasts ​ store pigments for fruits and flowers.  ○ Stroma ​ contains DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes for part of photosynthesis.  ○ Thylakoids​, flattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bound by pigmented membranes  on which the light reactions of photosynthesis take place, and arranged in stacks  or grana.  ● Peroxisomes​ , small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that  contain the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases, generates and degrades  H₂ O₂ .  ○ The product of this process, hydrogen peroxide (HO₂ ), is a poison but has  another enzyme that converts H₂O₂ to water.  ○ Glyoxysomes​  are used to convert the fatty acids in seeds to sugars.  ● The ​ cytoskeletois a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the  cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence.  ○ The cytoskeleton provides mechanical support, anchorage for many organelles  and cytosolic enzymes.  ○ Motor molecules carry vesicles or organelles to various destinations along  “monorails” provided by the cytoskeleton.  ■ Dynein ​is a motor protein in cells which converts the chemical energy  contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement.  ○ Three main types of fibers in the cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments, and  intermediate filaments.  ■ Microtubules ​are microscopic tubular structures present in numbers in the  cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex  structures.  ■ Microfilaments ​are small rodlike structures, present in numbers in the  cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells.  ● Pseudopodia ​ are cellular extensions, reversible assembly and  disassembly of actin subunits into microfilaments.  ● Cytoplasmic streaming ​is the circular flow of cytoplasm, this  speeds the distribution of material within the cell.  ■ Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of  many animal species.    Mart 3  ● The ​ cell wall is a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the  cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.  ○ The cell wall protects the cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake  of water.  ○ The majority of the cell wall is made up of cellulose, along with some proteins  and other polysaccharides.  ● The extracellular matrix functions in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation.  ● Intracellular junctions are structures that provide adhesion and communication between  cells.  ○ The ​ plasmodesmata ​ is a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell  walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them.  ○ In animal cells there are three main intercellular links: tight junctions,  desmosomes, and gap junctions.  ● A cell in a living unit greater than the sum of its parts.  ○ While the cell has many structures that have specific functions, they must work  together.                       


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